Publications by authors named "Karolina Orywal"

42 Publications

The comparison of total bile acid concentration and alcohol dehydrogenase activity as markers of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

Acta Biochim Pol 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

1Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland; 2Department of Neurodegeneration Diagnostics, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland.

Introduction: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the liver disorder in the second or early third trimester of pregnancy. It is characterized by pruritus with increased serum bile acids concentration and other liver function tests. ICP is connected with increased risk of fetal mortality but is unfortunately detected quite late. Therefore, it is important to recognize the disease in its early stages. We aimed to investigate the serum alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and compare it with the concentration of total bile acid (TBA) in women with ICP.

Methods: Serum samples were taken for routine investigation from 80 pregnancies with ICP in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and from 80 healthy pregnant women at the same time of pregnancy. For measurement of class I activity, we used the spectrofluorometric methods. The total ADH activity was measured by the photometric method.

Results: The analysis of results shows a statistically significant increase in the activity of ADH I and ADH total (about 60% and 41.3%, respectively). Activity of ADH I correlated well with aminotransferases (alanine ALT and aspartate AST) and total bile acids (TBA) concentration. The total ADH activity was also positively correlated with ALT, AST and total bile acids.

Conclusion: We can state that the activity of class I alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme in the sera of patients with ICP is increased and seems to be a good indicator of liver cells destruction during this disease and is comparable with the value of other markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18388/abp.2020_5841DOI Listing
November 2021

Health risk assessment of exposure to toxic elements resulting from consumption of dried wild-grown mushrooms available for sale.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(6):e0252834. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Public International Law and European Law, University of Białystok, Faculty of Law, Białystok, Poland.

Mushrooms exhibit a high ability to accumulate potentially toxic elements. The legal regulations in force in the European Union countries do not define the maximum content of elements in dried wild-grown mushrooms. This study presents the content of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) determined in dried wild-grown mushrooms (Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius) available for sale. Moreover, the health risk associated with their consumption is assessed. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Cd, Pb, As) and atomic absorption spectrometry (Hg) were used. The mean Hg, Cd, Pb and As concentration in Boletus edulis was 3.039±1.092, 1.983±1.145, 1.156±1.049 and 0.897±0.469 mg/kg and in Xerocomus badius 0.102±0.020, 1.154±0.596, 0.928±1.810 and 0.278±0.108 mg/kg, respectively. The maximum value of the hazard index (HI) showed that the consumption of a standard portion of dried Boletus edulis may have negative consequences for health and corresponded to 76.2%, 34.1%, 33% and 4.3% of the maximum daily doses of Hg, Cd, Pb and As, respectively. The results indicate that the content of toxic elements in dried wild-grown mushrooms should be monitored. The issue constitutes a legal niche where unfavourable EU regulations may pose a threat to food safety and consumer health.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252834PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8221490PMC
November 2021

Analysis of the Impact of a Multi-Strain Probiotic on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Long-Distance Runners.

Nutrients 2020 Dec 7;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition, Medical University of Bialystok ul. Mieszka I 4B, 15-054 Bialystok, Poland.

Use of probiotic supplements, the benefits of which have not been proven in sportspeople, is becoming more widespread among runners. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multi-strain probiotic on body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness and inflammation in the body. The randomised, double-blind study included 66 long-distance runners. The intervention factor was a multi-strain probiotic or placebo. At the initial and final stages of the study, evaluation of body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness was performed and the presence of inflammation determined. In the group of men using the probiotic, an increase in lean body mass ( = 0.019) and skeletal muscle mass ( = 0.022) was demonstrated, while in the group of women taking the probiotic, a decrease in the content of total body fat ( = 0.600) and visceral fat ( = 0.247) was observed. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO) increased in women ( = 0.140) and men ( = 0.017) using the probiotic. Concentration of tumour necrosis factor-alpha decreased in women ( = 0.003) and men ( = 0.001) using the probiotic and in women ( = 0.074) and men ( = 0.016) using the placebo. Probiotic therapy had a positive effect on selected parameters of body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness of study participants and showed a tendency to reduce inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12123758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762398PMC
December 2020

Activity of Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase in Lung Cancer Cells.

Anticancer Res 2020 Jul;40(7):3857-3863

Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland.

Background: The aim of this study was to define the alterations in the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in normal and cancerous lung cells.

Materials And Methods: Lung tissues were taken from 36 patients during surgical resection of cancer. The activities of tested enzymes were measured by spectrofluorometric method (ADH I, ADH II, total ALDH) and photometric method (ADH III, ADH IV, total ADH).

Results: The activities of class II and III ADH were significantly lower in lung cancer cells compared to histologically normal lung tissue.

Conclusion: Reduced activity of isoenzyme class II ADH may affect disorders in retinoic acid biosynthesis, leading to its deficit. Lower ADH III activity may result in depletion of glutathione, and in initiation of oxidative stress, leading to cancer progression. These data suggest that alterations in ADH isoenzyme activities can contribute to carcinogenesis in human lungs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14375DOI Listing
July 2020

The Alterations in Alcohol Dehydrogenase Activity in the Sera of Women With Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy.

Anticancer Res 2020 Apr;40(4):1997-2001

Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland.

Background/aim: The liver of pregnant women undergoes physiological and pathological changes and the changes in liver enzyme activity and release reflect changes in serum enzymatic activity. We aimed to assess the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes, and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the sera of women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), the most common pregnancy-related liver disease.

Patients And Methods: Serum samples were taken from 40 women with ICP in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. Serum samples were also obtained from 40 healthy pregnant women at the same time of pregnancy and 40 healthy non-pregnant women. Class I and II of ADH and ALDH activity was measured by a spectrofluorometric method. Class III, IV ADH and total ADH activity was measured by photometric methods.

Results: The total ADH activity was significantly higher in women with ICP than in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women (about 42%). The median total activity of ADH was 1067 mU/l in women with ICP, 628 mU/l in healthy pregnant and 605 mU/l in non-pregnant women. A statistically significant increase in class I ADH isoenzymes was found in the sera of pregnant women with ICP. The median activity of this class in the ICP group increased about 62% and 80% in comparison to the healthy pregnant women and non-pregnant women, respectively.

Conclusion: The activity of class I ADH isoenzymes in the sera of women with ICP is statistically significantly increased and may have a diagnostic significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14155DOI Listing
April 2020

Salivary Content Might be Associated With Skeletal Status in Postmenopausal Women: SilesiaOsteoActive Study Results.

J Clin Densitom 2021 Jan-Mar;24(1):14-21. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department and Clinic of Internal Diseases, Diabetology and Nephrology; Metabolic Bone Diseases Unit, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Katowice, Poland.

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate whether salivary mineral content may be associated with bone status in women after menopause.

Material And Methods: The study group consisted of 125 postmenopausal women aged 64.3 ± 6.9 yr, derived from the epidemiological SilesiaOsteoActive Study. All participants underwent hip and spine bone densitometry using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, dental examination, and saliva content analysis. Data for salivary pH, copper, calcium, phosphorus, and zinc concentrations were evaluated.

Results: Mean femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) was 0.739 ± 0.118 g/cm, total hip BMD 0.891 ± 0.14 g/cm, and spine BMD 0.868 ± 0.14 g/cm. Salivary pH was significantly lower in women with spinal osteoporosis defined as T-score below -2.5, compared to individuals with normal BMD (pH: 6.65 ± 0.67 vs 6.96 ± 0.58, p < 0.05). There was a significant though weak inverse correlation between Ca concentration in saliva and femoral neck BMD (r = -0.23, p < 0.05).

Conclusions: High salivary calcium content and low salivary pH may be indicative of low hip and decreased spine BMD, respectively. These associations may reflect demineralization process (calcium redistribution) influencing bone, and a negative effect of acidity on mineral tissues, although causal pathway remains not clear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocd.2020.02.001DOI Listing
October 2021

The Protective Impact of Black Chokeberry Fruit Extract ( L.) on the Oxidoreductive System of the Parotid Gland of Rats Exposed to Cadmium.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2019 23;2019:3403264. Epub 2019 Nov 23.

Department of Periodontology, Medical University of Białystok, ul. Waszyngtona 13, Białystok 15-269, Poland.

Cadmium (Cd) is a strongly toxic heavy metal with prooxidative properties. Since the exposure of the general population to this metal is predicted to increase, effective methods are being sought to prevent its negative actions. One of them involves the use of the antioxidant potential of polyphenol compounds contained in black chokeberry fruit extract and their capability of complex formation with Cd. The study objective was to investigate whether the administration of A. melanocarpa fruit extract rich in polyphenol compounds during low and moderate exposures to cadmium can protect the parotid gland against oxidative damage. The study was conducted using the experimental model on female Wistar rats which were given 0.1% aqueous extract of fruit (AE) and/or cadmium at a concentration of 1 (Cd) or 5 (Cd) mg Cd/kg feed for 3 and 10 months, and on control animals. The exposure to Cd attenuated the enzymatic antioxidant barrier (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) and increased the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (HO), protein carbonyl (PC) groups, and oxidized lipids (LPO) in parotid gland. These disorders led to a reduction in the total antioxidative status (TAS), an increase in the total oxidative state (TOS), and development of stress. The administration of AE at both levels of exposure to cadmium substantially improved the enzymatic antioxidant barrier (CAT, SOD, GPx) and prevented oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules (PC, LPO) and the increase in the level of HO, MPO, TOS, and stress indicator (OSI = TOS/TAS) in the parotid gland. Concluding, it should be stated that the consumption of aronia products may prevent oxidative/antioxidative imbalance induced by Cd and oxidative stress development in the parotid gland, thus protecting the gland from damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/3403264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6906856PMC
May 2020

Is maternal dietary selenium intake related to antioxidant status and the occurrence of pregnancy complications?

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2019 Jul 19;54:110-117. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Food Science and Dietetics, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 211, 50-556, Wroclaw, Poland.

Selenium (Se) is a trace element essential for the appropriate course of vital processes in the human body. It is also a constituent of the active center of glutathione peroxidase and other antioxidant compounds which play an important role in red-ox processes. Associations between lower blood selenium concentration and obstetric complications has been reported in many studies. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary selenium intake and serum selenium content in pregnant Polish women and relate this to antioxidant status as whole blood glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, serum uric acid (UA) content and serum total antioxidant status (TAS) and pregnancy complications occurrence. Ninety-four pregnant women at a mean age 30.6 ± 5.4 years from the Lower Silesia region of Poland were recruited to the study, 37% of studied group had pregnancy complications. The mean reported Se intake and serum selenium content for Polish pregnant women was in the first trimester - 53.99 μg/day and 44.36 μg/l, the second trimester - 58.93 μg/day and 43.16 μg/l and the third trimester - 62.89 μg/day and 40.97 μg/l, respectively. Selenium intake below or above recommended value hadn't significant effect on GPX activity, TAS and UA levels. There were no statistical differences in selenium intake, serum selenium content, GPX activity and TAS and UA level between physiological and complicated pregnancy, but a positive correlation between Se intake and serum selenium content was observed during all period of gestation as well as in the second trimester of pregnancy between Se intake and GPX activity in group with physiological pregnancy where selenium intake was below the recommended level. Selenium intake above the recommended level was positively correlated also with serum UA level in first and second trimester of pregnancy. Despite weak, positive correlations in the first two trimesters of pregnancy between selenium supply and GPX activity and UA concentration we concluded that selenium intake does not significantly affect during pregnancy, both: markers of the antioxidant status of pregnant women and the occurrence of pregnancy complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2019.04.010DOI Listing
July 2019

Concentration of Selected Elements and Antioxidative Potential in a Group of Males Working in the Metal Industry: Elements And Antioxidative Potential In Men.

Am J Mens Health 2019 May-Jun;13(3):1557988319851954

6 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland.

The purpose of this study was to show that some elements have a proven antioxidative effect and are essential for the proper development and functioning of the human body. The study also assessed the concentration of selected elements and total antioxidant status (TAS) in a group of male inhabitants of Białystok, Poland, who are professionally active in the metal industry. The study group comprised 163 men aged 55-64 years. The concentration of the analyzed elements was determined using flame (Zn and Cu) and electrothermal (Se, Cd, and Pb) atomic absorption spectrometry. Spectrophotometric test kits were used to assay the TAS and glutathione reductase (GR) activity in serum. The results suggested the mean concentration of Se in serum was 54.04 ± 12.10 μg/L, which was below the reference range. A significant negative correlation was observed between the concentration of Se in the serum and Pb and Cd concentrations in the whole blood of the studied men. The concentrations of the other elements, antioxidant potential, and GR activity were within the reference range. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between Pb and Cd, indicating combined exposure and a considerable negative correlation between lead and selenium as well as between lead and TAS. Selenium and TAS are likely to modify the adverse effects of Pb in the bodies of the studied men. The results indicate that it is necessary to constantly monitor men who are occupationally exposed to heavy metals, maintain a healthy lifestyle, and introduce effective preventive measures at a local level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1557988319851954DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537257PMC
August 2020

Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity in the Serum of Patients with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Anticancer Res 2018 Jul;38(7):4005-4009

Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland.

Background/aim: Non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, and its prevalence and medical importance is increasing worldwide. Changes in enzyme activity in liver cells in various liver diseases are reflected by an increase in serum enzymatic activity. For example, alcohol dehydrogenase activity (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), that occur in the liver in large quantities, correlate with disease severity during cirrhosis. In the current study, the activity of ADH isoenzymes and ALDH in the serum of patients with NAFLD was investigated.

Materials And Methods: Serum samples were collected for routine biochemical studies from 55 patients with NAFLD patients and from 50 healthy individuals. Class I and II ADH and ALDH activity were measured by spectrofluorometric method. Photometric methods were used to measure ADH class III, IV and total ADH activity.

Results: Total ADH activity was significantly higher in non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) than in healthy individuals (44 and 48.5% activity, respectively). The median total activity of ADH was 1,164 mU/l in patients with NAFLD, 1,258 mU/l in NASH and 648 mU/l in the control group. The increase in ADH class I and II isoenzyme in serum of patients with NAFL and NASH was statistically significant. The activity of ADH I, ADH II, and total ADH significantly increased with increasing disease progression.

Conclusion: The activity of isozymes of class I and II alcohol dehydrogenase in patients with NAFLD is enhanced and appears to be due to the release of these isoenzymes from damaged hepatocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.12688DOI Listing
July 2018

The Activity of Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase in the Sera of Patients with Autoimmune Hepatitis.

Clin Lab 2018 Apr;64(4):477-481

Background: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a progressive inflammatory hepatopathy and an important cause of end-stage liver. The liver cells' destruction is reflected by increased activity of different enzymes in the serum. These enzymes include alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which play a significant role in the metabolism of many biological substances and exist mainly in the liver. In this study we investigated the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase and its isoenzymes and the total activity of ALDH in the sera of patients with autoimmune hepatitis.

Methods: Serum samples were taken for routine biochemical investigation from 32 patients with autoimmune hepatitis and from 40 healthy subjects. Class I and II of ADH and ALDH activity was measured by the spectrofluorometric method. For measurement of class III ADH and total ADH activity we employed the photometric methods.

Results: The activity of the class I ADH isoenzyme was significantly higher in the sera of patients with autoimmune hepatitis. The median activity of this isoenzyme in the patients group was approximately 63% (3.94 mU/L) higher than the control level (1.46 mU/L). For this reason, the total ADH activity was also significantly increased. The activities of other ADH isoenzymes and ALDH tested were unchanged.

Conclusions: The activity of total ADH and class I isoenzymes in the sera of patients with autoimmune hepatitis is increased, and it seems to be caused by the release of alcohol dehydrogenase from damaged liver cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2017.170925DOI Listing
April 2018

The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme as a Potential Marker of Pancreatitis.

Anticancer Res 2018 05;38(5):3019-3024

Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland.

Background/aim: Human pancreas parenchyma contains various alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and also possesses aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. The altered activities of ADH and ALDH in damaged pancreatic tissue in the course of pancreatitis are reflected in the human serum. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of ADH and ALDH as markers for acute (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP).

Patients And Methods: Serum samples were collected for routine biochemical investigations from 75 patients suffering from acute pancreatitis and 70 patients with chronic pancreatitis. Fluorometric methods were used to measure the activity of class I and II ADH and ALDH activity. The total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by a photometric method.

Results: There was a significant increase in the activity of ADH III isoenzyme (15.06 mU/l and 14.62 mU/l vs. 11.82 mU/l; p<0.001) and total ADH activity (764 mU/l and 735 mU/l vs. 568 mU/l) in the sera of patients with acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis compared to the control. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH III was about 84%, specificity was 92 %, positive and negative predictive values were 93% and 87% respectively in acute pancreatitis. Area under the Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) curve for ADH III in AP and CP was 0.88 and 0.86 respectively.

Conclusion: ADH III has a potential role as a marker of acute and chronic pancreatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.12556DOI Listing
May 2018

Activity of alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase in sera of patients with hepatitis C.

Arch Med Sci 2018 Mar 7;14(2):281-287. Epub 2016 Jun 7.

Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland.

Introduction: The changes of enzyme activity in the hepatocytes in the course of different liver diseases are reflected by increase of the corresponding enzyme activity in the plasma. For example, the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) correlate with the severity of the condition during cirrhosis. In this study we measured the activity of ADH isoenzymes and ALDH in the sera of patients with hepatitis C.

Material And Methods: Serum samples were taken from 60 patients suffering from viral hepatitis C and from 66 control subjects. Total ADH activity and class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by the photometric method and ALDH activity, ADH I and II by the fluorometric method.

Results: The ADH activity was significantly higher in patients with hepatitis C than in healthy ( < 0.001). The total activity of ADH was 1284 mU/l in patients, and 745 mU/l (controls). The activity of isoenzymes classes ADH I and ADH II in the hepatitis C group increased respectively 55% (4.24 vs. 1.88 mU/l; < 0.001) and 47% (26.63 vs. 14.11 mU/l; < 0.001) in the comparison to the control. There was significant increase in the activity of ADH I isoenzyme (4.96 vs. 3.81 mU/l; < 0.001) and ADH total (1833 vs. 1105 mU/l; < 0.001) in patients with high viral load in comparison to patients with low viral load.

Conclusions: The activity of class I and II ADH isoenzymes in the sera of patients with hepatitis C is increased, and it seems to be caused by the release of these isoenzymes from damaged liver cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2016.60406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5868663PMC
March 2018

Evaluation of calcium and magnesium contents in tooth enamel without any pathological changes: in vitro preliminary study.

Odontology 2018 Oct 19;106(4):369-376. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Medical University of Bialystok, M. Sklodowska-Curie Str. 24a, 15-276, Bialystok, Poland.

Enamel is the structure that covers the entire clinical crown of a tooth. It enables to chew and crush food, and gives a final shape to the crowns of teeth. To evaluate calcium and magnesium contents in tooth enamel and analyse relationships between the study minerals extracted human permanent teeth were cut at every 150 microns and subjected into acid biopsy. The amounts of calcium and magnesium were assessed in the laboratory using atomic absorption spectroscopy with an air/acetylene flame. The lowest calcium and magnesium contents were found on the enamel surface of the teeth. Statistically significant correlation between the calcium and magnesium concentrations was found at a depth between 150 and 900 µm. Calcium and magnesium contents increased with increasing enamel depth. Calcium and magnesium deposits appeared to be stable through all the enamel layers studied. It would be suggested that mineralization/demineralization affect only external layer of the enamel, whereas deeper layers are not affected by these processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10266-018-0353-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6153988PMC
October 2018

The evaluation of zinc and copper content in tooth enamel without any pathological changes - an in vitro study.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 2;13:1257-1264. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland.

Objectives: The objectives of the study were to evaluate the content of copper and zinc in individual layers of tooth enamel and to analyze the relationships between the study minerals in individual layers of tooth enamel.

Patients And Methods: Fifteen human permanent teeth were cut off every 150 μm alongside the labial surface. Acid biopsy of each layer was performed. The zinc content was determined using the air-acetylene flame method. The copper content was determined using the electrothermal technique with argon.

Results: The mean zinc concentrations increased significantly starting from the outer enamel surface, with the maximum concentration in the 150-300 μm layer. The mean copper concentrations increased substantially from the outer enamel surface to a depth of 150 μm, and then a slight downward trend of this mineral levels was seen, down to a depth of 450 μm. Strong positive correlation was found between the zinc and copper concentrations at depths of 150-300, 450-600 and 600-750 μm.

Conclusion: The levels of zinc and copper in the outer enamel layers may have an effect on the increased content of unipolar minerals at deeper enamel layers. The content of the study elements determined may reflect the process of mineralization and maturation of enamel in the pre-eruption period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S155228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5841334PMC
May 2018

The Activity of Class I-IV Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase in Bladder Cancer Cells.

Cancer Invest 2018 Jan 30;36(1):66-72. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

a Department of Biochemical Diagnostics , Medical University , Bialystok , Podlaskie , Poland.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the activity of Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH) in normal and cancerous bladder cells.

Methods: Class III, IV of ADH and total ADH activity were measured by the photometric method and class I, II ADH and ALDH activity by the fluorometric method.

Results: Significantly higher total activity of ADH was found in both, low-grade and high-grade bladder cancer, in comparison to healthy tissues.

Conclusion: The increased activity of total ADH in bladder cancer cells may be the cause of metabolic disorders in cancer cells, which may intensify carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07357907.2017.1422511DOI Listing
January 2018

The Diagnostic Significance of Serum Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity in Prostate Cancer Patients.

Anticancer Res 2017 09;37(9):4961-4965

Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland.

Background/aim: The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) as tumor markers for prostate cancer (PCa).

Materials And Methods: Serum samples were obtained from 52 patients with PCa, 34 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 60 healthy subjects. Class III and IV of ADH and total ADH activity were measured by the photometric method. For measurement of class I and II ADH and ALDH activity, the fluorometric method was employed.

Results: Significantly higher total activity of ADH, ADH III and ADH IV were found in the sera of both, PCa and BPH patients compared with healthy individuals. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH III activity was 94.2%, specificity 100%, PPV (positive predictive value) and NPV (negative predictive value) were 100% and 95.2% respectively. Area under receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve for ADH III activity was 0.993.

Conclusion: The results suggest a potential role of ADH III activity as a parameter included in the panel of markers for PCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.11906DOI Listing
September 2017

The alterations in alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities in the sera of patients with renal cell carcinoma.

Adv Med Sci 2018 Mar 28;63(1):1-4. Epub 2017 Jul 28.

Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland.

Purpose: In a previous study we showed that the total activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and its isoenzyme class I was significantly higher in renal cancer (RCC) cells compared to normal kidney. The aim of this study was to compare the activities of ADH isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the sera of patients with different stages of RCC and healthy subjects.

Materials And Methods: Serum samples were taken from 54 patients with clear cell RCC (17 patients in stage II, 22 in stage III and 15 in stage IV) and 52 healthy patients. Class III, IV of ADH and the total ADH activity was measured by the photometric method. For the measurement of ADH class I, II and the total ALDH activity we employed the fluorometric method.

Results: The total activity of ADH and its isoenzyme class I were significantly higher in the sera of patients with every stage of RCC compared to healthy subjects. The analysis of ALDH activity did not indicate significant differences between tested groups.

Conclusions: The increased activity of total ADH and its isoenzyme class I in the sera of patients with RCC, seems to be caused by isoenzymes being released from cancerous cells and may be useful for diagnostics of renal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advms.2017.05.001DOI Listing
March 2018

The Diagnostic Significance of Serum Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity in Urinary Bladder Cancer Patients.

Anticancer Res 2017 07;37(7):3537-3541

Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase as tumor markers for urinary bladder cancer.

Materials And Methods: Serum samples were obtained from 41 patients with bladder cancer and 52 healthy individuals. Class III and IV of ADH and total ADH activity were measured by the photometric method. For measurement of class I and II ADH and ALDH activity, the fluorometric method was employed.

Results: Significantly higher total activity of ADH was found in sera of both, low-grade and high-grade bladder cancer patients. The diagnostic sensitivity for total ADH activity was 81.5%, specificity 98.1%, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were 97.4% and 92.3% respectively. Area under ROC curve for total ADH activity was 0.848.

Conclusion: A potential role of total ADH activity as a marker for bladder cancer, is herein proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.11722DOI Listing
July 2017

Salivary protective factors in patients suffering from decompensated type 2 diabetes.

Adv Med Sci 2017 Sep 12;62(2):211-215. Epub 2017 May 12.

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland.

Purpose: Defining the level of protective factors in saliva of patients suffering from decompensated type 2 diabetes.

Material And Methods: 50 Patients with diagnosis of decompensated type 2 diabetes, including 32 women and 18 men at the age of 57.9±9.2 years. The control group consisted of 50 people among whom there were 38 women and 12 men whose average age was estimated at 51.2±9.9 years.

Results: It was stated the increased concentration of total protein by 60% and decreased concentration of IgA by 70%, of lysozyme by 27% and of lactoferrin by 40% in resting saliva of patients with type 2 diabetes if compared to the control group. These outcomes were really statistically meaningful. The evaluation of dependences between the analyzed protective factors and the indicator of oral cavity condition proved the positive correlation between the concentration of total protein and the number of DMFT (i.e. the rate of caries intensity). The remaining coefficients of correlation being evaluated proved to be negative and statistically meaningless.

Conclusion: The obtained outcomes prove a high influence of proteins included in saliva on the prevalence and development of caries at patients with decompensated type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advms.2016.06.005DOI Listing
September 2017

The diagnostic value of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) measurement in the sera of patients with brain tumor.

Arch Med Sci 2017 Mar 23;13(2):346-352. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland.

Introduction: Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) exist in the brain. Alcohol dehydrogenase and ALDH are also present in brain tumor cells. Moreover, the activity of class I isoenzymes was significantly higher in cancer than healthy brain cells. The activity of these enzymes in tumor tissue is reflected in the serum and could thus be helpful for diagnostics of brain neoplasms. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of ADH and ALDH as markers for brain tumors.

Material And Methods: Serum samples were taken for routine biochemical investigation from 115 patients suffering from brain tumors (65 glioblastomas, 50 meningiomas). For the measurement of the activity of class I and II ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity, fluorometric methods were used. The total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by the photometric method.

Results: There was a significant increase in the activity of ADH I isoenzyme and ADH total in the sera of brain tumor patients compared to the controls. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH I was 78%, specificity 85%, and positive and negative predictive values were 86% and 76% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of ADH I increased with the stage of the carcinoma. Area under receiver-operating characteristic curve for ADH I was 0.71.

Conclusions: The results suggest a potential role for ADH I as a marker for brain tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms.2017.65366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5332462PMC
March 2017

Serum Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity in the Course of Hepatitis C.

Clin Lab 2016 Nov;62(11):2155-2159

Background: Hepatistis C virus (HCV) affects approximately 170 million people, and it is the leading cause of the chronic liver disease. The destruction of liver cells is reflected by an increase of different enzyme activities in the serum. These enzymes include alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which play a significant role in the metabolism of many biological substances and exist mainly in the liver. In this study we investigated the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase and its isoenzymes and the total activity of ALDH in the sera of patients with hepatitis C.

Methods: Serum samples were taken for routine biochemical investigations from 50 patients with hepatitis C and from 50 healthy subjects. The activity of class I and II ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity were measured by spectrofluorometric methods. For the measurement of total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes, the photometric methods were used.

Results: The analysis of our results shows a statistically significant increase in the activity of ADH I and ADH II (2.5-fold and 2-fold, respectively). Activities of both classes of alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes have good correlation with alanine and aspartate aminotransferase. The observed increase in total alcohol dehydrogenase activity was not very high but confirmed the elevation of class I and II isoenzyme activity.

Conclusions: We can state that the activity of class I and II alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes in the sera of patients with hepatitis C is increased and it seems to be caused by the release of these isoenzymes from damaged liver cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2016.160401DOI Listing
November 2016

The activity of class I, II, III and IV alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase in the sera of bladder cancer patients.

Acta Biochim Pol 2017 8;64(1):81-84. Epub 2016 Oct 8.

Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University, Białystok, Poland.

Objectives: Studies on alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity in the sera of patients with malignant neoplasms show that cancer cells in many organs may release ADH isoenzymes into the blood. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in the activity of ADH isoenzymes and ALDH in the sera of patients with bladder cancer (BCa), and with different grades of the disease.

Material And Methods: Blood samples were taken from 39 patients with BCa (15 patients with low-grade and 24 with high-grade BCa) and from 60 healthy subjects. Class III and IV of ADH and total ADH activity were measured using the photometric method, while class I and II ADH and ALDH activity using the fluorometric method with class-specific fluorogenic substrates.

Results: The activity of the class I ADH isoenzyme and total ADH was significantly higher in the sera of BCa patients as compared to control group. Analysis of ALDH activity did not show statistically significant differences between the tested groups. Significantly higher total activity of ADH in comparison to control was found in both, low-grade and high-grade BCa group. The activity of ADH class I was also significantly higher in high-grade BCa group when compared to low-grade patients and controls.

Conclusion: The increase of total ADH activity in the sera of BCa patients seems to be caused by isoenzymes released from cancerous cells. The higher activity of ADH I probably resulted from metastatic tumors as significant increase was detected only in the sera of high-grade bladder cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18388/abp.2016_1289DOI Listing
April 2017

The Diagnostic Value of Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Measurement Sera of Cervical Cancer Patients.

Anticancer Res 2016 May;36(5):2265-9

Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland.

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) as tumor markers for cervical cancer.

Materials And Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 43 women with cervical cancer. Isoenzymes class III, IV of ADH and total ADH activity were measured in the sera by the photometric method and class I, II ADH and ALDH activity by the fluorometric method.

Results: The total activity of ADH and ADH I was significantly higher in the serum of patients with cervical cancer than in control groups. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH I was 61,76%, specificity 65,7%, PPV and NPV were 70 and 62,16% respectively. AUC for ADH I was 0,654 and for total ADH 0,618.

Conclusion: The results suggest a potential role of ADH I as a marker for cervical cancer.
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May 2016

The diagnostic significance of serum alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in renal cell cancer patients.

Exp Mol Pathol 2016 06 14;100(3):416-20. Epub 2016 Apr 14.

Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland.

Objectives: In previous experiments, we have found an increased level of class I ADH and total ADH activity in RCC tissues. Changes in cancer cells may be reflected by ADH activity in the serum and could thus be helpful for diagnostics of renal cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of ADH and ALDH as tumor markers for RCC.

Material And Methods: Serum samples were taken from 59 patients with RCC and 52 healthy subjects. Class III and IV of ADH and total ADH activity was measured by the photometric method. For measurement of class I and II ADH and ALDH activity, we employed the fluorometric method.

Results: The total activity of ADH and ADH I was significantly higher in the serum of patients with every stage of RCC compared to healthy subjects. The diagnostics criteria was higher for ADH I than for total ADH activity. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH I was 73.36%, specificity 85.61%, predictive values of positive and negative results were 79.12 and 75.03% respectively. Area under ROC curve for ADH I was 0.748 and for total ADH 0.689.

Conclusion: The results suggest a potential role of ADH I as a marker for RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2016.04.001DOI Listing
June 2016

Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase in malignant neoplasms.

Clin Exp Med 2017 May 17;17(2):131-139. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Waszyngtona 15 A, 15-276, Białystok, Poland.

According to International Agency for Research on Cancer, ethanol and acetaldehyde belong to group 1 of human carcinogens. The accurate mechanism by which alcohol consumption enhances carcinogenesis is still unexplained. Alcohol is oxidized primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) to acetaldehyde, a substance capable of initiating carcinogenesis by forming adducts with proteins and DNA and causing mutations. Next, acetaldehyde is metabolized by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) to acetate. In tissues of many cancers, we can observe significantly higher activity of total alcohol dehydrogenase with any change in aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in comparison with healthy cells. Moreover, in malignant diseases of digestive system, significantly increased activity of ADH isoenzymes class I, III and IV was found. The gynecological, brain and renal cancers exhibit increased activity of class I ADH. ADH and ALDH can play also a crucial regulatory role in initiation and progression of malignant diseases by participation in retinoic acid synthesis and elimination of toxic acetaldehyde. Besides, changes of enzymes activities in tumor cells are reflected in serum of cancer patients, which create the possibilities of application ADH isoenzymes as cancer markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10238-016-0408-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5403859PMC
May 2017

The activity of class I, II, III and IV alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase in renal cell carcinoma.

Exp Mol Pathol 2015 Jun 14;98(3):403-6. Epub 2015 Mar 14.

Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University, Bialystok, Poland.

Objectives: Ethanol has been considered as a lifestyle risk factor for cancer in humans. While some studies have indicated that alcohol intake has a preventive effect for renal cell cancer, others have not. The metabolism of alcohol in cancer cells may be in many ways different than in healthy tissue and its disturbances could be associated with carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolism of renal cell cancer cells and normal renal cells by measurement of ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activities in these tissues.

Material And Methods: The study material consisted of 43 cancerous renal tissues (14 patients in stage II, 19 in stage III and 10 in stage IV). Class III and IV ADH and total ADH activities were measured by the photometric method and class I and II ADH and ALDH activities by the fluorometric method with class-specific fluorogenic substrates.

Results: The activity of the class I ADH isoenzyme and the total ADH was significantly higher in every stage of renal cell cancer as compared to healthy tissues. Analysis of ALDH activity did not show statistically significant differences between cancer and healthy cells.

Conclusion: The increased activity of total ADH in renal cell cancer, especially the class I isoenzyme and normal activity of ALDH, may be the factor intensifying carcinogenesis because of increasing the ability to highly carcinogenic acetaldehyde formation and causing disorders in metabolism of many biologically important substances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2015.03.012DOI Listing
June 2015

The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the sera of patients with brain cancer.

Neurochem Res 2014 Dec 10;39(12):2313-8. Epub 2014 Oct 10.

Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University, Waszyngtona 15 A, 15-269, Bialystok, Poland,

Human brain tissue contains various alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and possess also aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. In our last experiments we have shown that ADH and ALDH are present also in the brain tumour cells. Moreover the activities of total ADH and class I isoenzymes were significantly higher in cancer tissue than healthy cells. It can suggests that these changes may be reflected by enzyme activity in the serum of patients with brain cancer. Serum samples were taken for routine biochemical investigation from 62 patients suffering from brain cancer (36 glioblastoma, 26 meningioma). For the measurement of the activity of class I and II ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity, the fluorometric methods were used. The total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by the photometric method. A statistically significant increase of class I alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes was found in the sera of patients with brain cancer. The median activity of this class isoenzyme in the patients group increased about 24 % in the comparison to the control level. The total alcohol dehydrogenase activity was also significantly higher (26 %) among patients with brain tumour than healthy ones. The activities of other tested ADH isoenzymes and total ALDH were unchanged. The increase of the activity of total ADH and class I alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme in the sera of patients with brain cancer seems to be caused by the release of this isoenzyme from tumour's cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-014-1402-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4246134PMC
December 2014

The diagnostic value of alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase measurement in the sera of patients with endometrial cancer.

Anticancer Res 2013 Sep;33(9):3725-30

Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Waszyngtona 15 A, PL 15-276, Bialystok, Poland.

Background/aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) as tumor markers for endometrial cancer.

Patients And Methods: Serum samples were obtained from 40 women with endometrial cancer, 52 with myoma uteri and 52 healthy individuals. Class III, IV of ADH and total ADH activity was measured by a photometric method and class I, II ADH and ALDH activity, by a fluorometric method.

Results: The total activity of ADH and ADH class I was significantly higher in the serum of patients with endometrial cancer than in healthy individuals and patients with myoma. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH I was 69%, specificity 77%, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 75% and 71% respectively. The area under curve for ADH I was 0.682 and for total ADH was 0.623.

Conclusion: The results suggest a potential role of ADH I as a marker for endometrial cancer.
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September 2013

Enamel mineral content in patients with severe tooth wear.

Int J Prosthodont 2013 Sep-Oct;26(5):423-8

Purpose: The amounts of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in enamel may be crucial for maintaining its integrity and to attenuate potential environmental effects on teeth. The aim of this study was to examine whether the mineral composition of enamel could influence tooth wear.

Materials And Methods: A total of 50 patients with severe tooth wear were compared with 20 healthy volunteers. Tooth wear was assessed using clinical examination according to the protocol of Smith and Knight. Subsequently, the maxillary central incisors of each subject were subjected to acid biopsies to assess the mineral composition in the enamel. Atomic absorption spectroscopy with an air/acetylene flame was used to analyze for Ca, Zn, and Mg. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze for Cu.

Results: The concentrations of Ca and Mg in tooth enamel were comparable in the study and control groups. Zn enamel content was higher in patients with tooth wear, and Cu enamel content was lower in these patients compared with the control group.

Conclusion: The differing Zn and Cu contents in tooth enamel might offer a reason for excessive tooth wear in these patients. However, the results require further, more detailed study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/ijp.3209DOI Listing
January 2014
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