Publications by authors named "Karishma P Ramlakhan"

7 Publications

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Promising perspectives on pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease.

Eur Heart J 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Cardiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab692DOI Listing
October 2021

Women of reproductive age in a tertiary intensive care unit: indications, outcome and the impact of pregnancy-a retrospective cohort study.

BMC Womens Health 2021 06 19;21(1):248. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Erasmus MC - Sophia Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: To evaluate the indications for admission and mortality rates of women of reproductive age admitted to a tertiary Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and to compare the outcomes of obstetric and non-obstetric admissions.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed, including all women aged 17-41 years admitted to a level 3 ICU in the Netherlands, between January 1, 2000 and January 1, 2016. Primary outcome was indication for admission and mortality. Mortality, length of stay (LOS), need for mechanical ventilation and APACHE II score were compared between obstetric and non-obstetric admissions. The obstetric group was further analyzed for maternal and perinatal outcomes.

Results: 3461 women (median age 32 years) were included, with an overall mortality rate of 13.3%. The obstetric group consisted of 265 women (7.7%). The non-obstetric group (n = 3196) was admitted most often for cardiovascular disease (19.6%), followed by oncologic disease (15%). Mortality was the highest in women with oncologic disease (23.9%). The obstetric group had lower mortality compared to the non-obstetric group (4.9% vs. 14%, p < 0.001), despite higher APACHE II score (14 vs. 11, p < 0.001) and a higher ventilation rate (47.9% vs. 39%, p = 0.004). Major surgical or endovascular interventions, besides caesarean section, were performed in 46% of the obstetric group. Perinatal death occurred in 17.2% and of the surviving infants, 63.2% were born preterm and 45.1% required Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admission.

Conclusions: Cardiovascular disease is the most important indication for admission and oncologic disease is associated with highest mortality in women of reproductive age. Obstetric patients constitute a small percentage of all ICU admissions in a tertiary ICU center. They have lower mortality rates than non-obstetric young female patients, despite a more severe initial presentation. Nevertheless lasting maternal morbidity and perinatal mortality and morbidity is frequent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-021-01396-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214372PMC
June 2021

Letter to the Editor: "Incidence of atrial fibrillation in pregnancy and clinical significance: A meta-analysis".

Adv Med Sci 2021 May 29;66(2):269. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Cardiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advms.2021.05.001DOI Listing
May 2021

Pregnancy Outcomes in Women After Arterial Switch Operation for Transposition of the Great Arteries: Results From ROPAC (Registry of Pregnancy and Cardiac Disease) of the European Society of Cardiology EURObservational Research Programme.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 01 22;10(1):e018176. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Cardiology Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam the Netherlands.

Background In the past 3 decades, the arterial switch procedure has replaced the atrial switch procedure as treatment of choice for transposition of the great arteries. Although survival is superior after the arterial switch procedure, data on pregnancy outcomes are scarce and transposition of the great arteries after arterial switch is not yet included in the modified World Health Organization classification of maternal cardiovascular risk. Methods and Results The ROPAC (Registry of Pregnancy and Cardiac disease) is an international prospective registry of pregnant women with cardiac disease, part of the European Society of Cardiology EURObservational Research Programme. Pregnancy outcomes in all women after an arterial switch procedure for transposition of the great arteries are described. The primary end point was a major adverse cardiovascular event, defined as combined end point of maternal death, supraventricular or ventricular arrhythmias requiring treatment, heart failure, aortic dissection, endocarditis, ischemic coronary events, and thromboembolic events. Altogether, 41 pregnant women (mean age, 26.7±3.9 years) were included, and there was no maternal mortality. A major adverse cardiovascular event occurred in 2 women (4.9%): heart failure in one (2.4%) and ventricular tachycardia in another (2.4%). One woman experienced fetal loss, whereas no neonatal mortality was observed. Conclusions Women after an arterial switch procedure for transposition of the great arteries tolerate pregnancy well, with a favorable maternal and fetal outcome. During counseling, most women should be reassured that the risk of pregnancy is low. Classification as modified World Health Organization risk class II seems appropriate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955508PMC
January 2021

Pregnancy outcomes in women with aortic coarctation.

Heart 2020 Oct 29. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Cardiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Objective: Pregnancy in women with aortic coarctation (CoA) has an estimated moderately increased risk (mWHO II-III) of adverse cardiovascular, obstetric or fetal events, but prospective data to validate this risk classification are scarce. We examined pregnancy outcomes and identified associations with adverse outcomes.

Methods: Pregnancies in women with CoA were selected from the worldwide prospective Registry of Pregnancy and Cardiac Disease (ROPAC, n=303 out of 5739), part of the European Society of Cardiology EURObservational Research Programme. The frequency of and associations with major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and hypertensive disorders (pregnancy-induced hypertension, (pre-)eclampsia or haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets syndrome) were analysed.

Results: Of 303 pregnancies (mean age 30 years, pregnancy duration 39 weeks), 9.6% involved unrepaired CoA and 27.1% were in women with pre-existing hypertension. No maternal deaths or aortic dissections occurred. MACE occurred in 13 pregnancies (4.3%), of which 10 cases were of heart failure (3.3%). Univariable associations with MACE included prepregnancy clinical signs of heart failure (OR 31.8, 95% CI 6.8 to 147.7), left ventricular ejection fraction <40% (OR 10.4, 95% CI 1.8 to 59.5), New York Heart Association class >1 (OR 11.4, 95% CI 3.6 to 36.3) and cardiac medication use (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.3 to 18.3). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy occurred in 16 (5.3%), cardiac medication use being their only predictor (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 9.6). Premature births were 9.1%, caesarean section was performed in 49.7% of pregnancies. Of 4 neonatal deaths, 3 were after spontaneous extreme preterm birth.

Conclusions: The ROPAC data show low MACE and hypertensive disorder rates during pregnancy in women with CoA, suggesting pregnancy to be more safe and better tolerated than previously appreciated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873427PMC
October 2020

Pregnancy and cardiovascular disease.

Nat Rev Cardiol 2020 11 9;17(11):718-731. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Cardiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Cardiovascular disease complicates 1-4% of pregnancies - with a higher prevalence when including hypertensive disorders - and is the leading cause of maternal death. In women with known cardiovascular pathology, such as congenital heart disease, timely counselling is possible and the outcome is fairly good. By contrast, maternal mortality is high in women with acquired heart disease that presents during pregnancy (such as acute coronary syndrome or aortic dissection). Worryingly, the prevalence of acquired cardiovascular disease during pregnancy is rising as older maternal age, obesity, diabetes mellitus and hypertension become more common in the pregnant population. Management of cardiovascular disease in pregnancy is challenging owing to the unique maternal physiology, characterized by profound changes to multiple organ systems. The presence of the fetus compounds the situation because both the cardiometabolic disease and its management might adversely affect the fetus. Equally, avoiding essential treatment because of potential fetal harm risks a poor outcome for both mother and child. In this Review, we examine how the physiological adaptations during pregnancy can provoke cardiometabolic complications or exacerbate existing cardiometabolic disease and, conversely, how cardiometabolic disease can compromise the adaptations to pregnancy and their intended purpose: the development and growth of the fetus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41569-020-0390-zDOI Listing
November 2020

An Exceptional Vulvar Tumor: Myeloid Sarcoma of the Labia Majora.

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2020 Mar;39(2):111-114

Vulvar malignancies are rare and have diverse origins and presentations. The majority of these tumors are squamous cell carcinoma. An ulcerating vulvar tumor was found in a 74-yr-old woman presenting with fatigue and leukocytosis. Tumor biopsy revealed infiltration of blastoid cells from myeloid origin. Through bone marrow aspiration chronic myelomonocytic leukemia was diagnosed, of which the vulvar tumor was a rare extramedullary disease manifestation termed myeloid sarcoma. Limited palliative treatment was instated with a focus on the patient's quality of life. Myeloid sarcoma (chloroma; granulocytic sarcoma) is a mass of myeloblasts occurring in cases of myeloid disease. Manifestations in most organ systems have been described. Presentation in gynecologic areas is reported in a few case reports, to which we now add our experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PGP.0000000000000595DOI Listing
March 2020
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