Publications by authors named "Karoliina Tainio"

2 Publications

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Clinical course of untreated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 under active surveillance: systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ 2018 02 27;360:k499. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: To estimate the regression, persistence, and progression of untreated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) lesions managed conservatively as well as compliance with follow-up protocols.

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Data Sources: Medline, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) from 1 January 1973 to 20 August 2016.

Eligibility Criteria: Studies reporting on outcomes of histologically confirmed CIN2 in non-pregnant women, managed conservatively for three or more months.

Data Synthesis: Two reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Random effects model was used to calculate pooled proportions for each outcome, and heterogeneity was assessed using I statistics.

Main Outcome Measures: Rates of regression, persistence, or progression of CIN2 and default rates at different follow-up time points (3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 60 months).

Results: 36 studies that included 3160 women were identified (seven randomised trials, 16 prospective cohorts, and 13 retrospective cohorts; 50% of the studies were at low risk of bias). At 24 months, the pooled rates were 50% (11 studies, 819/1470 women, 95% confidence interval 43% to 57%; I=77%) for regression, 32% (eight studies, 334/1257 women, 23% to 42%; I=82%) for persistence, and 18% (nine studies, 282/1445 women, 11% to 27%; I=90%) for progression. In a subgroup analysis including 1069 women aged less than 30 years, the rates were 60% (four studies, 638/1069 women, 57% to 63%; I=0%), 23% (two studies, 226/938 women, 20% to 26%; I=97%), and 11% (three studies, 163/1033 women, 5% to 19%; I=67%), respectively. The rate of non-compliance (at six to 24 months of follow-up) in prospective studies was around 10%.

Conclusions: Most CIN2 lesions, particularly in young women (<30 years), regress spontaneously. Active surveillance, rather than immediate intervention, is therefore justified, especially among young women who are likely to adhere to monitoring.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO 2014: CRD42014014406.
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February 2018

Randomised trial on treatment of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia-Imiquimod, laser vaporisation and expectant management.

Int J Cancer 2016 Nov 28;139(10):2353-8. Epub 2016 Jul 28.

Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital.

Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The most common treatment modality is laser vaporisation, but recurrences are common. Imiquimod is an immune response modulator which is used for the treatment of external condylomas and other HPV-related genital neoplasias. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of vaginally administered imiquimod in comparison with laser vaporisation and expectant management of high-grade VAIN. This proof of principle pilot study was a prospective 16-week randomised trial. We enrolled 30 patients with histologically confirmed VAIN 2 or 3 into three study arms: vaginally administered imiquimod, laser vaporisation and expectant management. Follow-up colposcopy visits included high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing, cytology and punch biopsies. At baseline 77% (n = 20/26) of the patients were hrHPV positive. HPV clearance was significantly higher in the imiquimod arm (63%, n = 5/8) than in the laser arm (11%, n = 1/9) (p = 0.05) or in the expectant management arm (17%, n = 1/6) (p = 0.138). At baseline 25 patients (83%) had VAIN 2 and five (17%) had VAIN 3. None of the lesions progressed during the follow-up. Histological regression (≤VAIN 1) was observed in 80% (n = 8/10) of patients in the imiquimod arm, 100% (n = 10/10) of the laser arm (p = 0.474) and 67% (n = 6/9) of the expectant management arm (p = 0.628). Vaginal imiquimod appears to be as effective as laser treatment in high-grade VAIN.
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November 2016