Publications by authors named "Karla Pozo"

44 Publications

Atmospheric PAHs in rural, urban, industrial and beach locations in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina: sources and health risk assessment.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

INQUISUR, Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS)-CONICET, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

The first atmospheric PAHs levels and associated inhalation cancer risk were assessed over southwest Buenos Aires region by deploying PUF disk PAS samplers. Eight sampling location included coastal zones, touristic beaches, and rural inland areas were considered. PUF disks were fortified with surrogate standards and extracted by automated Soxhlet prior to GC-MS analysis. Σ PAHs ranged from 1.13 to 44.5 ng m (10.3 ± 9.8), while urban locations showed up to 10 times higher PAH levels than rural or beach locations. Direct sources of PAHs, such as intensive vehicle traffic, heating, and general combustion activities, were identified. PAHs with four to six rings (46.62%) were predominantly Flt, Pyr, BbF, and BkF, and carcinogenic risk was expressed by BaP (0.10 ± 0.07 ng m) and BaPTEQs (0.26 ± 0.22 ng m). Inhalation ECR (2.23E-5, WHO) presented the lowest risk at beach locations. Molecular ratios and PCA showed a strong dominance in pyrolytic sources, such as biomass and coal combustion, with a particular signature in fires at inland locations. Overall, this study demonstrated that PUF disk passive air sampling provided a sound and simple approach for tracking air PAHs, their sources and public health risks, bringing a cost-effective tool for pollution control measures, even at small and remote towns. This is particularly relevant in extensive countries with medium or low income, such as Argentina.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-021-01031-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Atmospheric Occurrence of Organochlorine Pesticides and Inhalation Cancer Risk in Urban Areas at Southeast Brazil.

Environ Pollut 2021 Feb 23;271:116359. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Laboratório de Micropoluentes Jan Japenga, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal Do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, 21941-902, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; Laboratório de Radioisótopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal Do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, 21941-902, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been produced for almost a century and some of them are still used, even after they have been proved to be toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative and prone to long-range transport. Brazil has used and produced pesticides in industrial scales for both agricultural and public health purposes. Urban and industrial regions are of special concern due to their high population density and their increased exposure to chemical pollution, many times enhanced by chemical production, application or irregular dumping. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the occurrence of OCPs in outdoor air of urban sites from two major regions of southeast Brazil. Some of these sites have been affected by OCP production and their irregular dumping. Deterministic and probabilistic inhalation cancer risk (CR) assessments were conducted for the human populations exposed to OCPs in ambient air. Ambient air was mainly affected by Ʃ-HCH (median = 340 pg m) and Ʃ-DDT (median = 233 pg m), the only two OCPs registered for domissanitary purposes in Brazil. OCP concentrations tended to be higher in summer than in winter. Dumping sites resulted in the highest OCP atmospheric concentrations and, thus, in the highest CR estimations. Despite of all limitations, probabilistic simulations suggested that people living in the studied regions are exposed to an increased risk of hepatic cancer. Infants and toddlers (0 < 2 y) were exposed to the highest inhalation CRs compared to other age groups. Other exposure pathways (such as ingestion and dermic uptake) are needed for a more comprehensive risk assessment. Moreover, this study also highlights the need to review the human exposure to OCPs through inhalation and their respective CR in other impacted areas worldwide, especially where high levels of OCPs are still being measured.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116359DOI Listing
February 2021

Persistence, bioaccumulation and vertical transfer of pollutants in long-finned pilot whales stranded in Chilean Patagonia.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 21;770:145259. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Laboratory of Aquatic Environmental Research, Centro de Estudios Avanzados - HUB Ambiental UPLA, Universidad de Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile.. Electronic address:

Long-finned pilot whales (LFPW) are cetaceans with strong social groups often involved in mass strandings worldwide. However, these beachings occur for reasons that are not fully understood. In 2016, 124 LFPW were stranded on the Chilean Patagonian islands, offering a unique opportunity to obtain crucial information on the ecology, biology, and genetics of this population. In addition, we examined whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and trace elements (TEs) were responsible for this mass mortality. Stable isotopes (δC & δN) and genetic analyses were used to reconstruct the trophic ecology, social structure, and kinship of LFPW and compared to POPs and TEs levels found in LFPW. Mitochondrial DNA analyses on 71 individuals identified four maternal lineages within the stranded LFPW. Of these animals, 32 individuals were analyzed for a suite of POPs, TEs, and lipid content in blubber. The highest levels were found for ΣDDXs (6 isomers) (542.46 ± 433.46 ng/g, lw) and for total Hg (2.79 ± 1.91 mg/kg, dw). However, concentrations found in these LFPW were lower than toxicity thresholds and those reported for LFPW stranded in other regions. Evidence was found of ΣDDX, Σ7PCBs, and Cd bioaccumulation and maternal transfer of POPs in mother/offspring groups. Nevertheless, no clear relationship between contaminant concentrations and LFPW mortality was established. Further research is still needed to assess LFPW populations including conservations status and exposure to chemicals in remote areas such as Patagonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145259DOI Listing
May 2021

Legacy and novel flame retardants from indoor dust in Antarctica: Sources and human exposure.

Environ Res 2021 05 14;196:110344. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Kamenice 753/5, 625 00, Brno, Czech Republic; Facultad de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad San Sebastián, Lientur #1457, Concepción, Chile.

The air humidity in Antarctica is very low and this peculiar weather parameter make the use of flame retardants in research facilities highly needed for safety reasons, as fires are a major risk. Legacy and novel flame retardants (nFRs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), Dechlorane Plus (DP), and other nFRs were measured in indoor dust samples collected at research Stations in Antarctica: Gabriel de Castilla, Spain (GCS), Julio Escudero, Chile (JES), and onboard the RRS James Clark Ross, United Kingdom (RRS JCR). The GC-HRMS and LC-MS-MS analyses of dust samples revealed ∑PBDEs of 41.5 ± 43.8 ng/g in rooms at GCS, 18.7 ± 11.6 ng/g at JES, and 27.2 ± 37.9 ng/g onboard the RRS JCR. PBDE pattern was different between the sites and most abundant congeners were BDE-183 (40%) at GCS, BDE-99 (50%) at JES, and BDE-153 (37%) onboard the RRS JCR. The ∑HBCDs were 257 ± 407 ng/g, 14.9 ± 14.5 ng/g, and 761 ± 1043 ng/g in indoor dust collected in rooms at GCS, JES, and RRS JCR, respectively. The ∑nFRs were 224 ± 178 ng/g at GCS, 14.1 ± 13.8 ng/g at JES, and 194 ± 392 ng/g on the RRS JCR. Syn- and anti-DP were detected in most of the samples and both isomers showed the highest concentrations at GCS: 163 ± 93.6 and 48.5 ± 61.1 ng/g, respectively. The laboratory and living room showed the highest concentration of HBCDs, DPs, BTBPE. The wide variations in FR levels in dust from the three research facilities and between differently used rooms reflect the different origin of furnishing, building materials and equipment. The potential health risk associated to a daily exposure via dust ingestion was assessed for selected FRs: BDEs 47, 99, and 153, α-, β-, and γ-HBCD, BTBPE, syn- and anti-DP. Although the estimated exposures are below the available reference doses, caution is needed given the expected increasing use of novel chemicals without a comprehensive toxicological profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110344DOI Listing
May 2021

Sources and diffusive air-water exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an oligotrophic North-Patagonian lake.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Oct 30;738:139838. Epub 2020 May 30.

Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Facultad Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile; GEMA, Center for Genomics, Ecology & Environment, Universidad Mayor, Camino La Pirámide 5750, Huechuraba, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are semivolatile organic compounds of environmental concern. This study aims to investigate the influence of local sources of anthropogenic PAHs and their air-water exchange fluxes in an oligotrophic North-Patagonian lake in Chile. The monitoring was carried out in Panguipulli Lake during a six-month period during the autumn and winter seasons (March to August 2017) using a high-volume air sampler and a pump system for water samples. We detected and quantified fifteen PAHs in the gas phase (mean ∑PAHs = 11.6 ng m) and dissolved water phase (mean ∑PAHs = 961.8 pg L). Methylphenanthrenes and pyrene dominated the concentrations of PAHs in the studied phases. To determine sources of PAHs we used the PAH ratios of Light Molecular Weight/Heavy Molecular Weight (∑LMW/∑HMW) and Phenanthrene/Anthracene (Phe/Ant). The PAH ratio results revealed a pyrogenic source. We estimated the air-water diffusive exchange fluxes and fugacity ratios for the studied compounds. In general, air-water diffusive exchanges of PAHs showed a net volatilization for the less hydrophobic (log K < 4) and lighter PAHs (MW ≤ 170 g mol), and a net deposition trend for the more hydrophobic (log K 4-7) and higher molecular weight PAHs (MW ≥ 178 g mol). We found a significant correlation between log water/air fugacity ratios and log K of PAHs. Therefore, it is suggested that this oligotrophic lake acts as a sink by accumulating hydrophobic and mid-high molecular weight PAHs derived mainly from pyrogenic sources. This study is the first attempt to understand the sources and behavior of PAHs in oligotrophic lakes in the Southern Chile where information is scarce regarding the occurrence of PAHs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139838DOI Listing
October 2020

Marine plastic debris in Central Chile: Characterization and abundance of macroplastics and burden of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

Mar Pollut Bull 2020 Mar 17;152:110881. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

RECETOX (Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

In this study, we characterized plastic debris (PD) found on beaches from Concepción Bay in central Chile during spring 2017 and summer 2018. The identification of polymers was carried out using FT-IR. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were extracted with hexane using an ultrasonic bath and further quantified through GC-MS. The highest abundance of PD was obtained during the summer (4.1 ± 3.7 items/m), with the most common size range between 2.5 and 10 cm (42%) and the most frequent shape were plastic fragments (44%). FT-IR analysis showed that polypropylene was the most recurrent plastic polymer found. The ∑10PBDEs ranged from 2.1 to 1300 ng/g in spring 2017 and 392 to 3177 ng/g in summer 2018. ∑7PCBs ranged from 0.9 to 93 ng/g during the spring 2017 and 0.3 to 4.5 ng/g for summer 2018. This study is the first with information on POPs occurrence in the plastic debris of central Chile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110881DOI Listing
March 2020

Persistent organic pollutants sorbed in plastic resin pellet - "Nurdles" from coastal areas of Central Chile.

Mar Pollut Bull 2020 Feb 29;151:110786. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

RECETOX (Research center for toxic compounds in the environment), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

Plastic resin pellets were collected from coastal areas (n = 7) of central Chile. Pellets were analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for polymer identification and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) determination. Screened compounds were PBDEs (n = 10), PCBs (n = 7), and OCPs (n = 13). Pellets were only found at Lenga Beach (San Vicente Bay), which is likely influenced by the presence of industrial activities in the surrounding coastal area. The diameter of the pellets was 4.0 ± 0.6 cm (n = 370), the color varied from white (32%) to yellowing (68%), and the most prevalent polymer identified was high-density polyethylene (99%). POPs concentrations (ng/g-pellet) ranged from 10 to 133 for Ʃ10PBDEs, from 3 to 60 for Ʃ7PCBs and between 0.1 and 7 for DDTs. Levels of POPs are consistent with other investigations around the world and highlight the sorbtion capacity of plastics resin pellets, and consequently transport of POPs into coastal environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110786DOI Listing
February 2020

Presence and characterization of microplastics in fish of commercial importance from the Biobío region in central Chile.

Mar Pollut Bull 2019 Mar 1;140:315-319. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

RECETOX (Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment), Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

In this study we have identified and characterized microplastic particles (MPs) found in six fish species of commercial importance in central Chile. The fish species belong to different trophic levels and were obtained from the oceanic and coastal habitats. To analyze MPs, the fish gastrointestinal content was extracted, analyzed and characterized using a microscopy equipped with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The MPs found in fish samples were mainly constituted by red microfibers (70-100%) with sizes ranging between 176 and 2842 μm. Polyester, polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were identified as the prevalent polymers detected. The coastal species showed the presence of microfibers with a higher size and abundance (71%) compared to oceanic species (29%), suggesting there is a greater exposure risk. These findings are consistent with results found in other investigations worldwide. However, further research is still needed to accurately establish the potential exposure risk for the public consuming these fish and the impact of MPs in the Chilean fishery activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.01.025DOI Listing
March 2019

Characterization, source identification and risk associated with polyaromatic and chlorinated organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, PCBzs and OCPs) in the surface sediments of Hooghly estuary, India.

Chemosphere 2019 Apr 27;221:154-165. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Ecological Studies and International Centre for Ecological Engineering, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, Nadia 741235, India.

The spatial distribution, source identification and ecotoxicological impact of a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorobenzenes (PCBzs)), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in surface sediment samples (0-5 cm, <63 μm grain size) along the ecologically stressed Hooghly River estuary, East India. The results demonstrated a wide range of concentrations (ng/g dry weight) with the following decreasing order: ∑PAHs (3.3-630) > ∑DDTs (0.14-18.6) > ∑PCBs (0.28-7.7) > ∑PCBzs (0.01-1.3) > ∑HCH (0.10-0.6), with a dominance of p,p'-DDT and higher molecular weight PAHs. Selected diagnostic ratios indicated a mixture of both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources of PAHs, inputs of weathered DDT and their degradation in oxidizing environment, and a predominance of industrial input over the agricultural wastes. The cumulative impact of the pollutants (effective range medium quotient (ERMq): 0.01-0.16) reflected minimal to low ecotoxicological risk, with highest probability of toxic effects towards surrounding biota at Barrackpore (21%). ∑DDTs exceeded the effect range low value resulting occasional adverse impact to the sediment dwelling organisms. Among the PAHs, the 4-ringed compounds accounted for 68% of the PAHs. Further, carcinogenic PAHs (BaA, Chry, BbF, BkF, BaP, DahP, Inp) possessed highest cancer risk (CR = 2.09 × 10) to the local population when exposed to the sediments from the studied area and ingestion was found to be the primary process of contamination. The study strongly recommends a systematic monitoring of POPs and PAHs, being the Hooghly River water used by local people for their livelihood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.12.173DOI Listing
April 2019

Air monitoring of new and legacy POPs in the Group of Latin America and Caribbean (GRULAC) region.

Environ Pollut 2018 Dec 15;243(Pt B):1252-1262. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales, Colombia.

A special initiative in the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) Network was implemented to provide information on new and emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Group of Latin America and Caribbean (GRULAC) region. Regional-scale atmospheric concentrations of the new and emerging POPs hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD), pentachloroanisole (PCA) and dicofol indicators (breakdown products) are reported for the first time. HCBD was detected in similar concentrations at all location types (<20-120 pg/m). PCA had elevated concentrations at the urban site Concepción (Chile) of 49-222 pg/m, with concentrations ranging <1-8.5 pg/m at the other sites in this study. Dicofol indicators were detected at the agricultural site of Sonora (Mexico) at concentrations ranging 30-117 pg/m. Legacy POPs, including a range of organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were also monitored to compare regional atmospheric concentrations over a decade of monitoring under the GAPS Network. γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and the endosulfans significantly decreased (p < 0.05) from 2005 to 2015, suggesting regional levels are decreasing. However, there were no significant changes for the other legacy POPs monitored, likely a reflection of the persistency and slow decline of environmental levels of these POPs. For the more volatile OCs, atmospheric concentrations derived from polyurethane foam (PUF) (acting as an equilibrium sampler) and sorbent impregnated PUF (SIP) (acting as a linear phase sampler), were compared. The complimentary methods show a good agreement of within a factor of 2-3, and areas for future studies to improve this agreement are further discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.09.048DOI Listing
December 2018

Atmospheric Concentrations of New Persistent Organic Pollutants and Emerging Chemicals of Concern in the Group of Latin America and Caribbean (GRULAC) Region.

Environ Sci Technol 2018 07 15;52(13):7240-7249. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Universidad Nacional de Colombia , Manizales , 111321 , Colombia.

A special initiative was run by the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) Network to provide atmospheric data on a range of emerging chemicals of concern and candidate and new persistent organic pollutants in the Group of Latin America and Caribbean (GRULAC) region. Regional-scale data for a range of flame retardants (FRs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organophosphate esters (OPEs), and a range of alternative FRs (novel FRs) are reported over 2 years of sampling with low detection frequencies of the novel FRs. Atmospheric concentrations of the OPEs were an order of magnitude higher than all other FRs, with similar profiles at all sites. Regional-scale background concentrations of the poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including the neutral PFAS (n-PFAS) and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), and the volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) are also reported. Ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (EtFOSA) was detected at highly elevated concentrations in Brazil and Colombia, in line with the use of the pesticide sulfluramid in this region. Similar concentrations of the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFAS) were detected throughout the GRULAC region regardless of location type, and the VMS concentrations in air increased with the population density of sampling locations. This is the first report of atmospheric concentrations of the PFAAs and VMS from this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b00995DOI Listing
July 2018

Contamination Profile of DDTs in the Shark Somniosus microcephalus from Greenland Seawaters.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2018 Jul 29;101(1):7-13. Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Physics, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, via P.A. Mattioli 4, 53100, Siena, Italy.

DDT isomers were detected in all the liver and muscle samples of Greenland sharks Somniosus microcephalus (n = 15) caught in Greenland seawaters. The mean concentrations of ΣDDTs (sum of o,p' and p,p' DDT, DDD, and DDE isomers) were 1094 ± 818 ng/g lipid weight (lw) in the muscle and 761 ± 416 ng/g lw in the liver. The p,p'-DDE accounted for 48% ± 41% and 53% ± 54% of the total DDT residue in the white muscle and liver, respectively. The lipid content was 48% ± 10% in the muscle and 43% ± 17% in the liver. Female sharks showed the highest concentrations of ΣDDTs. The youngest shark showed higher concentrations of ΣDDTs in the liver than the older sharks. To our knowledge, this is one of the few investigations on DDT levels in S. microcephalus where concentrations were correlated to lipid content and sex/size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-018-2371-zDOI Listing
July 2018

Dioxin-like compounds bioavailability and genotoxicity assessment in the Gulf of Follonica, Tuscany (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea).

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 01 5;126:467-472. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine - Section of Applied Biology and Genetics, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

The Gulf of Follonica (Italy) is impacted by the chemical pollution from ancient mining activity and present industrial processes. This study was aimed to determine the bioavailability of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in coastal marine environment and to assess the genotoxic potential of waste waters entering the sea from an industrial canal. Moderately high levels of DCLs compounds (∑ PCDDs + PCDFs 2.18–29.00 pg/g dry wt) were detected in Mytilus galloprovincialis transplanted near the waste waters canal and their corresponding Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) calculated. In situ exposed mussels did not show any genotoxic effect (by Comet and Micronucleus assay). Otherwise, laboratory exposure to canal waters exhibited a reduced genomic template stability (by RAPD-PCR assay) but not DNA or chromosomal damage. Our data reveal the need to focus on the levels and distribution of DLCs in edible species from the study area considering their potential transfer to humans through the consumption of sea food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.11.062DOI Listing
January 2018

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere of coastal areas of the Ross Sea, Antarctica: Indications for long-term downward trends.

Chemosphere 2017 Jul 27;178:458-465. Epub 2017 Feb 27.

Department of Chemistry "Ugo Schiff", University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy; Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes, Italian National Research Council (IDPA-CNR), Dorsoduro, Venice, Italy. Electronic address:

Passive air samplers were used to evaluate long-term trends and spatial distribution of trace organic compounds in Antarctica. Duplicate PUF disk samplers were deployed at six automatic weather stations in the coastal area of the Ross sea (East Antarctica), between December 2010 and January 2011, during the XXVI Italian Scientific Research Expedition. Among the investigated persistent organic compounds, Hexachlorobenzene was the most abundant, with air concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 50 pg m. In general, the following decreasing concentration order was found for the air samples analyzed: HCB > PeCB > PCBs > DDTs > HCHs. While HCB concentrations were in the same range as those reported in the atmosphere of other Antarctic sampling areas and did not show a decline, HCHs and DDTs levels were lower or similar to those determined one or two decades ago. In general, the very low concentrations reflected the pristine state of the East Antarctica air. Backward trajectories indicated the prevalence of air masses coming from the Antarctic continent. Local contamination and volatilization from ice were suggested as potential sources for the presence of persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.02.118DOI Listing
July 2017

Assessment of seasonal variations in persistent organic pollutants across the region of Tuscany using passive air samplers.

Environ Pollut 2017 Mar 11;222:609-616. Epub 2017 Jan 11.

Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Via Mattioli 4, 53100, Siena, Italy.

Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured for an entire year in the region of Tuscany, Italy. Passive air samplers consisting of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were deployed over four sampling periods of 3-5 months from April 2008 to July 2009 in urban (n = 6) and rural (n = 4) sites. The aim of the study was to characterize the spatial and seasonal variations in selected POPs. The POP concentrations (pg m) in the air were dominated by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (∑PCBs). DDTs, and ∑PCBs showed a clear decreasing urban > rural gradient. The concentrations of DDTs and PCBs were up to 10 and 6 times higher, respectively, in urban sites than in rural sites. ∑PCBs showed a significant correlation with the urbanized areas located <5 km around the sampling sites. For hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), α-HCH concentrations were similar at both sampling sites and were found to be quite uniform during the four sampling periods. Seasonal fluctuations were observed for DDTs, and ∑PCBs, with the highest concentrations observed during period 4 (summer-spring); this is most likely due to a temperature-driven re-emission from local sources. These findings were also supported by an air back trajectory analysis in the study area. This study contributes new information about POP levels in the Italian atmosphere and demonstrates the feasibility of using PUF disks to simultaneously assess seasonal concentrations at different sampling sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.08.092DOI Listing
March 2017

Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere of three Chilean cities using passive air samplers.

Sci Total Environ 2017 May 4;586:107-114. Epub 2017 Jan 4.

Universitá degli Studi di Siena, Dipartimento Scienze fisiche, della Terra e dell'ambiente, Siena, Italy.

In this study passive air samplers containing polyurethane foam (PUF) disks were deployed in three cities across Chile; Santiago (STG) (n=5, sampling sites), Concepciόn (CON) (n=6) and Temuco (TEM) (n=6) from 2008 to 2009. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (7 indicator congeners), chlorinated pesticides hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethanes (DDTs) and flame retardants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined by gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A sampling rate (R) typical of urban sites (4m/day) was used to estimate the atmospheric concentrations of individual compounds. PCB concentrations in the air (pg/m) ranged from ~1-10 (TEM), ~1-40 (STG) and 4-30 (CON). Higher molecular weight PCBs (PCB-153, -180) were detected at industrial sites (in Concepción). The HCHs showed a prevalence of γ-HCH across all sites, indicative of inputs from the use of lindane but a limited use of technical HCHs in Chile. DDTs were detected with a prevalence of p,p'-DDE accounting for ~50% of the total DDTs. PBDE concentrations in air (pg/m) ranged from 1 to 55 (STG), 0.5 to 20 (CON) and from 0.4 to 10 (TEM), and were generally similar to those reported for many other urban areas globally. The pattern of PBDEs was different among the three cities; however, PBDE-209 was dominant at most of the sites. These results represent one of the few assessments of air concentrations of POPs across different urban areas within the same country. These data will support Chilean commitments as a signatory to the Stockholm Convention on POPs and for reporting as a member country of the Group of Latin America and Caribbean Countries (GRULAC) region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.054DOI Listing
May 2017

Passive air sampling of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and emerging compounds in Kolkata megacity and rural mangrove wetland Sundarban in India: An approach to regional monitoring.

Chemosphere 2017 Feb 29;168:1430-1438. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

Universitá degli Studi di Siena, Dipartimento Scienze fisiche, della Terra e dell'Ambiente, Via Mattioli 4, 53100, Siena, Italy.

Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers were deployed concurrently at five sites across Kolkata megacity and the rural mangrove wetland of Sundarban (UNESCO World Heritage Site) between January-March in 2014. Samples were analyzed for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltricholoroethanes (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Derived air concentrations (pg/m) for Kolkata ranged: for ∑α- and γ-HCH between 70 and 207 (114 ± 62), ∑DDTs: 127-216 (161 ± 36), ∑PCBs: 53-213 (141 ± 64), and ∑PBDEs: 0.30-23 (11 ± 9). Low values for all the studied POPs were recorded in the remote area of the Sundarban site (with the exception of DDTs: o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT), where ∑DDTs was 161 ± 36. In particular, the site of Ballygunge, located in the southern part of Kolkata, showed the highest level of all the metabolites/congeners of POPs, suggesting a potential hot spot of usage and emissions. From HCHs, α-/γ-HCH isomers ratio was low (0.67-1.96) indicating a possible sporadic source of lindane. γ-HCH dominated the HCH signal (at 3 sites) reflecting wide spread use of lindane both in Kolkata and the Sundarban region; however, isomeric composition in Kolkata also suggests potential technical HCHs use. Among DDT metabolites, both o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT shared the dominant percentages accounting for ∼26-46% of total DDTs followed by p,p'-DDE (∼12-19%). The PCB congener profile was dominated by tri- and tetra-Cl at the southern and eastern part of Kolkata. These results are one of the few contributions that reports air concentrations of POPs, concurrently, at urban and remote villages in India. These data are useful to assess atmospheric pollution levels and to motivate local and regional authorities to better understand the potential human exposure risk associated to urban areas in India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.09.055DOI Listing
February 2017

Occurrence of antiparasitic pesticides in sediments near salmon farms in the northern Chilean Patagonia.

Mar Pollut Bull 2017 Feb 25;115(1-2):465-468. Epub 2016 Nov 25.

Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales y Centro EULA-Chile, Universidad de Concepción, Barrio Universitario s/n, P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción, Chile.

Growth of the aquaculture industry has triggered the need for research into the potential environmental impact of chemicals used by salmon farms to control diseases. In this study, the antiparasitic pesticides emamectin benzoate (EB), diflubenzuron (DI), teflubenzuron (TE), and cypermethrin (CP) were measured in sediments near salmon cages in southern Chile. Concentrations for EB were between 2.2 and 14.6ngg, while the benzoylphenyl ureas DI and TE were detected in the ranges of 0.1 to 1.2ngg and 0.8 to 123.3ngg, respectively. These results were similar to data reported for the Northern Hemisphere. On the other hand, the pyrethroid CP was detected in higher concentrations, ranging from 18.0 to 1323.7ngg. According to reported toxicity data, this range represents a potential risk for benthic invertebrates. This report is the first baseline attempt at assessing antiparasitic pesticide levels in the Chilean Patagonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.11.041DOI Listing
February 2017

Tracking polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediments and soils from the southwest of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina (South eastern part of the GRULAC region).

Sci Total Environ 2017 Jan 22;575:1470-1476. Epub 2016 Oct 22.

Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Research Center for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

PCBs and PBDEs (7 and 10 congeners, respectively) were analyzed in four coastal surface sediments collected from the northern shore of Bahía Blanca estuary and in nine soils from different locations of Bahía Blanca city and the surrounding region (Southwest of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina). Sediment samples showed PCBs concentrations ranged from 0.61 to 17.6ngg (dry weight=dw) and PBDEs from 0.16 to 2.02ngg dw, whereas in soil samples ranged from 0.04 to 1.67ngg dw for PCBs and 0.04 to 10.7ngg dw for PBDEs. The highest concentrations of both chemicals were detected in the urban and industrial/port areas showing a dominance of the higher chlorinated PCB congeners: in sediments for PCB-180 (56±33%) and PCB-153 (11±6%); and in soils for PCB-138 (23±3%), PCB-153 (22±2%) and PCB-180 (18±7%). In contrast, lower chlorinated PCB congeners were predominant at more distant sites; in sediments for congeners PCB-28 (33±4%) and PCB-52 (14.5±0.2%); and in soils PCB-28 (56±14%) and PCB-52 (33±19%). PBDE-209 (high brominated PBDE) showed the highest relative abundance in both sample types i.e., sediment (94±7%) and soil (80±12%). These findings can be considered lower or similar when compared with other sites of the world, and are likely associated with anthropogenic activities in their surrounding area, which has experienced a fast industrial growth in the last decade. This is the first investigation of PBDEs levels in the whole study area and of PCBs in soils from the Bahía Blanca city and surrounding region. This article provides new and useful information on POP levels in the South eastern part of the GRULAC region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.013DOI Listing
January 2017

Assessing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Sicily Island atmosphere, Mediterranean, using PUF disk passive air samplers.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Oct 31;23(20):20796-20804. Epub 2016 Jul 31.

Dipartimento Scienze fisiche, della Terra e dell'ambiente, Universitá degli Studi di Siena, Via Mattioli 4, 53100, Siena, Italy.

In this study, PUF disk passive air samplers were deployed at eight sites, during two sampling periods, on the Island of Sicily in the Mediterranean basin. Samples were screened for a number of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (n = 28 congeners), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (n = 16 compounds), and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs n = 28) using GC-MS. PCB concentrations in air ranged ~10-300 pg m. The PCB pattern was dominated by lower to middle molecular weight PCBs (Cl) and PCB-28 and PCB-52 were the most abundant congeners. α- and γ-Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) concentrations in air were relatively high ~420 ± 320 (50-1000) and 460 ± 340 (30-1000) pg m, respectively, with an average α/γ ratio of 1 ± 0.5, indicating a tendency of higher use of lindane than of technical HCH. Among DDTs, only p,p'-DDT 90 ± 15 (~10-800) and p,p'-DDE 60 ± 60 (20-400) were frequently detected. DDT/DDE = 0.4-3.0 (1.0 ± 0.7 for both periods) suggesting past and fresh inputs of DDT at the sampling sites. α-Endosulfan, recently included in Annex A of the Stockholm Convention, fluctuated between 120 ± 50 (50-1000) pg m. In contrast, PBDE levels were very low (0.2-2 pg m). Back trajectories of advection suggest that POP levels are mainly related to local sources (primary or secondary) from Sicily (50-70 % contribution of air masses), Southern Italy, and Sardinia (20 %). This study provides new information for POP levels in the atmosphere of the Mediterranean region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7131-1DOI Listing
October 2016

Towards a regional passive air sampling network and strategy for new POPs in the GRULAC region: Perspectives from the GAPS Network and first results for organophosphorus flame retardants.

Sci Total Environ 2016 Dec 18;573:1294-1302. Epub 2016 Jul 18.

Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales, Colombia.

A discussion is presented on the limitations for air monitoring studies around the Group of Latin American and Caribbean Countries (GRULAC), highlighting key issues requiring further attention, and reports on how a special initiative is addressing these limitations. Preliminary results are presented for the first reported data on organophosphorus flame retardant (OPFR) concentrations in outdoor air from the GRULAC region. At the majority of sites the concentrations and the profile of the OPFRs detected were similar with tris (chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) dominating (
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.06.229DOI Listing
December 2016

Retrospective analysis of "new" flame retardants in the global atmosphere under the GAPS Network.

Environ Pollut 2016 Oct 5;217:62-9. Epub 2016 Feb 5.

Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T4 Canada.

A retrospective analysis was conducted on air samples that were collected in 2005 under the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) Network around the time period when the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants came into force. Results are presented for several new flame retardants, including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), which was recently listed under the Convention (2013). These results represent the first global-scale distributions in air for these compounds. The targeted compounds are shown to have unique global distributions in air, which highlights the challenges in understanding the sources and environmental fate of each chemical, and ultimately in their assessments as persistent organic pollutants. The study also demonstrates the feasibility of using the PUF disk passive air sampler to study these new flame retardants in air, many of which exist entirely in the particle-phase as demonstrated in this study using a KOA-based partitioning model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.01.080DOI Listing
October 2016

Trematomus bernacchii as an indicator of POP temporal trend in the Antarctic seawaters.

Environ Pollut 2016 Oct 14;217:19-25. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

University of Siena, Department of Physics, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena, Italy. Electronic address:

The occurrence of POPs in remote areas, such as Antarctica, is the result of their ability to udergo Long Range Transport (LRT) in the atmosphere, precipitation and cold condensation. In this study, both recent levels of various POPs in Trematomus bernacchii and their changes in roughly three decades were determined in order to evaluate trends of POPs in Antarctic benthic seawaters. In fact, Trematomus bernacchii is considered a good sentinel bio-indicator for monitoring not only the extent of contamination by POPs in the Antarctic aquatic ecosystem, but also changes in Antarctic ecosystem quality and trends. A slight decreasing PCB trend was detected during 30-years time span (from early 1980's to 2010) in the circumantarctic seawaters. Two higher peaks of concentrations were reported in 2001 and 2005 in the Ross Sea and they may reflect the ice melting of icebergs. Because fire risk is very high in Antarctica due to the very dry air, a large use of flame retardants in buildings and furniture of stations is highly probable; moreover, many stations were built when there were no restrictions on flame retardants use. The PBDE levels in the T. bernacchii from 2001 to 2011 ranged 0.05-0.35 pg/g and were of the same order of magnitude in 2001/2011 and in 2002/2005, with a maximum value in 2005 (0.35 pg/g). Comparable concentrations of HCB, HCHs PCDDs and PCDFs are available only for few seasons: all these compounds showed a decreasing temporal trends and their concentrations were one or more order of magnitude lower in 2000s-2010s.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2015.12.057DOI Listing
October 2016

Assessing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) using passive air sampling in the atmosphere of one of the most wood-smoke-polluted cities in Chile: The case study of Temuco.

Chemosphere 2015 Sep 25;134:475-81. Epub 2015 May 25.

Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad de los Andes, Chile.

This study addresses human health concerns in the city of Temuco that are attributed to wood smoke and related pollutants associated with wood burning activities that are prevalent in Temuco. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in air across urban and rural sites over three seasons in Temuco using polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PUF-PAS). Concentrations of ΣPAHs (15 congeners) in air ranged from BDL to ∼70 ng m(-3) and were highest during the winter season, which is attributed to emissions from residential heating by wood combustion. The results for all three seasons showed that the PAH plume was widespread across all sites including rural sites on the outskirts of Temuco. Some interesting variations were observed between seasons in the composition of PAHs, which were attributed to differences in seasonal point sources. A comparison of the PAH composition in the passive samples with active samples (gas+particle phase) from the same site revealed similar congener profiles. Overall, the study demonstrated that the PUF disk passive air sampler provides a simple approach for measuring PAHs in air and for tracking effectiveness of pollution control measures in urban areas in order to improve public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.04.077DOI Listing
September 2015

Assessing levels and seasonal variations of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in the Tuscan atmosphere, Italy, using polyurethane foam disks (PUF) passive air samplers.

Environ Pollut 2015 Oct 22;205:52-9. Epub 2015 May 22.

Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Via Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena, Italy.

Polyurethane foam disks (PUF) passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed over 4 sampling periods of 3-5-months (≥ 1 year) at ten urban and rural locations throughout the Tuscany Region. The purpose was to assess the occurrence and seasonal variations of ten current-use pesticides (CUPs). PUF disk extracts were analyzed using GC-MS. The organophosphates insecticides; chlorpyrifos (3-580 pg m(-3)) and chlorpyrifos-methyl (below detection limit - to 570 pg m(-3)) presented the highest levels in air, and showed seasonal fluctuation coinciding with the growing seasons. The relative proportion urban/(urban + rural) ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 showing no differences between urban and rural concentrations. Air back trajectories analysis showed air masses passing over agricultural fields and potentially enhancing the drift of pesticides into the urban sites. This study represents the first information regarding CUPs in the atmosphere of Tuscany region using PAS-PUF disk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2015.05.002DOI Listing
October 2015

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Concepción Bay, central Chile after the 2010 Tsunami.

Mar Pollut Bull 2015 Jun 8;95(1):480-3. Epub 2015 May 8.

Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile.

PBDEs (10 congeners) were analyzed using GC-MS in superficial sediments and organisms of the Concepción Bay after the 2010 Tsunami. From all congeners analyzed PBDE-47, -99, -100 and -209 were the most frequently detected. Concentrations (ngg(-1) d.w.) in sediments for ΣPBDE-47, -99, -100 were low (0.02-0.09). However, PBDE-209 showed significantly higher values ∼20ngg(-1) d.w. This result were ∼10 times lower than those reported in a previous study of the 2010 Tsunami. The high result might be influenced by the massive urban debris dragged by the 2010 Tsunami. In organisms, concentrations of PBDE-47, -99, -100 (∼0.4ngg(-1) d.w.) were higher than those found in sediments (∼0.04ngg(-1) d.w.). Differences in PBDE pattern were also observed between different levels of the trophic food chain (primary and secondary consumers). This is the first attempt to assess the current status of Concepción Bay after the 2010 Tsunami.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.03.011DOI Listing
June 2015

Influence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin bioconcentration and toxicity in the marine fish European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

Environ Pollut 2015 Jan;196:185-93

Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

The present study investigated the influence of nano-TiO(2) (1 mg L(-1)) on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(2,3,7,8-TCDD) (46 pg L(-1)) bioconcentration and toxicity in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during 7 days in vivo exposure. A multimarkers approach was applied in different organs: detoxification in liver; innate immunity and pro-inflammatory response and adaptive immunity in gills and spleen; genotoxicity in peripheral erythrocytes and muscle. Bioconcentration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in presence of nano-TiO2 was investigated in liver, skin and muscle as well as interaction between nano-TiO2 and organic pollutants in artificial sea water (ASW). Nano-TiO2 negatively influenced immune response induced by 2,3,7,8-TCDD in spleen but not in gills and reduced the DNA damage induced by 2,3,7,8-TCDD in erythrocytes. nano-TiO2 did not interfere with 2,3,7,8-TCDD detoxification and bioconcentration according to the observed no interaction of the nano-TiO2 with organic pollutants in ASW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.09.020DOI Listing
January 2015

Current challenges in air sampling of semivolatile organic contaminants: sampling artifacts and their influence on data comparability.

Environ Sci Technol 2014 Dec 3;48(24):14077-91. Epub 2014 Dec 3.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University , Kamenice 5/753, Pavilon A29, Brno 62500, Czech Republic.

With current science and policy needs, more attention is being given to expanding and improving air sampling of semivolatile organic contaminants (SVOCs). However, a wide range of techniques and configurations are currently used (active and passive samplers, different deployment times, different sorbents, etc.) and as the SVOC community looks to assess air measurements on a global scale, questions of comparability arise. We review current air sampling techniques, with a focus on sampling artifacts that can lead to uncertainties or biases in reported concentrations, in particular breakthrough, degradation, meteorological influences, and assumptions regarding passive sampling. From this assessment, we estimate the bias introduced for SVOC concentrations from all factors. Due to the effects of breakthrough, degradation, particle fractions and sampler uptake periods, some current passive and active sampler configurations may underestimate certain SVOCs by 30-95%. We then recommend future study design, appropriateness of sampler types for different study goals, and finally, how the SVOC community should move forward in both research and monitoring to best achieve comparability and consistency in air measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es502164rDOI Listing
December 2014

Levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in sediments from Lenga estuary, central Chile.

Mar Pollut Bull 2014 Feb 25;79(1-2):338-41. Epub 2013 Dec 25.

Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Via Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena, Italy.

Superficial sediments from Lenga estuary in the VIII region of central Chile were analysed for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Organic carbon (OC) analysis was also performed and the statistical correlations (Pearson correlations) between compounds were also tested. Results showed the total PCB concentrations (ng g(-)(1)d.w.) fluctuated from ∼ 20 to 10,000. These levels are higher than those reported in other coastal sediments of the world. The PCB profile was dominated by middle to highly chlorinated congeners (6-Cl=40% and 7-Cl=30%). HCB concentrations (ng g(-)(1)d.w.), were lower than the PCBs and, fluctuated between 1 (at L1) and 870 (at L4). OC values ranged from 1% (L1) to 7% (L4) showing a significant positive correlations between OC% and PCBs (r=0.86; p<0.05) and for HCB (r=0.71). These results are an important contribution to knowledge of levels of POPs levels in coastal Chilean environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.11.031DOI Listing
February 2014

Preliminary characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans in atmospheric PM10 of an urban and a remote area of Chile.

Environ Technol 2012 Apr-May;33(7-9):809-20

Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research, National Research Council, Monterotondo Scalo, Rome, Italy

The composition of particulate organic fraction was determined in atmospheric aerosols emitted in two sites of central and southern Chile. In particular, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated-PAHs (N-PAHs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs) were investigated in both the urban site of Concepcion and the remote site of Coyhaique. The sampling was carried out with an active device during March and April 2007, and organic compounds adsorbed in air particles, having an aerodynamic diameter lower than 10 microm (PM10), were characterized using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS). Aerosol contents varied from 0.004 to 3.4 ng m(-3) for PAH, from 0.007 to 3.5 pg m(-3) for N-PAH, from 0.002 to 355.7 fg Nm(-3) for PCDDs and from 0.04 to 15 fg Nm(-3) for PCDFs. As expected, the lowest values were found in the remote area. In Concepcion city, despite the low number of samples, PAH levels and diagnostic ratios of some marker compounds suggested the diesel emissions, probably coming from trucks, as the major source of particulate organic pollutants associated with direct emission. Another important source of atmospheric pollution in the urban site was likely represented by the steel industry existing in this area, outlined both by the analysis of PAH and PCDD/F levels. In the samples collected in the remote air of Coyhaique (located in the southern part of Chile), the concentration of pollutants characterized by a long lifetime, as PCDD/Fs, could be related to long-range transport phenomena, instead of local sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2011.597433DOI Listing
August 2012