Publications by authors named "Kasiani C Myers"

74 Publications

Human Papillomavirus Oral- and Sero- Positivity in Fanconi Anemia.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 18;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.

High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is prevalent and known to cause 5% of all cancers worldwide. The rare, cancer prone Fanconi anemia (FA) population is characterized by a predisposition to both head and neck squamous cell carcinomas and gynecological cancers, but the role of HPV in these cancers remains unclear. Prompted by a patient-family advocacy organization, oral HPV and HPV serological studies were simultaneously undertaken. Oral DNA samples from 201 individuals with FA, 303 unaffected family members, and 107 unrelated controls were tested for 37 HPV types. Serum samples from 115 individuals with FA and 55 unrelated controls were tested for antibodies against 9 HPV types. Oral HPV prevalence was higher for individuals with FA (20%) versus their parents (13%; = 0.07), siblings (8%, = 0.01), and unrelated controls (6%, ≤ 0.001). A FA diagnosis increased HPV positivity 4.84-fold (95% CI: 1.96-11.93) in adjusted models compared to unrelated controls. Common risk factors associated with HPV in the general population did not predict oral positivity in FA, unlike unrelated controls. Seropositivity and anti-HPV titers did not significantly differ in FA versus unrelated controls regardless of HPV vaccination status. We conclude that individuals with FA are uniquely susceptible to oral HPV independent of conventional risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003090PMC
March 2021

Ruxolitinib for the treatment of chronic GVHD and overlap syndrome in children and young adults.

Transplantation 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Division of Bone Marrow Transplant and Immune Deficiency, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine Department of Pharmacy, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Department of Pediatric Oncology, National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Division of Pediatric Oncology and Stem Cell Transplant, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2 inhibitor, is used to treat chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD) in adult allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients, but experience in children is limited, perhaps due to lack of pediatric dosing information. In this report we describe our pediatric and young adult dosing strategy experience in cGVHD.

Methods: Ruxolitinib was administered orally at 5mg twice daily for children ≥25kg or 2.5mg twice daily if <25kg. The dose was halved with concurrent azole administration and increased to a maximum of 10mg twice daily if tolerated. Responses were evaluated using the 2014 NIH consensus criteria. Phosphorylation of lymphocyte STAT5 following dosing, a surrogate of JAK inhibition, was evaluated by flow cytometry.

Results: Twenty patients with a median age 14.6 years (range 5-26 years) received ruxolitinib for severe (n=9) and moderate (n=11) cGVHD. Median steroid dose was 0.5mg/kg/day (range 0.08-1.5mg/kg/day) at ruxolitinib initiation. Two patients with moderate cGVHD achieved a complete response (CR), while 12 patients achieved a partial response (PR) at a median of 48 days (range 17-98 days) from first ruxolitinib dose, for an overall response rate of 70%. Eleven patients are maintaining their PRs. pSTAT5 on lymphocytes was absent or decreased (0-6% events) in 5 evaluated patients, suggesting adequate inhibition. Three patients discontinued ruxolitinib due to neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, or elevated alanine aminotransferase. Four patients developed bacterial infections, and three experienced symptomatic viral infections. Two patients died from complications related to progressive severe cGVHD.

Conclusion: Ruxolitinib using our dosing strategy demonstrates promise for treating cGVHD in children.Supplemental Visual Abstract; http://links.lww.com/TP/C202.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000003768DOI Listing
March 2021

Distinct genetic pathways define pre-malignant versus compensatory clonal hematopoiesis in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.

Nat Commun 2021 02 26;12(1):1334. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Medical Oncology, Division of Hematological Malignancies Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

To understand the mechanisms that mediate germline genetic leukemia predisposition, we studied the inherited ribosomopathy Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), a bone marrow failure disorder with high risk of myeloid malignancies at an early age. To define the mechanistic basis of clonal hematopoiesis in SDS, we investigate somatic mutations acquired by patients with SDS followed longitudinally. Here we report that multiple independent somatic hematopoietic clones arise early in life, most commonly harboring heterozygous mutations in EIF6 or TP53. We show that germline SBDS deficiency establishes a fitness constraint that drives selection of somatic clones via two distinct mechanisms with different clinical consequences. EIF6 inactivation mediates a compensatory pathway with limited leukemic potential by ameliorating the underlying SDS ribosome defect and enhancing clone fitness. TP53 mutations define a maladaptive pathway with enhanced leukemic potential by inactivating tumor suppressor checkpoints without correcting the ribosome defect. Subsequent development of leukemia was associated with acquisition of biallelic TP53 alterations. These results mechanistically link leukemia predisposition to germline genetic constraints on cellular fitness, and provide a rational framework for clinical surveillance strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21588-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910481PMC
February 2021

Tryptophan metabolism is dysregulated in individuals with Fanconi anemia.

Blood Adv 2021 Jan;5(1):250-261

Division of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Immune Deficiency, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a complex genetic disorder associated with progressive marrow failure and a strong predisposition to malignancy. FA is associated with metabolic disturbances such as short stature, insulin resistance, thyroid dysfunction, abnormal body mass index (BMI), and dyslipidemia. We studied tryptophan metabolism in FA by examining tryptophan and its metabolites before and during the stress of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that can be converted to serotonin and kynurenine. We report here that serotonin levels are markedly elevated 14 days after HSCT in individuals with FA, in contrast to individuals without FA. Kynurenine levels are significantly reduced in individuals with FA compared with individuals without FA, before and after HSCT. Most peripheral serotonin is made in the bowel. However, serotonin levels in stool decreased in individuals with FA after transplant, similar to individuals without FA. Instead, we detected serotonin production in the skin in individuals with FA, whereas none was seen in individuals without FA. As expected, serotonin and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) levels were closely correlated with platelet count before and after HSCT in persons without FA. In FA, neither baseline serotonin nor TGF-B correlated with baseline platelet count (host-derived platelets), only TGF-B correlated 14 days after transplant (blood bank-derived platelets). BMI was negatively correlated with serotonin in individuals with FA, suggesting that hyperserotonemia may contribute to growth failure in FA. Serotonin is a potential therapeutic target, and currently available drugs might be beneficial in restoring metabolic balance in individuals with FA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805342PMC
January 2021

Incidence of thyroid dysfunction in children after HSCT with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) or myeloablative conditioning (MAC).

Pediatr Transplant 2021 Feb 6:e13983. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Division of Bone Marrow Transplant and Immune Deficiency, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

We have previously demonstrated a 11% incidence of post-transplant de novo thyroid disease, even with a radiation-free RIC regimen. Following the enactment of a universal late effects screening program at our institution, we compared the outcomes of 108 pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients after a RIC regimen (n = 33) to those after a MAC regimen (n = 75) during the same time period. Overall, 10% of subjects developed thyroid dysfunction after HSCT, with a median follow-up of 669 days. Seven subjects had primary hypothyroidism prior to HSCT. Of the thirty-one subjects who received RIC, one (3.2%) developed a new thyroid disorder, compared to the nine of sixty-nine (13.0%) subjects who received MAC (p = .167). No significant associations were seen with donor type, graft-vs.-host disease, or total body irradiation. Nine of the 10 subjects who developed thyroid disease after transplant were asymptomatic. Continued follow-up of this contemporary cohort will further delineate risk factors for post-transplant-associated thyroid dysfunction and better inform discussions of transplant-associated sequelae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13983DOI Listing
February 2021

Pneumatosis intestinalis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: When not doing anything is good enough.

J Pediatr Surg 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Surgical Critical Care / Pediatric Surgery, Phoenix Children's Hospital / Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Background/purpose: Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) has been reported in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (HSCT) since 1980s and at present there is no uniform consensus of the significance and management of this condition.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 990 consecutive pediatric HSCT recipients and examined data for clinical PI presentation, management and outcomes RESULTS: PI was identified in 53 patients (5.4%), mainly allogeneic HSCT recipients receiving systemic steroids. Abdominal X-ray was the main diagnostic modality. Forty-seven patients (89%) were evaluated because of clinical concerns and others were identified as incidental findings. Pneumoperitoneum was reported in 15 patients (28%). None of these patients had signs of acute abdomen. The majority of patients (43/53, 81%) had no targeted clinical intervention for PI and resolved PI in a median of 15 days (IQR 3-61). Surgery consult was only requested for 7/53 (13%) patients, three of whom had evidence of pneumoperitoneum. None of these patients required any surgical interventions.

Conclusions: Pneumatosis intestinalis commonly occurs in HSCT recipient receiving steroids, but unlike with NEC, PI rarely poses clinical risk after transplant. The majority of HSCT recipients with PI require only close monitoring without interventions. Surgical evaluation should be based on clinical symptoms and not PI presence alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2020.12.020DOI Listing
January 2021

Prospective pilot trial of calcipotriene as a novel topical treatment for acute skin graft versus host disease.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Jan 8. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Division of Bone Marrow Transplant and Immune Deficiency, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH and Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Skin graft versus host disease (GVHD) can affect quality of life in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Therapeutic options for steroid-refractory GVHD are limited. We report the first prospective pilot study evaluating the topical vitamin D3 analog Calcipotriene (DOVONEX 0.005% cream) for acute skin GVHD in children, with associated analyses of target organ chemokine CXCL10 changes in response to therapy. We observed that Calcipotriene applications were safe and well tolerated. There were no symptom progression nor new symptoms requiring GVHD therapy escalation during study period. The most consistent response observed by study subjects was resolution of pruritus in eight patients and significant improvement in pruritus in two study subjects. Nine of ten patients had improvement or resolution of skin rash. In addition, we documented reduction of CXCL10 levels in the skin of seven subjects with GVHD after Calcipotriene course using non-invasive D-Squame® disc application to the skin for chemokine analysis. Our pilot study shows promising observation that topical Calcipotriene could be a novel therapeutic option for acute skin GVHD, especially in patients presenting with pruritus and should be studied in larger prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01189-3DOI Listing
January 2021

Inherited DNA Repair Defects Disrupt the Structure and Function of Human Skin.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 Mar 23;28(3):424-435.e6. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Division of Oncology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA. Electronic address:

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a global public health burden originating in epidermal stem and progenitor cells (ESPCs) of the skin and mucosa. To understand how genetic risk factors contribute to SCC, studies of ESPC biology are imperative. Children with Fanconi anemia (FA) are a paradigm for extreme SCC susceptibility caused by germline loss-of-function mutations in FA DNA repair pathway genes. To discover epidermal vulnerabilities, patient-derived pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) conditional for the FA pathway were differentiated into ESPCs and PSC-derived epidermal organotypic rafts (PSC-EORs). FA PSC-EORs harbored diminished cell-cell junctions and increased proliferation in the basal cell compartment. Furthermore, desmosome and hemidesmosome defects were identified in the skin of FA patients, and these translated into accelerated blistering following mechanically induced stress. Together, we demonstrate that a critical DNA repair pathway maintains the structure and function of human skin and provide 3D epidermal models wherein SCC prevention can now be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.10.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935766PMC
March 2021

Repolarization of HSC attenuates HSCs failure in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.

Leukemia 2020 Oct 19. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Division of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Immune Deficiency, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is a bone marrow failure (BMF) syndrome associated with an increased risk of myelodysplasia and leukemia. The molecular mechanisms of SDS are not fully understood. We report that primitive hematopoietic cells from SDS patients present with a reduced activity of the small RhoGTPase Cdc42 and concomitantly a reduced frequency of HSCs polar for polarity proteins. The level of apolarity of SDS HSCs correlated with the magnitude of HSC depletion in SDS patients. Importantly, exogenously provided Wnt5a or GDF11 that elevates the activity of Cdc42 restored polarity in SDS HSCs and increased the number of HSCs in SDS patient samples in surrogate ex vivo assays. Single cell level RNA-Seq analyses of SDS HSCs and daughter cells demonstrated that SDS HSC treated with GDF11 are transcriptionally more similar to control than to SDS HSCs. Treatment with GDF11 reverted pathways in SDS HSCs associated with rRNA processing and ribosome function, but also viral infection and immune function, p53-dependent DNA damage, spindle checkpoints, and metabolism, further implying a role of these pathways in HSC failure in SDS. Our data suggest that HSC failure in SDS is driven at least in part by low Cdc42 activity in SDS HSCs. Our data thus identify novel rationale approaches to attenuate HSCs failure in SDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-01054-8DOI Listing
October 2020

Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: A Manifestation of the Telomere Biology Disorders.

J Pediatr 2021 Mar 21;230:55-61.e4. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX.

Objective: To describe the clinical features, therapeutic interventions, and patient outcomes of gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage in individuals with a telomere biology disorder, including dyskeratosis congenita, Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome, Revesz syndrome, and Coats plus.

Study Design: Clinical Care Consortium for Telomere Associated Ailments members were invited to contribute data on individuals with telomere biology disorders at their institutions who experienced GI bleeding. Patient demographic, laboratory, imaging, procedural, and treatment information and outcomes were extracted from the medical record.

Results: Sixteen patients who experienced GI hemorrhage were identified at 11 centers. Among 14 patients who underwent genetic testing, 8 had mutations in TINF2, 4 had mutations in CTC1 or STN1, and 1 patient each had a mutation in TERC and RTEL1. Ten patients had a history of hematopoietic cell transplantation. The patients with Coats plus and those without Coats plus had similar clinical features and courses. Angiodysplasia of the stomach and/or small bowel was described in 8 of the 12 patients who underwent endoscopy; only 4 had esophageal varices. Various medical interventions were trialed. No single intervention was uniformly associated with cessation of bleeding, although 1 patient had a sustained response to treatment with bevacizumab. Recurrence was common, and the overall long-term outcome for affected patients was poor.

Conclusions: GI bleeding in patients with telomere biology disorders is associated with significant morbidity and with vascular ectasias rather than varices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.09.038DOI Listing
March 2021

Successful use of a therapeutic trial of graduated volume and dose escalation for postoperative head and neck radiotherapy in a Fanconi anemia patient.

Head Neck 2020 10 8;42(10):E16-E22. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Background: Patients with the heritable disease, Fanconi anemia (FA), have a 500-fold risk of developing head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). However, the use of conventional cytotoxic agents including radiation therapy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy is contraindicated in patients with FA due to underlying DNA repair defects.

Methods/results: We present a young FA patient with recurrent HNSCC and high-risk pathologic features treated with a therapeutic trial of chemoradiation. This novel strategy employs a gentle radiation dose and volume escalation with concurrent pembrolizumab. The patient completed the entire course of therapy with no treatment delays or interruptions.

Conclusions: The FA patient population has a clear need for adjuvant treatment regimens given their predilection for HNSCC. A therapeutic trial may allow FA and other radiosensitive patients to trial radiation with the option to terminate treatment before any severe side effects occur and for some to complete a full course of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.26395DOI Listing
October 2020

Mouse models of neutropenia reveal progenitor-stage-specific defects.

Nature 2020 06 22;582(7810):109-114. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Division of Immunobiology and Center for Systems Immunology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Advances in genetics and sequencing have identified a plethora of disease-associated and disease-causing genetic alterations. To determine causality between genetics and disease, accurate models for molecular dissection are required; however, the rapid expansion of transcriptional populations identified through single-cell analyses presents a major challenge for accurate comparisons between mutant and wild-type cells. Here we generate mouse models of human severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) using patient-derived mutations in the GFI1 transcription factor. To determine the effects of SCN mutations, we generated single-cell references for granulopoietic genomic states with linked epitopes, aligned mutant cells to their wild-type equivalents and identified differentially expressed genes and epigenetic loci. We find that GFI1-target genes are altered sequentially, as cells go through successive states of differentiation. These insights facilitated the genetic rescue of granulocytic specification but not post-commitment defects in innate immune effector function, and underscore the importance of evaluating the effects of mutations and therapy within each relevant cell state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2227-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8041154PMC
June 2020

Thinking Beyond HLH: Clinical Features of Patients with Concurrent Presentation of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis and Thrombotic Microangiopathy.

J Clin Immunol 2020 07 23;40(5):699-707. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, USA.

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of excessive immune system activation driven mainly by high levels of interferon gamma. The clinical presentation of HLH can have considerable overlap with other inflammatory conditions. We present a cohort of patients with therapy refractory HLH referred to our center who were found to have a simultaneous presentation of complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Twenty-three patients had therapy refractory HLH (13 primary, 4 EVB-HLH, 6 HLH without known trigger). Sixteen (69.6%) met high-risk TMA criteria. Renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy, severe hypertension, serositis, and gastrointestinal bleeding were documented only in patients with HLH who had concomitant complement-mediated TMA. Patients with HLH and without TMA required ventilator support mainly due to CNS symptoms, while those with HLH and TMA had respiratory failure predominantly associated with pulmonary hypertension, a known presentation of pulmonary TMA. Ten patients received eculizumab for complement-mediated TMA management while being treated for HLH. All patients who received the complement blocker eculizumab in addition to the interferon gamma blocker emapalumab had complete resolution of their TMA and survived. Our observations suggest co-activation of both interferon and complement pathways as a potential culprit in the evolution of thrombotic microangiopathy in patients with inflammatory disorders like refractory HLH and may offer novel therapeutic approaches for these critically ill patients. TMA should be considered in children with HLH and multi-organ failure, as an early institution of a brief course of complement blocking therapy in addition to HLH-targeted therapy may improve clinical outcomes in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-020-00789-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245179PMC
July 2020

Subsequent neoplasms and late mortality in children undergoing allogeneic transplantation for nonmalignant diseases.

Blood Adv 2020 05;4(9):2084-2094

Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, NY.

We examined the risk of subsequent neoplasms (SNs) and late mortality in children and adolescents undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for nonmalignant diseases (NMDs). We included 6028 patients (median age, 6 years; interquartile range, 1-11; range, <1 to 20) from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (1995-2012) registry. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) in 2-year survivors and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare mortality and SN rates with expected rates in the general population. Median follow-up of survivors was 7.8 years. Diagnoses included severe aplastic anemia (SAA; 24%), Fanconi anemia (FA; 10%), other marrow failure (6%), hemoglobinopathy (15%), immunodeficiency (23%), and metabolic/leukodystrophy syndrome (22%). Ten-year survival was 93% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 92% to 94%; SMR, 4.2; 95% CI, 3.7-4.8). Seventy-one patients developed SNs (1.2%). Incidence was highest in FA (5.5%), SAA (1.1%), and other marrow failure syndromes (1.7%); for other NMDs, incidence was <1%. Hematologic (27%), oropharyngeal (25%), and skin cancers (13%) were most common. Leukemia risk was highest in the first 5 years posttransplantation; oropharyngeal, skin, liver, and thyroid tumors primarily occurred after 5 years. Despite a low number of SNs, patients had an 11-fold increased SN risk (SIR, 11; 95% CI, 8.9-13.9) compared with the general population. We report excellent long-term survival and low SN incidence in an international cohort of children undergoing HCT for NMDs. The risk of SN development was highest in patients with FA and marrow failure syndromes, highlighting the need for long-term posttransplantation surveillance in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218429PMC
May 2020

Inflammatory manifestations in patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: A novel phenotype.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 07 15;182(7):1754-1760. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Dana-Farber and Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic dysfunction, bone marrow failure, and leukemia predisposition. Approximately 90% of cases are due to biallelic mutations in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond (SBDS) gene. Additional phenotypic features variably associated with SDS include skeletal, neurologic, hepatic, cardiac, endocrine, and dental abnormalities. We report five subjects with SDS who developed a range of inflammatory manifestations. Three patients developed inflammatory eye conditions. Single cases of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis, and scleroderma were also noted. Clinical presentation and treatment responses are described. Proteomic analysis revealed increased inflammatory signatures in SDS subjects as compared to controls. Treatment of inflammatory manifestations in patients with SDS may be complicated by potential myelosuppressive toxicities of anti-rheumatic medications. Further research is needed to better understand the potential link between inflammatory disorders and SDS to inform effective treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61593DOI Listing
July 2020

CCR5 inhibitor as novel acute graft versus host disease prophylaxis in children and young adults undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant: results of the phase II study.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 08 9;55(8):1552-1559. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Division of Bone Marrow Transplant and Immune Deficiency, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

We report results of a phase II study of maraviroc to prevent acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Oral maraviroc was added to standard GVHD prophylaxis of a calcineurin inhibitor with either mycophenolate mofetil, methotrexate or steroids from day -3 until day +30 after HSCT. Maraviroc trough levels were analyzed on day 0, +7, 14, and 21. We assessed functional CCR5 blockade by our previously described pharmacodynamic assay. In total, 17 patients were enrolled prospectively. No patient had liver GVHD by day +100. Four patients developed gastrointestinal (GI) GVHD (Grade II upper GI GVHD n = 2, grade III lower GI GVHD n = 2). No adverse effects of maraviroc were observed. Seven patients discontinued maraviroc at a median of day +14 (range day +1-day +29) due to study rules regarding hepatotoxicity (n = 5), renal function decline (n = 1) and withdrawal from study (n = 1). Maraviroc administration led to CCR5 inhibition but was limited by study rules defining hepatotoxicity, leading to frequent drug discontinuation. We cannot comment on the efficacy of maraviroc with our data but speculate that it could have a role in prevention of acute GI GVHD, with adequate compliance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0888-3DOI Listing
August 2020

On-chip recapitulation of clinical bone marrow toxicities and patient-specific pathophysiology.

Nat Biomed Eng 2020 04 27;4(4):394-406. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.

The inaccessibility of living bone marrow (BM) hampers the study of its pathophysiology under myelotoxic stress induced by drugs, radiation or genetic mutations. Here, we show that a vascularized human BM-on-a-chip (BM chip) supports the differentiation and maturation of multiple blood cell lineages over 4 weeks while improving CD34 cell maintenance, and that it recapitulates aspects of BM injury, including myeloerythroid toxicity after clinically relevant exposures to chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiation, as well as BM recovery after drug-induced myelosuppression. The chip comprises a fluidic channel filled with a fibrin gel in which CD34 cells and BM-derived stromal cells are co-cultured, a parallel channel lined by human vascular endothelium and perfused with culture medium, and a porous membrane separating the two channels. We also show that BM chips containing cells from patients with the rare genetic disorder Shwachman-Diamond syndrome reproduced key haematopoietic defects and led to the discovery of a neutrophil maturation abnormality. As an in vitro model of haematopoietic dysfunction, the BM chip may serve as a human-specific alternative to animal testing for the study of BM pathophysiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-019-0495-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160021PMC
April 2020

Complement blockade for TA-TMA: lessons learned from a large pediatric cohort treated with eculizumab.

Blood 2020 03;135(13):1049-1057

Division of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Immune Deficiency, Cancer and Blood Disease Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.

Overactivated complement is a high-risk feature in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients with transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA), and untreated patients have dismal outcomes. We present our experience with 64 pediatric HSCT recipients who had high-risk TA-TMA (hrTA-TMA) and multiorgan injury treated with the complement blocker eculizumab. We demonstrate significant improvement to 66% in 1-year post-HSCT survival in treated patients from our previously reported untreated cohort with same hrTA-TMA features that had 1-year post-HSCT survival of 16.7%. Responding patients benefited from a brief but intensive course of eculizumab using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic-guided dosing, requiring a median of 11 doses of eculizumab (interquartile range [IQR] 7-20). Treatment was discontinued because TA-TMA resolved at a median of 66 days (IQR 41-110). Subjects with higher complement activation measured by elevated blood sC5b-9 at the start of treatment were less likely to respond (odds ratio, 0.15; P = .0014) and required more doses of eculizumab (r = 0.43; P = .0004). Patients with intestinal bleeding had the fastest eculizumab clearance, required the highest number of eculizumab doses (20 vs 9; P = .0015), and had lower 1-year survival (44% vs 78%; P = .01). Over 70% of survivors had proteinuria on long-term follow-up. The best glomerular filtration rate (GFR) recovery in survivors was a median 20% lower (IQR, 7.3%-40.3%) than their pre-HSCT GFR. In summary, complement blockade with eculizumab is an effective therapeutic strategy for hrTA-TMA, but some patients with severe disease lacked a complete response, prompting us to propose early intervention and search for additional targetable endothelial injury pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019004218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7099329PMC
March 2020

Clinical features and outcomes of patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukaemia: a multicentre, retrospective, cohort study.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Mar 23;7(3):e238-e246. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Data to inform surveillance and treatment for leukaemia predisposition syndromes are scarce and recommendations are largely based on expert opinion. This study aimed to investigate the clinical features and outcomes of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukaemia and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, an inherited bone marrow failure disorder with high risk of developing myeloid malignancies.

Methods: We did a multicentre, retrospective, cohort study in collaboration with the North American Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome Registry. We reviewed patient medical records from 17 centres in the USA and Canada. Patients with a genetic (biallelic mutations in the SBDS gene) or clinical diagnosis (cytopenias and pancreatic dysfunction) of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome who developed myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukaemia were eligible without additional restriction. Medical records were reviewed between March 1, 2001, and Oct 5, 2017. Masked central review of bone marrow pathology was done if available to confirm leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome diagnosis. We describe the clinical features and overall survival of these patients.

Findings: We initially identified 37 patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukaemia. 27 patients had samples available for central pathology review and were reclassified accordingly (central diagnosis concurred with local in 15 [56%] cases), 10 had no samples available and were classified based on the local review data, and 1 patient was excluded at this stage as not eligible. 36 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 10 (28%) initially presented with acute myeloid leukaemia and 26 (72%) initially presented with myelodysplastic syndrome. With a median follow-up of 4·9 years (IQR 3·9-8·4), median overall survival for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome was 7·7 years (95% CI 0·8-not reached) and 0·99 years (95% CI 0·2-2·4) for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. Overall survival at 3 years was 11% (95% CI 1-39) for patients with leukaemia and 51% (29-68) for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Management and surveillance were variable. 18 (69%) of 26 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome received upfront therapy (14 haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and 4 chemotherapy), 4 (15%) patients received no treatment, 2 (8%) had unavailable data, and 2 (8%) progressed to acute myeloid leukaemia before receiving treatment. 12 patients received treatment for acute myeloid leukaemia-including the two patients initially diagnosed with myelodysplastic who progressed- two (16%) received HSCT as initial therapy and ten (83%) received chemotherapy with intent to proceed with HSCT. 33 (92%) of 36 patients (eight of ten with leukaemia and 25 of 26 with myelodysplastic syndrome) were known to have Shwachman-Diamond syndrome before development of a myeloid malignancy and could have been monitored with bone marrow surveillance. Bone marrow surveillance before myeloid malignancy diagnosis was done in three (33%) of nine patients with leukaemia for whom surveillance status was confirmed and 11 (46%) of 24 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Patients monitored had a 3-year overall survival of 62% (95% CI 32-82; n=14) compared with 28% (95% CI 10-50; n=19; p=0·13) without surveillance. Six (40%) of 15 patients with available longitudinal data developed myelodysplastic syndrome in the setting of stable blood counts.

Interpretation: Our results suggest that prognosis is poor for patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukaemia owing to both therapy-resistant disease and treatment-related toxicities. Improved surveillance algorithms and risk stratification tools, studies of clonal evolution, and prospective trials are needed to inform effective prevention and treatment strategies for leukaemia predisposition in patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.

Funding: National Institute of Health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30206-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7984274PMC
March 2020

Pediatric and Young Adult Vulvovaginal Graft-versus-Host Disease.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 12 17;25(12):2408-2415. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Division of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri.

Vulvovaginal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is an underdiagnosed and poorly recognized complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Previous studies have reported findings restricted to predominantly adult populations. We report a case series of pediatric and young adult vulvovaginal GVHD, which was identified in 19 patients (median age, 11.8 years; range, 2.4 to 21.9 years) out of a total 302 female patients who underwent transplantation over an 8-year period at a pediatric HSCT center. The majority of patients had concomitant nongenital GVHD; only 1 patient had isolated vulvovaginal GVHD. The median time from bone marrow transplantation to diagnosis of vulvovaginal GVHD was 30 months (range, 2.3 to 97.5 months). A high percentage of the patients in our series were without vulvar or vaginal symptoms (n = 8; 42%), even though 17 patients (89%) presented with grade 3 disease based on current adult grading scales. Vulvar examination findings most frequently included interlabial and clitoral hood adhesions (89%), loss of architecture of the labia minora or clitoral hood (42%), and skin erosions or fissures (37%). Only 5 patients underwent a speculum exam, none of whom had vaginal GVHD. Examination findings of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) can overlap with those of GVHD, and 6 patients (32%) in our cohort were diagnosed with POI. Only 1 patient was on systemic hormone replacement therapy at the time of vulvovaginal GVHD diagnosis. The majority of patients (n = 16) were treated with topical steroid therapy, with a median time to response of 43 days. Five patients (26%) had a complete response to therapy, and 10 patients (53%) had a partial response. This case series provides valuable insight into pediatric and young adult vulvovaginal GVHD and highlights the need for increased screening for vulvar disease in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.07.015DOI Listing
December 2019

TGFβ signaling underlies hematopoietic dysfunction and bone marrow failure in Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome.

J Clin Invest 2019 06 18;129(9):3821-3826. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Department of Cancer Immunology and Virology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome (SDS) is a rare and clinically-heterogeneous bone marrow (BM) failure syndrome caused by mutations in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond Syndrome (SBDS) gene. Although SDS was described over 50 years ago, the molecular pathogenesis is poorly understood due, in part, to the rarity and heterogeneity of the affected hematopoietic progenitors. To address this, we used single cell RNA sequencing to profile scant hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from SDS patients. We generated a single cell map of early lineage commitment and found that SDS hematopoiesis was left-shifted with selective loss of granulocyte-monocyte progenitors. Transcriptional targets of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) were dysregulated in SDS hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent progenitors, but not in lineage-committed progenitors. TGFβ inhibitors (AVID200 and SD208) increased hematopoietic colony formation of SDS patient BM. Finally, TGFβ3 and other TGFβ pathway members were elevated in SDS patient blood plasma. These data establish the TGFβ pathway as a novel candidate biomarker and therapeutic target in SDS and translate insights from single cell biology into a potential therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI125375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6715362PMC
June 2019

Survival Trends in Infants Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant.

JAMA Pediatr 2019 05 6;173(5):e190081. Epub 2019 May 6.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Importance: Studies demonstrating improved survival after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant generally exclude infants.

Objective: To analyze overall survival trends and other outcomes among infants who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this cohort study, we used time-trend analysis to evaluate 3 periods: 2000 through 2004, 2005 through 2009, and 2010 through 2014. The study was conducted in a multicenter setting through the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, which is made up of a voluntary working group of more than 450 transplant centers worldwide. Two groups of infants aged 1 year or younger in 2 cohorts were included: those with malignant conditions, such as leukemia, and those with nonmalignant disorders, including immunodeficiencies. Data analysis was conducted from July 2017 to December 2018.

Exposures: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Survival trends, disease relapse, and toxicity.

Results: A total of 2498 infants with a median age of 7 months (range, <1-12 months) were included. In the nonmalignant cohort (n = 472), survival rates improved from the first to the second period (hazard ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.63-0.93]; P = .007) but did not change after 2004. Compared with infants with nonmalignant diseases (n = 2026; 3-year overall survival: 2000-2004, 375/577 [65.0%]; 2005-2009, 503/699 [72.0%]; and 2010-2014, 555/750 [74.0%]), those with malignant conditions had poorer survival rates, without improvement over time (3-year overall survival: 2000-2004, 109/199 [54.8%]; 2005-2009, 104/161 [64.6%]; and 2010-2014, 66/112 [58.9%]). From 2000 through 2014, relapse rates increased in infants with malignant conditions (3-year relapse rate: 2000-2004, 19% [95% CI, 14%-25%]; 2005-2009, 23% [95% CI, 17%-30%]; 2010-2014, 36% [95% CI, 27%-46%]; P = .01). Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome was frequent, occurring with a cumulative incidence of 13% (95% CI, 11%-16%) of infants with nonmalignant diseases and 32% (95% CI, 22%-42%) of those with malignant diseases. Generally, recipients of human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling bone marrow grafts had the best outcomes.

Conclusions And Relevance: Survival rates have not improved for infants with malignant diseases over the 15-year study period. Infants with nonmalignant diseases had improved survival rates in the earlier but not the later study period. Higher relapses for the malignant cohort and toxicities for all infants remain significant challenges. Strategies to reduce relapse and toxicity and optimize donor and graft selection may improve outcomes in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.0081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6503511PMC
May 2019

Treatment exposures stratify need for echocardiographic screening in asymptomatic long-term survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Cardiol Young 2019 Mar 12;29(3):338-343. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

2Division of Cardiology,Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center,Cincinnati, OH,USA.

We sought to define the prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities in long-term survivors of paediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and determine the utility of screening in asymptomatic patients. We analysed echocardiograms performed on survivors who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from 1982 to 2006. A total of 389 patients were alive in 2017, with 114 having an echocardiogram obtained ⩾5 years post-infusion. A total of 95 patients had echocardiogram performed for routine surveillance. The mean time post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was 13 years. Of 95 patients, 77 (82.1%) had ejection fraction measured, and 10/77 (13.0%) had ejection fraction z-scores ⩽-2.0, which is abnormally low. Those patients with abnormal ejection fraction were significantly more likely to have been exposed to anthracyclines or total body irradiation. Among individuals who received neither anthracyclines nor total body irradiation, only 1/31 (3.2%) was found to have an abnormal ejection fraction of 51.4%, z-score -2.73. In the cohort of 77 patients, the negative predictive value of having a normal ejection fraction given no exposure to total body irradiation or anthracyclines was 96.7% at 95% confidence interval (83.3-99.8%). Systolic dysfunction is relatively common in long-term survivors of paediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation who have received anthracyclines or total body irradiation. Survivors who are asymptomatic and did not receive radiation or anthracyclines likely do not require surveillance echocardiograms, unless otherwise indicated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S104795111800238XDOI Listing
March 2019

Understanding the evolving phenotype of vascular complications in telomere biology disorders.

Angiogenesis 2019 02 25;22(1):95-102. Epub 2018 Aug 25.

Clinical Genetics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Drive, 6E456, Bethesda, MD, 20892-6772, USA.

Vascular complications such as bleeding due to gastrointestinal telangiectatic anomalies, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and retinal vessel abnormalities are being reported in patients with telomere biology disorders (TBDs) more frequently than previously described. The international clinical care consortium of telomere-associated ailments and family support group Dyskeratosis Congenita Outreach, Inc. held a workshop on vascular abnormalities in the TBDs at the National Cancer Institute in October 2017. Clinicians and basic scientists reviewed current data on vascular complications, hypotheses for the underlying biology and developed new collaborations to address the etiology and clinical management of vascular complications in TBDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10456-018-9640-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Multiple bloodstream infections in pediatric stem cell transplant recipients: A case series.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2018 12 9;65(12):e27388. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Division of Bone Marrow Transplant and Immune Deficiency, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) are associated with poor outcomes following stem cell transplantation (SCT). We describe the demographics, treatment, complications, and outcome of 23 pediatric SCT recipients who developed three or more BSIs in the first year after SCT at our center from 2011 through 2016. The majority underwent allogeneic SCT (n = 22/23;96%), mainly from an unrelated donor (n = 19/22,86%); developed grade 2-4 graft versus host disease (GVHD; n = 14/23, 61%), all steroid refractory; and were diagnosed with thrombotic microangiopathy (n = 21/23, 91%). One-year overall survival was 56% (n = 13/23). We observed a high rate of transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy and steroid-refractory acute GVHD in patients with three or more BSIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.27388DOI Listing
December 2018

Diagnosis, Treatment, and Molecular Pathology of Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome.

Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2018 Aug 5;32(4):687-700. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Division of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Immune Deficiency, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA. Electronic address:

Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome classically associated with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction and neutropenia, with a predisposition toward progressive marrow failure, risk of myelodysplastic syndrome, and leukemia. Most patients carry biallelic mutations in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond Syndrome gene, which is an integral component of ribosome maturation and biogenesis. This article reviews the diagnosis, clinical characteristics, and treatment modalities of SDS, and reports advances in the understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of SDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hoc.2018.04.006DOI Listing
August 2018

Single Ultra-High-Dose Cholecalciferol to Prevent Vitamin D Deficiency in Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 09 18;24(9):1856-1860. Epub 2018 May 18.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. Electronic address:

Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among childhood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients and associated with inferior survival at 100 days after transplantation. Achieving and maintaining therapeutic vitamin D levels in HSCT recipients is extremely challenging in the first 3 to 6 months after transplantation due to poor compliance in the setting of mucositis and the concomitant use of critical transplantation drugs that interfere with vitamin D absorption. We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single, ultra-high-dose of vitamin D given before childhood HSCT to maintain levels in a therapeutic range during the peritransplantation period. Ten HSCT recipients with pretransplantation 25-OH vitamin D (25OHD) level <50 ng/mL and with no history of hypercalcemia, nephrolithiasis, or pathological fractures were enrolled on this pilot study. A single enteral vitamin D dose (maximum 600,000 IU) was administered to each patient based on weight and pretransplantation vitamin D level before the day of HSCT. Vitamin D levels between 30 and 150 ng/mL were considered therapeutic. All patients received close clinical observation and monitoring of 25OHD levels, calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, urine calcium/creatinine ratio, and n-telopeptide for safety and efficacy assessment. The mean age of the study subjects was 5.8 ± 4.9 years, and the mean pretransplantation 25OHD level was 28.9 ± 13.1 ng/mL. All patients tolerated single, ultra-high-oral dose of vitamin D under direct medical supervision. No other oral vitamin D supplements were administered during the observation window of 8 weeks. Three of 10 patients received 400 IU/day of vitamin D in parenteral nutrition only for 5 days during the study window. A mean peak serum vitamin D level of 80.4 ± 28.6 ng/mL was reached at a median of 9 days after the vitamin D dose. All patients achieved a therapeutic vitamin D level of >30 ng/mL. Mean vitamin D levels were sustained at or above 30 ng/mL during the 8-week observation window. There were no electrolyte abnormalities attributed to the ultra-high-dose of vitamin D. Most patients had mildly elevated urine calcium/creatinine ratios during treatment, but none showed clinical or radiologic signs of nephrocalcinosis or nephrolithiasis. Our findings indicate that single ultra-high-oral dose vitamin D treatment given just before HSCT is safe and well tolerated in the immediate peritransplant period in children. Patients in our study were able to achieve and sustain therapeutic vitamin D levels throughout the critical period during which vitamin D insufficiency is associated with decreased overall survival. Larger prospective studies are needed to address the impact of single ultra-high-dose vitamin D treatment on HSCT outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.05.019DOI Listing
September 2018

Risk of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Cancer-Prone Individuals: What We Know.

Viruses 2018 01 20;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 20.

Divisions of Oncology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause a significant proportion of cancers worldwide, predominantly squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the mucosas and skin. High-risk HPV types are associated with SCCs of the anogenital and oropharyngeal tract. HPV oncogene activities and the biology of SCCs have been intensely studied in laboratory models and humans. What remains largely unknown are host tissue and immune-related factors that determine an individual's susceptibility to infection and/or carcinogenesis. Such susceptibility factors could serve to identify those at greatest risk and spark individually tailored HPV and SCC prevention efforts. Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited DNA repair disorder that is in part characterized by extreme susceptibility to SCCs. An increased prevalence of HPV has been reported in affected individuals, and molecular and functional connections between FA, SCC, and HPV were established in laboratory models. However, the presence of HPV in some human FA tumors is controversial, and the extent of the etiological connections remains to be established. Herein, we discuss cellular, immunological, and phenotypic features of FA, placed into the context of HPV pathogenesis. The goal is to highlight this orphan disease as a unique model system to uncover host genetic and molecular HPV features, as well as SCC susceptibility factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10010047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5795460PMC
January 2018