Publications by authors named "Karlie A Neilson"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Pharmacological Inhibition of Casein Kinase 2 Enhances the Effectiveness of PI3K Inhibition in Colon Cancer Cells.

Anticancer Res 2018 Nov;38(11):6195-6200

Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia

Background/aim: Serine/threonine kinase B-Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF) mutant colon cancer has a poor prognosis and there is an absence of targeted treatments for this subtype. Here, we investigated the effects of inhibition of casein kinase 2 (CK2) on the inhibitory effects of BRAF and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition in BRAF-mutant colon cancer cells.

Materials And Methods: Colon cancer cell lines with mutations in components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3K signalling pathway were used. Cell viability was determined after exposure to single agent and combinations of erlotinib (EGFR inhibitor), dabrafenib (MEK inhibitor), GDC0941 (PI3K inhibitor) and CX4945 (CK2 inhibitor). Western blots were used to examine MAPK and AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT) pathway activation.

Results: Addition of CX4945 to dabrafenib did not enhance the antiproliferative effects of single-agent dabrafenib. Use of GDC0941 alone was highly effective in controlling growth of both BRAF-mutant and wild-type cells and this effect was enhanced by CK2 inhibition.

Conclusion: Inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway is central to regulating growth of colon cancer cells and this can be enhanced by CK2 inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.12973DOI Listing
November 2018

Performance of broiler chickens offered nutritionally-equivalent diets based on two red grain sorghums with quantified kafirin concentrations as intact pellets or re-ground mash following steam-pelleting at 65 or 97°C conditioning temperatures.

Anim Nutr 2015 Sep 28;1(3):220-228. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Poultry Research Foundation within the Faculty of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Camden 2570, Australia.

The Liverpool Plains is a fertile agricultural region in New South Wales, Australia. Two sorghums from the 2009 Liverpool Plains harvest, sorghums #3 and #5, were extensively characterised which included concentrations of kafirin and phenolic compounds plus rapid visco-analysis (RVA) starch pasting profiles. Diets based on these two sorghums were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic and were offered to male Ross 308 broiler chicks from 7 to 28 days post--hatch as either intact pellets or reground mash following steam-pelleting at conditioning temperatures of either 65 or 97°C. Thus the feeding study consisted of a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial array of dietary treatments: two sorghum varieties, two feed forms and two conditioning temperatures. Each of the eight treatments was replicated six times with six birds per replicate cage. Assessed parameters included growth performance, nutrient utilisation, apparent starch and protein (N) digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates from the distal jejunum and distal ileum. Intact pellets supported higher ( < 0.001) feed intakes and weight gains by 9.83 and 9.08%, respectively, than reground mash diets. Feed conversion ratios of broilers offered diets steam-conditioned at 97°C were 2.46% inferior ( < 0.001) in comparison to 65°C diets and both apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and N-corrected AME (AMEn) were compromised. Broilers offered sorghum #3-based diets significantly ( < 0.001) outperformed their sorghum #5 counterparts in terms of weight gain by 3.75% (1,334 versus 1,223 g/bird), FCR by 4.81% (1.524 versus 1.601), AME by 1.06 MJ (13.61 versus 12.55 MJ/kg), ME:GE ratio (ME:GE) by 4.81% (0.806 versus 0.769) and AMEn by 1.03 MJ (12.38 versus 11.35 MJ/kg). The inferiority of sorghum #5 appeared to be associated with higher concentrations of kafirin (61.5 versus 50.7 g/kg) and conjugated phenolic acids, including ferulic acid (31.1 versus 25.6 µg/g). There were no significant differences in jejunal and ileal starch and protein (N) digestibility coefficients between the two sorghums. However, starch to protein (N) disappearance rate ratios from the distal jejunum were significantly ( < 0.001) correlated with ME:GE and AME. The multiple linear regression equations indicated that energy utilisation was enhanced by coupling rapidly digestible protein with slowly digestible starch, which suggests that bilateral bioavailability of starch and protein is pivotal to efficient energy utilisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2015.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5945944PMC
September 2015

Manipulating root water supply elicits major shifts in the shoot proteome.

J Proteome Res 2014 Feb 3;13(2):517-26. Epub 2013 Dec 3.

Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Faculty of Human Sciences, Macquarie University , Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Substantial reductions in yield caused by drought stress can occur when parts of the root system experience water deficit even though other parts have sufficient access to soil water. To identify proteins associated to drought signaling, rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64.) plants were transplanted into plastic pots with an internal wall dividing each pot into two equal compartments, allowing for equal distribution of soil and the root system between these compartments. The following treatments were applied: either both compartments were watered daily ("wet" roots), or water was withheld from both compartments ("dry" roots), or water was withheld from only one of the two compartments in each pot ("wet" and "dry" roots). The substantial differences in physiological parameters of different growth conditions were accompanied by differential changes in protein abundances. Label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics have resulted in identification of 1383 reproducible proteins across all three conditions. Differentially expressed proteins were categorized within 17 functional groups. The patterns observed were interesting in that in some categories such as protein metabolism and oxidation-reduction, substantial numbers of proteins were most abundant when leaves were receiving signals from "wet" and "dry" roots. In yet other categories such as transport, several key transporters were surprisingly abundant in leaves supported by partially or completely droughted root systems, especially plasma membrane and vacuolar transporters. Stress-related proteins behaved very consistently by increasing in droughted plants but notably some proteins were most abundant when roots of the same plant were growing in both wet and dry soils. Changes in carbohydrate-processing proteins were consistent with the passive accumulation of soluble sugars in shoots under drought, with hydrolysis of sucrose and starch synthesis both enhanced. These results suggest that drought signals are complex interactions and not simply the additive effect of water supply to the roots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr400696uDOI Listing
February 2014

Analysis of rice proteins using SDS-PAGE shotgun proteomics.

Methods Mol Biol 2014 ;1072:289-302

Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW, Australia.

In this chapter we describe the workflow used in our laboratory to analyze rice leaf samples using label-free shotgun proteomics based on SDS-PAGE fractionation of proteins. Rice proteomics has benefitted substantially from successful execution of shotgun proteomics techniques. We describe steps on how to proceed starting from rice protein extraction, SDS-PAGE, in-gel protein digestion with trypsin, nanoLC-MS/MS, and database searching using the GPM. Data from these experiments can be used for spectral counting, where simultaneous quantitation of several thousand proteins can be obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-62703-631-3_21DOI Listing
May 2014

Label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics using normalized spectral abundance factors.

Methods Mol Biol 2013 ;1002:205-22

Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW, Australia.

In this chapter we describe the workflow used in our laboratory for label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics based on spectral counting. The main tools used are a series of R modules known collectively as the Scrappy program. We describe how to go from peptide to spectrum matching in a shotgun proteomics experiment using the XTandem algorithm, to simultaneous quantification of up to thousands of proteins, using normalized spectral abundance factors. The outputs of the software are described in detail, with illustrative examples provided for some of the graphical images generated. While it is not strictly within the scope of this chapter, some consideration is given to how best to extract meaningful biological information from quantitative shotgun proteomics data outputs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-62703-360-2_17DOI Listing
February 2014

The influence of signals from chilled roots on the proteome of shoot tissues in rice seedlings.

Proteomics 2013 Jun 6;13(12-13):1922-33. Epub 2013 Jun 6.

Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, New South Wales, Australia.

Low root temperature causes a decrease in water uptake, which leads to mineral and nutrient deficiencies with potentially decreased root and shoot growth. Differential temperature effects in plants have been studied extensively, however, the effect of root chilling on the global protein expression in shoots has not been explored. In this study, we imposed chilling temperatures on roots of rice plants while maintaining shoots at optimum atmospheric temperature. Shoot materials (growing zones and leaves) were harvested at five points over a time course of four days, including a two-day recovery period. Proteins were quantified by tandem mass tags and triple stage MS, using a method developed to overcome ratio compression in isobaric-labelled quantitation. Over 3000 proteins in each of the tissues were quantified by multiple peptides. Proteins significantly differentially expressed as compared with the control included abscisic acid-responsive and drought-associated proteins. The data also contained evidence of a possible induction of a sugar signalling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201200475DOI Listing
June 2013

Quantitative proteomic analysis of cold-responsive proteins in rice.

Proteomics 2011 May 22;11(9):1696-706. Epub 2011 Mar 22.

Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW, Australia.

Rice is susceptible to cold stress and with a future of climatic instability we will be unable to produce enough rice to satisfy increasing demand. A thorough understanding of the molecular responses to thermal stress is imperative for engineering cultivars, which have greater resistance to low temperature stress. In this study we investigated the proteomic response of rice seedlings to 48, 72 and 96 h of cold stress at 12-14°C. The use of both label-free and iTRAQ approaches in the analysis of global protein expression enabled us to assess the complementarity of the two techniques for use in plant proteomics. The approaches yielded a similar biological response to cold stress despite a disparity in proteins identified. The label-free approach identified 236 cold-responsive proteins compared to 85 in iTRAQ results, with only 24 proteins in common. Functional analysis revealed differential expression of proteins involved in transport, photosynthesis, generation of precursor metabolites and energy; and, more specifically, histones and vitamin B biosynthetic proteins were observed to be affected by cold stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201000727DOI Listing
May 2011

Less label, more free: approaches in label-free quantitative mass spectrometry.

Proteomics 2011 Feb 17;11(4):535-53. Epub 2011 Jan 17.

Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

In this review we examine techniques, software, and statistical analyses used in label-free quantitative proteomics studies for area under the curve and spectral counting approaches. Recent advances in the field are discussed in an order that reflects a logical workflow design. Examples of studies that follow this design are presented to highlight the requirement for statistical assessment and further experiments to validate results from label-free quantitation. Limitations of label-free approaches are considered, label-free approaches are compared with labelling techniques, and forward-looking applications for label-free quantitative data are presented. We conclude that label-free quantitative proteomics is a reliable, versatile, and cost-effective alternative to labelled quantitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201000553DOI Listing
February 2011

Roles of grape thaumatin-like protein and chitinase in white wine haze formation.

J Agric Food Chem 2011 Jan 28;59(2):733-40. Epub 2010 Dec 28.

The Australian Wine Research Institute, PO Box 197, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia.

Grape chitinase was found to be the primary cause of heat-induced haze formation in white wines. Chitinase was the dominant protein in a haze induced by treating Sauvignon blanc wine at 30 °C for 22 h. In artificial wines and real wines, chitinase concentration was directly correlated to the turbidity of heat-induced haze formation (50 °C for 3 h). Sulfate was confirmed to have a role in haze formation, likely by converting soluble aggregates into larger visible haze particles. Thaumatin-like protein was detected in the insoluble fraction by SDS-PAGE analysis but had no measurable impact on turbidity. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that the complex mixture of molecules in wine plays a role in thermal instability of wine proteins and contributes additional complexity to the wine haze phenomenon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf1038234DOI Listing
January 2011

Thermal stability of thaumatin-like protein, chitinase, and invertase isolated from Sauvignon blanc and Semillon juice and their role in haze formation in wine.

J Agric Food Chem 2010 Jan;58(2):975-80

Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, University of Queensland, QLD 4072, Australia.

A thermal unfolding study of thaumatin-like protein, chitinase, and invertase isolated from Vitis vinifera Sauvignon blanc and Semillon juice was undertaken. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that chitinase was a major player in heat-induced haze in unfined wines as it had a low melt temperature, and aggregation was observed. The kinetics of chitinase F1 (Sauvignon blanc) unfolding was studied using circular dichroism spectrometry. Chitinase unfolding conforms to Arrhenius behavior having an activation energy of 320 kJ/mol. This enabled a predictive model for protein stability to be generated, predicting a half-life of 9 years at 15 degrees C, 4.7 days at 30 degrees C, and 17 min at 45 degrees C. Circular dichroism studies indicate that chitinase unfolding follows three steps: an initial irreversible step from the native to an unfolded conformation, a reversible step between a collapsed and an unfolded non-native conformation, followed by irreversible aggregation associated with visible haze formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf902843bDOI Listing
January 2010

Proteomic analysis of temperature stress in plants.

Proteomics 2010 Feb;10(4):828-45

Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW, Australia.

In this review we examine current approaches used for proteomic analysis of temperature stress in plants. Rapid advances in this field in recent years are discussed, including metabolic, chemical and isotopic labeling, and label-free quantitative techniques. These are compared and contrasted with well-established methods such as 2-DE approaches. Examples of applications of various methods are presented, and technical difficulties and limitations of each are also considered. Results of previous studies are examined in detail, and commonly occurring temperature stress response proteins are collated. We conclude that technical advances, and improvements in genome sequence availability, will have an ever increasing impact on our understanding of molecular mechanisms of stress response in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.200900538DOI Listing
February 2010

Two-step purification of pathogenesis-related proteins from grape juice and crystallization of thaumatin-like proteins.

J Agric Food Chem 2009 Dec;57(23):11376-82

The Australian Wine Research Institute, Glen Osmond, SA, Australia.

Grape thaumatin-like (TL) proteins and chitinases play roles in plant-pathogen interactions and can cause protein haze in white wine unless removed prior to bottling. A two-step method is described that highly purified hundreds of milligrams of TL proteins and chitinases from two juices by strong cation exchange (SCX) and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). The method was fast and separated isoforms of TL proteins and chitinases from within the same juice, in most cases to >97% purity. The isolated proteins were identified by peptide nanoLC-MS/MS and crystallized using a high-throughput screening method. Crystals from three protein fractions produced high-resolution X-ray crystallography data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf902365rDOI Listing
December 2009

Proteomic analysis of shade-avoidance response in tomato leaves.

J Agric Food Chem 2007 Oct 18;55(21):8310-8. Epub 2007 Sep 18.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Department of Chemistry, and Bio5 Institute for Collaborative Bioresearch, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA.

The aim of this project was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of shade-avoidance response in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Plants were grown in direct sunlight in ambient temperature and in an adjacent environment under shade cloth. Leaves were harvested, and protein expression differences were investigated using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis and nanoflow high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Striking differences in plant physiology and protein expression were observed. Plants grown in the shade grew very tall but bore almost no fruit and displayed a dramatic reduction in the accumulation of Rubisco and a number of other metabolic enzymes. We have identified, quantified, and classified 59 protein features found to be up- or down-regulated as part of a shade-avoidance response in S. lycopersicum and correlated these with phenotypic data. A large group of proteins related to metabolism and respiration were greatly reduced in accumulation in shade-grown plants, and there was also evidence of significant proteolysis occurring. Four stress-related proteins appear to be constitutively expressed as a result of heat acclimation, while three distinct stress-related proteins appear to accumulate as part of the shade-avoidance response. The identification and functional classification of all 59 differentially accumulating proteins is presented and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0713049DOI Listing
October 2007
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