Publications by authors named "Karolina Semczuk-Kaczmarek"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Association between air pollution and COVID-19 mortality and morbidity.

Intern Emerg Med 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of General and Experimental Pathology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is affecting the world unevenly. One of the highest numbers of cases were recorded in the most polluted regions worldwide. The risk factors for severe COVID-19 include diabetes, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases. It has been known that the same disease might be worsened by chronic exposure to air pollution. The study aimed to determine whether long-term average exposure to air pollution is associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 cases and deaths in Poland. The cumulative number of COVID-19 cases and deaths for each voivodeship (the main administrative level of jurisdictions) in Poland were collected from March 4, 2020, to May 15, 2020. Based on the official data published by Chief Inspectorate of Environmental Protection voivodeship-level long-term exposure to main air pollution: PM, PM, NO, SO, O (averaged from 2013 to 2018) was established. There were statistically significant correlation between COVID-19 cases (per 100,000 population) and annual average concentration of PM (R = 0.367, p = 0.016), PM (R = 0.415, p = 0.009), SO (R = 0.489, p = 0.003), and O (R = 0.537, p = 0.0018). Moreover, COVID-19 deaths (per 100,000 population) were associated with annual average concentration of PM (R = 0.290, p = 0.038), NO (R = 0.319, p = 0.028), O (R = 0.452, p = 0.006). The long-term exposure to air pollution, especially PM, PM, SO, NO, O seems to play an essential role in COVID-19 prevalence and mortality. Long-term exposure to air pollution might increase the susceptibility to the infection, exacerbates the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections, and worsens the patients' prognosis. The study provides generalized and possible universal trends. Detailed analyzes of the phenomenon dedicated to a given region require taking into account data on comorbidities and socioeconomic variables as well as information about the long-term exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 cases and deaths at smaller administrative level of jurisdictions (community or at least district level).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-021-02834-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8505468PMC
October 2021

Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with cardiovascular disease.

Cent European J Urol 2021 10;74(2):190-195. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Faculty of Medicine, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction: The presence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) might be linked with elevated cardiovascular risk. There is a lack of data showing the prevalence of LUTS in the population of patients with cardiovascular diseases. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of LUTS in patients hospitalized due to a cardiovascular disease.

Material And Methods: Patients hospitalized in a tertiary cardiology department due to a primary diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (including coronary artery disease, heart failure and arrhythmia) were included in the study. All patients were screened for LUTS and assessed using the International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS).

Results: From 166 patients (age 62.8 ±12.1 years), moderate to severe LUTS was diagnosed in 62 patients (37.3%). Patients with LUTS were significantly older, but there were no other factors associated with LUTS. When we divided patients according to LUTS severity, we saw an increasing prevalence of arterial hypertension (69.5% vs 72.9% vs 100%), diabetes mellitus (29.5% vs 33.3% vs 38.5%), coronary artery disease (68.6% vs 72.9% vs 92.3%), but the observations were not statistically significant. Patients with coronary artery disease had significantly higher severity of LUTS compared to patients with arrhythmia or heart failure (mean IPSS 8.88 vs 5.6 vs 5.5, p = 0.004).

Conclusions: The prevalence of LUTS in patients with cardiovascular diseases is high, affecting 37.3% of the studied population. Patients with coronary artery disease have significantly higher severity of LUTS compared to other cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5173/ceju.2021.0370.R1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8318018PMC
April 2021

"Health outcomes in COPD smokers using heated tobacco products: a 3‑year follow‑up: comment".

Intern Emerg Med 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Internal Medicine, Asthma and Allergy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-021-02753-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Usefulness of the 2MACE score as a predictor of long-term all-cause mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation.

Pol Arch Intern Med 2020 08 15;130(7-8):635-639. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Heart Diseases, Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education, Warsaw, Poland

Introduction: 2MACE is a risk assessment score designed to stratify cardiovascular risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Early detection of increased cardiovascular risk is of vital importance in this population, as it helps reduce mortality and morbidity rates.

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the utility of the 2MACE score in predicting long‑term mortality in patients with AF.

Patients And Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of a prospective observational cohort study including consecutive patients with nonvalvular AF, who were followed for a median duration of 81 months.

Results: The final analysis included 1351 patients (men, 53.1%; median [interquartile range] age, 71 [62-80] years). During the follow‑up, 142 patients (10.5%) died. Deceased patients were more often classified as high risk according to the 2MACE score than survivors (80.3% vs 53.2%; P <0.0001). The receiver operator characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that the 2MACE score had a good predictive value for long‑ term all cause mortality (area under the curve, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.69-0.78). The mortality rate was significantly increased in patients with a 2MACE score of 3 or higher (hazard ratio, 3.40; 95% CI, 2.33-5.49).

Conclusions: The 2MACE score is a good predictor of long‑ term all cause mortality in patients with AF. A progressive increase in the mortality rate was observed with an increasing 2MACE score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20452/pamw.15431DOI Listing
August 2020

Co-treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms and cardiovascular disease - where do we stand?

Cent European J Urol 2020 23;73(1):42-45. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

1 Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction: The relationship between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is well established. A healthy lifestyle with a good quality diet and regular physical activity is important for reducing the severity of LUTS.

Material And Methods: A literature search was performed on the subject of association between LUTS and cardiovascular risk.

Results: The recent data indicates that therapy for cardiovascular risk reduction might also reduce the severity of LUTS (e.g. statins reduce the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia [BPH] and slow down the progression of LUTS in patients with hyperlipidaemia). Hypertensive patients treated with angiotensin II receptor blockers have a lower severity of LUTS. This paper shortly discusses the relationship between the occurrence of LUTS and CVD and the potential clinical implications regarding the management of the patients.

Conclusions: Patients with lower urinary tract symptoms require a holistic approach and cooperation of a urologist and cardiologist to diagnose concomitant cardiovascular diseases as early as possible and implement appropriate treatment. Antihypertensive, antithrombotic, hypolipemic therapies and healthy lifestyles reduce not only cardiovascular mortality, but also might reduce the severity of LUTS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5173/ceju.2020.0029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203768PMC
March 2020

Acute Myocardial Infarction Due to Antiphospholipid Syndrome - Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Curr Probl Cardiol 2021 Mar 20;46(3):100552. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

We present a case of acute myocardial infarction secondary to arterial thromboembolism in a 25-year-old man with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). To our knowledge, based on the literature review, this patient is the youngest one with the acute coronary syndrome as a complication of APS. Acute myocardial infarction secondary to arterial thromboembolism is a rare presentation of APS. There are different recommended anticoagulation strategies in APS patients according to the presence of thrombosis of arterial or venous origin. Potential difficulties in the treatment may occur based on the clinical scenarios. A large number of APS patients require lifelong oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists. Some non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants are being studied as drugs potentially useful in APS treatment. The recent studies suggest the role of aGAPSS score in assessing the risk of a recurrent thrombotic event as well as acute myocardial infarction in APS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2020.100552DOI Listing
March 2021

Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with peripheral arterial diseases.

Sleep Breath 2020 Sep 14;24(3):1035-1041. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: The presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a novel cardiovascular risk factor, contributes to the development of peripheral arterial diseases (PAD). There is a lack of data showing how often these diseases coexist.

Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of OSA in the population of patients with PAD.

Methods: Patients previously qualified for the first revascularization due to PAD were included in the study. All patients underwent an overnight sleep study to detect OSA. Diagnosis of OSA was made when the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was ≥5 per hour.

Results: From 141 patients (60% men, age 69.6 ± 9.5 years), OSA was diagnosed in 68 patients (48%). OSA occurred in mild form (5 ≤ AHI < 15/h) in 39 cases (28%), in moderate form (15 ≤ AHI < 30/h) in 21 cases (15%), and in severe form (AHI ≥ 30/h) in 8 cases (6%). Patients without OSA had significantly lower body mass index (BMI; 26.9 ± 5.5 vs. 27.7 ± 5.3 kg/m, p = 0.01) and lower hip circumference (97.4 ± 11.7 vs. 98.7 ± 7.4, p = 0.04). There were no differences in the distribution of other investigated cardiovascular risk factors and diseases between these groups. There were no significant differences in OSA distribution or its severity between patients with lower extremity artery disease and carotid artery disease.

Conclusions: The prevalence of OSA in patients with PAD is very high, affecting nearly half of the studied population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11325-019-01950-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7426286PMC
September 2020

CHA2DS2-VASc score and fibrinogen concentration in patients with atrial fibrillation.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2019 Nov;28(11):1451-1457

1st Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Assessment of thromboembolic risk is crucial in choosing appropriate treatment in atrial fibrillation (AF). Current guidelines recommend basing the decision on the CHA2DS2-VASc score. However, the score is based only on clinical parameters and therefore its relationship with laboratory-assessed coagulation status might not always be objective.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess if the CHA2DS2-VASc score is associated with blood parameters in AF patients.

Material And Methods: Patients with continuous AF prequalified for catheter ablation were enrolled into the study and had CHA2DS2-VASc calculated and blood taken for coagulation parameters.

Results: The study population comprised of 266 patients (65.0% males; age 57.6 ±10.1 years). Patients were divided into those with CHA2DS2-VASc score 0, and those with ≥1 points, respectively requiring and not requiring anticoagulation treatment. The group with CHA2DS2-VASc = 0 (12% of patients) compared to those with CHA2DS2-VASc ≥ 1 had a significantly lower fibrinogen concentration (285.6 ±82.0 vs 322.6 ±76.4 mg/dL; p = 0.02). Partial thromboplastin time was not significantly different between groups (p > 0.05). Differences were noticed in parameters concerning red blood cells. Lower risk patients had a lower red blood cell count (4.9 ±0.4 vs 5.1 ±6.0 106/μL); p = 0.03), higher hemoglobin concentration (14.9 ±1.0 vs 14.3 ±1.4 g/dL; p = 0.04), and higher hematocrit (43.5 ±2.6 vs 41.7 ±4.7%; p = 0.001). It was observed that along with the increase in CHA2DS2-VASc score mean fibrinogen concentration increased (p-value for trend = 0.04).

Conclusions: In summary, a higher CHA2DS2-VASc score is independently associated with an increase in fibrinogen concentration. Further research is needed to assess the value of fibrinogen in thromboembolic risk assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/104557DOI Listing
November 2019

Utilisation of lipid-lowering therapies in outpatient settings in Poland: epidemiological survey Economedica Dyslipidaemia 2015.

Kardiol Pol 2018 9;76(3):648-654. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

1st Department of Cardiology, Banacha 1a, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Dyslipidaemia, especially elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), is one of the most important cardiovascular risk factors. Treatment of dyslipidaemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with lipid-lowering drugs is one of the key issues in reducing cardiovascular mortality. Nevertheless, underutilisation of statins and lipid-lowering drugs is still a problem globally.

Aim: The present study aimed to describe the utilisation of lipid-lowering drugs in groups of patients with indications for statin treatment and elevated LDL-C.

Methods: The study included adult patients with an indication for the use of a lipid-lowering therapy, currently using or not using such therapy because of contraindications or statin intolerance, in whom LDL-C concentration was > 70 mg/dL, treated in outpatient settings. All patients were screened for CVD and had blood cholesterol concentration assessed. Patients were also divided into: (1) patients with vascular disease; (2) patients with diabetes mellitus; (3) aged ≥ 65 years; and (4) patients without the three mentioned risk factors.

Results: The study group consisted of 2812 (51.4% male) patients. Major cardiovascular risk factors including arterial hyper-tension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and smoking were highly prevalent in the study population (86.2%, 44.1%, and 23.3%, respectively). Out of the prespecified risk factors (vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, age ≥ 65 years) the study population was divided into patients without any of the mentioned risk factors (n = 520), those with all the three risk factors (n = 368), two out of three risk factors (n = 934), and one risk factor (n = 990). The study showed that 89.6% of patients were treated with statins (47.8% with atorvastatin, 27.8% with rosuvastatin, and 13.8% with simvastatin). Fenofibrate was used in 5.8% of the population and ezetimibe in 2.7%. In the whole group, 7.1% of patients did not receive any type of lipid-lowering therapy. Atorvastatin was more often used in patients with all the three prespecified risk factors, while rosuvastatin was used in patients without any of the risk factors.

Conclusions: The most often-used lipid-lowering drugs in Poland are statins, with atorvastatin and rosuvastatin being used the most common of these. The present study shows that some patients with LDL-C concentration > 70 mg/dL and indications for lipid-lowering are not treated accordingly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/KP.2018.0004DOI Listing
November 2018

Epidemiology of dyslipidaemia in professional drivers: results of RACER-ABPM (Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events among professional dRivers in Poland - Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring) study.

Kardiol Pol 2018 1;76(2):396-400. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

1st Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Banacha 1a, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland; Department of General & Experimental Pathology with Centre for Preclinical Research and Technology (CEPT), Medical University of Warsaw, Pawinskiego 3a, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Professional drivers are a group exposed to many cardiovascular risk factors. Non-systematic working hours, prolonged stress, low physical activity, along with irregular, and in most cases, unhealthy meals are common aspects of the normal working schedule of most of the professional drivers. These translate into high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Aim: The aim of the current analysis was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidaemia in a group of continuous professional drivers.

Methods: The RACER (Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events among professional dRivers in Poland - Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring) study is a prospective study focused on assessing cardiovascular risk factors in professional drivers. Patients included in the study were screened for classical and non-classical cardiovascular risk factors and had an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) performed. Out of the whole RACER study population, 144 drivers were included into the RACER-ABPM study.

Results: Out of this group 135 (95.7%) were male, and the mean age was 50.2 ± 9.3 years, and mean body mass index was 32.3 ± 3.0 kg/m². A family history of CVD was noted in 21.3% of patients, 28.1% were current smokers, and 2.9% had diabetes mellitus. Out of those patients, 72.2% had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level > 115 mg/dL, 85.5% had LDL-C > 100 mg/dL, and 96.7% had LDL-C > 70 mg/dL. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 40 mg/dL in men and < 45 mg/dL in women was present in 84.4% of cases. Triglycerides > 150 mg/dL were found in 28.9% of cases.

Conclusions: In conclusion, dyslipidaemia is highly prevalent in professional drivers. Obesity is one of the major contributors to the cardiovascular risk, and dyslipidaemia along with other risk factors highly prevalent in this subgroup accounts for poorer prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/KP.a2017.0229DOI Listing
December 2018

Prevalence of Hypertension in Professional Drivers (from the RACER-ABPM Study).

Am J Cardiol 2017 Nov 8;120(10):1792-1796. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

1st Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Professional drivers are a group exposed to many cardiovascular risk factors. Nonsystematic working hours, stress, low physical activity, and unhealthy dietary habits are common among professional drivers. These translate into high risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the current analysis was to establish the prevalence of arterial hypertension in a group of continuous professional drivers. The RACER (Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events among professional dRivers in Poland) study is a prospective study focused on assessing cardiovascular risk factors in professional drivers. Patients included in the study were screened for the classical and nonclassical cardiovascular risk factors and had an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) performed. Of the RACER study population, 144 drivers were included into the RACER-ABPM study. Of this group 135 (95.7%) were male at mean age of 50.2 ± 9.3 years, with mean body mass index of 32.3 ± 3.0 kg/m. In 21.3% of patients, family history of cardiovascular disease was noted, 28.1% were current smokers, and 2.9% had diabetes mellitus. Arterial hypertension was previously diagnosed in 39 patients (27.9%). In ABPM, the mean 24-hour blood pressure (BP) values were 130.3 ± 14.3 and 80.9 ± 9.9 for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, and 46.1% of patients could be categorized as dippers. Based on the ABPM results, arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 104 of patients (73.8%). Patients with hypertension tend to be more often male and have a family history of cardiovascular disease. In conclusion, arterial hypertension is highly prevalent in professional drivers. Also abnormal day-to-night BP value patterns are often seen in this group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2017.07.086DOI Listing
November 2017

Peripheral ARtery Atherosclerotic DIsease and SlEep disordered breathing (PARADISE) trial - protocol for an observational cohort study.

Kardiol Pol 2017 17;75(12):1332-1338. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

I Katedra i Klinika Kardiologii, Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny..

Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is in fact a group of disease entities with different symptoms and course but a common underlying cause, i.e. atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is known to be aggravated by several cardiovascular risk factors, including obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA).

Aim: Following paper is a protocol for the Peripheral ARtery Atherosclerotic DIsease and SlEep disordered breathing (PARADISE) trial, which aims to describe the prevalence of OSA in PAD patients scheduled for revascularisation, and to determine the effect of OSA on the procedure outcomes.

Methods: The PARADISE study is an observational cohort trial. It plans to include 200 consecutive patients hospitalised for revascularisation due to PAD. In every patient an overnight sleep study will be performed to diagnose sleep disorders. Accord¬ing to the results of the test, patients will be divided into two groups: group A - patients with OSA, and group B - patients without OSA (control group). All patients will also be screened for classical and non-classical cardiovascular risk factors. In some of the patients, during surgery, a fragment of atherosclerotic plaque will be collected for further testing. Patients will be followed for one year for adverse events and end-points. Primary end-point of the study will be the failure of revascularisa¬tion defined as recurrence or new onset of the symptoms of ischaemia from the treated region, a need for re-operation or procedure revision, or recurrence of ischaemia signs on the imaging tests.

Discussion: The data obtained will help determine the incidence of OSA in the population of patients with PAD. The au¬thors expect to show that, as with other cardiovascular diseases associated with atherosclerosis, also in patients with PAD the incidence of undiagnosed OSA is high and its presence is associated with elevated cholesterol, inflammatory markers, and higher prevalence of arterial hypertension and poor control of other cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, due to increased oxidative stress and vascular endothelial injury associated with OSA, patients afflicted with this condition will not only have more advanced atherosclerotic lesions, but also in their histopathological examination their atherosclerotic plaque will exhibit evidence of greater instability and adverse morphology. We also expect to show that in patients with OSA, achieving cor¬rect control of cardiovascular risk factors will be more difficult. The study may improve PAD control through assuring better multispecialty care in PAD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/KP.a2017.0150DOI Listing
January 2018
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