Publications by authors named "Karoliina Aro"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Distribution of HPV Genotypes Differs Depending on Behavioural Factors among Young Women.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 2;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tampere University Hospital and Tampere University, 33100 Tampere, Finland.

Risk factors for the different human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes are not well understood, although the risk of cancer is known to vary among them. Our aim was to evaluate the association of diverse behavioral and reproductive factors with genotype-specific HPV prevalence among 879 unvaccinated women aged 18-75 years referred to the colposcopy clinic at Helsinki University Hospital in Finland. Cervical swabs for HPV genotyping were collected in the first visit and assessed for 34 high-risk (hr) and low-risk (lr) HPV genotypes. Participants completed a questionnaire on behavioral, reproductive, and lifestyle factors. Differences in genotype-specific HPV prevalence were analyzed overall and in age groups using binary logistic regression. Smoking was associated with higher prevalence in HPV16 compared with other hrHPV genotypes together with decreasing age, being highest among younger women <30 years old, odds ratio (OR) 3.74 (95% CI 1.42-9.88). The later the sexual debut, the more it seemed to protect from HPV16 infection. The best protection was achieved when the sexual debut took place at >20 years of age, with an OR of 0.43 (95% CI 0.23-0.83). This association was not seen with other hrHPV genotypes. Methods of contraception seemed not to have an effect on hrHPV positivity, regardless of the HPV genotype. The genotype specific hrHPV prevalence differs, depending on behavioral factors, especially among younger women referred to colposcopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066411PMC
April 2021

Preterm birth rate after bivalent HPV vaccination: Registry-based follow-up of a randomized clinical trial.

Prev Med 2021 05 24;146:106473. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Haartmaninkatu 2, 00290 Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

A registry-based follow-up of pregnancy data until the end of 2014 was conducted based on a community-randomized trial to assess human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination strategies and a reference cohort from the same community with no intervention. Our objective was to determine whether prophylactic HPV vaccination (three doses of Cervarix® (AS04-HPV-16/18)-vaccine) affects preterm birth (PTB) rates. All identified 80,272 residents in 1992-95 birth cohorts in Finland were eligible for the trial and 20,513 of 39,420 (51.9%) females consented to participate. The final study population consisted of age-aligned 6226 HPV16/18 vaccinated females and 1770 HBV vaccinated (Engerix® B, hepatitis B-virus vaccine) females that did not receive HPV vaccine at the age of 18 from the 1992-93 birth cohorts, and 19,849 females from the 1990-91 non-vaccinated reference birth cohorts. We compared the rates of preterm (22 + 0-36 + 6 pregnancy weeks) and early preterm (22 + 0-31 + 6) per term (at least 37 + 0) singleton births among the HPV- and non-HPV-vaccinated women, using nationwide Medical Birth Registry data. We observed 409 singleton first pregnancies lasting at least 22 + 0 weeks among 6226 HPV-vaccinated and 1923 among 21,619 non-HPV-vaccinated women. In the first pregnancy the PTB rate was 13/409 (3.2%) among the HPV-vaccinated and 98/1923 (5.1%) among the non-HPV-vaccinated (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.34-1.09). Early preterm birth rate was 0/409 (0%) in the HPV-vaccinated women and 20/1923 (1.0%) in the non-HPV-vaccinated women (p = 0.04). PTB rate, especially early PTB rate, was lower among the HPV-vaccinated women. Reduction of PTB incidence after prophylactic HPV vaccination would lead to public health benefits globally. Trial Registration:NCT00534638.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106473DOI Listing
May 2021

Role of Colposcopy after Treatment for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 24;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 00029 Helsinki, Finland.

Colposcopy is often used in follow-up after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) despite its marked inter-observer variability and low sensitivity. Our objective was to assess the role of colposcopy in post-treatment follow-up in comparison to hrHPV (high-risk human papillomavirus) testing, cytology, and cone margin status. Altogether, 419 women treated for histological high-grade lesion (HSIL) with large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) attended colposcopy with cytology and hrHPV test at six months. Follow-up for recurrence of HSIL continued for 24 months. Colposcopy was considered positive if colposcopic impression was recorded as high grade and cytology if HSIL, ASC-H (atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSIL), or AGC-FN (atypical glandular cells, favor neoplasia) were present. Overall, 10 (10/419, 2.4%) recurrent HSIL cases were detected, 5 at 6 months and 5 at 12 months. Colposcopic impression was recorded at 407/419 6-month visits and was positive for 11/407 (2.7%). None of them had recurrent lesions, resulting in 0% sensitivity and 97% specificity for colposcopy. Sensitivity for the hrHPV test at 6 months was 100% and specificity 85%, for cytology 40% and 99%, and for margin status at treatment 60% and 82%, respectively. While the hrHPV test is highly sensitive in predicting recurrence after local treatment for CIN, colposcopy in an unselected population is not useful in follow-up after treatment of CIN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7352967PMC
June 2020

Methylation in Predicting Progression of Untreated High-grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 06;70(12):2582-2590

Center for Cancer Prevention, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: There is no prognostic test to ascertain whether cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) regress or progress. The majority of CINs regress in young women, and treatments increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. We investigated the ability of a DNA methylation panel (the S5 classifier) to discriminate between outcomes among young women with untreated CIN grade 2 (CIN2).

Methods: Baseline pyrosequencing methylation and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping assays were performed on cervical cells from 149 women with CIN2 in a 2-year cohort study of active surveillance.

Results: Twenty-five lesions progressed to CIN grade 3 or worse, 88 regressed to less than CIN grade 1, and 36 persisted as CIN1/2. When cytology, HPV16/18 and HPV16/18/31/33 genotyping, and the S5 classifier were compared to outcomes, the S5 classifier was the strongest biomarker associated with regression vs progression. The S5 classifier alone or in combination with HPV16/18/31/33 genotyping also showed significantly increased sensitivity vs cytology when comparing regression vs persistence/progression. With both the S5 classifier and cytology set at a specificity of 38.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28.4-49.6), the sensitivity of the S5 classifier was significantly higher (83.6%; 95% CI, 71.9-91.8) than of cytology (62.3%; 95% CI, 49.0-74.4; P = 0.005). The highest area under the curve was 0.735 (95% CI, 0.621-0.849) in comparing regression vs progression with a combination of the S5 classifier and cytology, whereas HPV genotyping did not provide additional information.

Conclusions: The S5 classifier shows high potential as a prognostic biomarker to identify progressive CIN2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7286376PMC
June 2020

Age-specific HPV type distribution in high-grade cervical disease in screened and unvaccinated women.

Gynecol Oncol 2019 08 5;154(2):354-359. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Haartmaninkatu 2, 00290 Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: Age-specific type-distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) in cervical precancerous lesions is subject to change in the HPV vaccination era. Knowing the pre-vaccination type-distribution helps to anticipate changes induced by mass vaccination and optimize screening.

Methods: We recruited 1279 women referred to colposcopy for abnormal cytology into a population-based study on HPV type distribution in diagnostic cervical samples (ISRCTN10933736). The HPV genotyping findings were grouped as: HPV16/18+, other hrHPV+ (HPV31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/66/68), non-vaccine targeted hrHPV+ (HPV35/39/51/56/59/66/68), low-risk HPV, and HPV negative. We estimated the HPV group-specific prevalence rates according to diagnostic histopathological findings in the age groups of <30 (n = 339), 30-44.9 (n = 614), and ≥45 (n = 326).

Results: Altogether 503 cases with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (HSIL+) were diagnosed. More than half, 285 (56.7%) of HSIL+ cases were associated with HPV16/18: 64.3% (101/157) in women <30 years (reference group), 58.4% (157/269) in women 30-44.9 years (risk ratio (RR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.78-1.06), and 35.1% (27/77) in women ≥45 years of age (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.39-0.75). Conversely, other hrHPV's were associated with 191 (38.0%) of HSIL+: 31.9% (50/157) in women <30, 36.8% (99/269) in women 30-44.9 years, 54.6% (42/77) and in women ≥45 (RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.26-2.33). The proportion of non-vaccine targeted hrHPV and HPV negative HSIL+ increased with advancing age.

Conclusions: Pre-vaccination HPV type distribution in HSIL+ was distinctly polarised by age with HPV16/18 attributed disease being markedly more prevalent in women aged <30. In the older women the other hrHPV types, however, dominated suggesting a need for more age-dependent screening strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2019.05.024DOI Listing
August 2019
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