Publications by authors named "Karin E Smedby"

151 Publications

Parenthood Rates and Use of Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Younger Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors: A Danish Population-Based Study.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 25:JCO2100357. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Hematology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.

Purpose: The majority of young adults with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are cured, but chemotherapy-induced infertility can have profound psychosocial consequences. Providing data on parenthood rates and use of assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) after contemporary HL treatment is important for patient counseling and survivorship care.

Materials And Methods: All Danish patients with HL diagnosed during 2000-2015 at the ages 18-40 years who achieved remission after first-line therapy were included and matched on age, sex, and parenthood status to five random persons from the general population. Parenthood rates were defined as the rate of first live birth per 1,000 person years, starting 9 months after HL diagnosis. Nationwide birth and patient registers were used to capture parenthood outcomes and ARTs use.

Results: A total of 793 HL survivors and 3,965 comparators were included (median follow-up 8.7 years). Similar parenthood rates were observed for male and female HL survivors when compared with matched comparators (56.2 57.1; = .871 for males and 63.8 61.2; = .672 for females). For male HL survivors, BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) therapy was associated with lower parenthood rates as compared to the matched comparators (28.1 60.8; = .020). Live birth after ARTs were more common for HL survivors than for comparators (males 21.6% 6.3%; < .001; females 13.6% 5.5%; = .001). There were no differences in gestational age, Apgar score, or newborn measurements between HL survivors and matched comparators.

Conclusion: The parenthood rates for HL survivors who have not experienced relapse were generally similar to the general population. However, ARTs were used more often before the first live birth in HL survivors, which is relevant information when discussing possible long-term side effects and fertility-preserving treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.00357DOI Listing
June 2021

Superior outcome for splenectomised patients in a population-based study of splenic marginal zone lymphoma in Sweden.

Br J Haematol 2021 Aug 9;194(3):568-579. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Clinical and Experimental Pathology, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a rare low-grade B-cell lymphoma where associations with viral hepatitis and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases (AID) have been indicated. We aimed at assessing the prevalence of viral hepatitis and AID at SMZL diagnosis and outcome by treatment in a Swedish population-based study. A total of 277 SMZL patients registered in the Swedish Lymphoma Register in 2007-2017 were included. A history of viral hepatitis was reported in five (2%) patients and AID prior to SMZL in 72/240 (30%) patients. Treatment was given up front for 207 (75%) patients. Splenectomy with or without systemic treatment was performed in 119 (57%) and was associated with statistically significantly better overall survival [hazard ratio, HR = 0·47 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0·23-0·93), P = 0·03] and progression-free survival (HR = 0·55, 95% CI: 0·35-0·86, P = 0·008) compared to non-splenectomised patients in multivariable analyses. The up-front splenectomised group was younger and generally had a lower Ann Arbor stage, but also more frequently B symptoms and high lactate dehydrogenase than the non-splenectomised group. Viral hepatitis and AID history did not affect SMZL outcome. We report high incidence of AIDs and low incidence of viral hepatitis in this population-based study of SMZL. Splenectomy up front was associated with a favourable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17577DOI Listing
August 2021

Real-world data on treatment and outcomes of patients with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma: a Swedish lymphoma register study.

Blood Cancer J 2021 May 21;11(5):100. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Medicine Solna, Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00491-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139945PMC
May 2021

Fertility-related information received by young women and men with cancer - a population-based survey.

Acta Oncol 2021 Aug 25;60(8):976-983. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Infertility is a well-known sequela of cancer treatment. Despite guidelines recommending early discussions about risk of fertility impairment and fertility preservation options, not all patients of reproductive age receive such information.

Aims: This study aimed to investigate young adult cancer patients' receipt of fertility-related information and use of fertility preservation, and to identify sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with receipt of information.

Materials And Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey study was conducted with 1010 young adults with cancer in Sweden (response rate 67%). The inclusion criteria were: a previous diagnosis of breast cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, brain tumor, lymphoma or testicular cancer between 2016 and 2017, at an age between 18 and 39 years. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models.

Results: A majority of men (81%) and women (78%) reported having received information about the potential impact of cancer/treatment on their fertility. A higher percentage of men than women reported being informed about fertility preservation (84% men vs. 40% women, < .001) and using gamete or gonadal cryopreservation (71% men vs. 15% women, < .001). Patients with brain tumors and patients without a pretreatment desire for children were less likely to report being informed about potential impact on their fertility and about fertility preservation. In addition, being born outside Sweden was negatively associated with reported receipt of information about impact of cancer treatment on fertility. Among women, older age (>35 years), non-heterosexuality and being a parent were additional factors negatively associated with reported receipt of information about fertility preservation.

Conclusion: There is room for improvement in the equal provision of information about fertility issues to young adult cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2021.1900909DOI Listing
August 2021

Common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the association between chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and non-melanoma skin cancer.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a positive association between chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). We hypothesized that shared genetic risk factors between CLL and NMSC could contribute to the association observed between these diseases.

Methods: We examined the association between (i) established NMSC susceptibility loci and CLL risk in a meta-analysis including 3100 CLL cases and 7667 controls and (ii) established CLL loci and NMSC risk in a study of 4242 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases, 825 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases and 12802 controls. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for CLL, BCC and SCC were constructed using established loci. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: Higher CLL-PRS was associated with increased BCC risk (OR4th-quartile-vs-1st-quartile = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.02-1.24, Ptrend = 0.009), even after removing the shared 6p25.3 locus. No association was observed with BCC-PRS and CLL risk (Ptrend = 0.68). These findings support a contributory role for CLL in BCC risk, but not for BCC in CLL risk. Increased CLL risk was observed with higher SCC-PRS (OR4th-quartile-vs-1st-quartile = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.08-1.38, Ptrend = 1.36 × 10-5), which was driven by shared genetic susceptibility at the 6p25.3 locus.

Conclusion: These findings highlight the role of pleiotropy regarding the pathogenesis of CLL and NMSC and shows that a single pleiotropic locus, 6p25.3, drives the observed association between genetic susceptibility to SCC and increased CLL risk. The study also provides evidence that genetic susceptibility for CLL increases BCC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab042DOI Listing
March 2021

Revisiting IL-6 expression in the tumor microenvironment of classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2021 03;5(6):1671-1681

Experimental and Clinical Oncology, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, and.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) can induce therapeutic resistance for several cancer agents currently used to treat classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). We aimed to investigate whether the presence of IL-6+ leukocytes and IL-6+ Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) was associated with adverse survival outcomes, expression of other immune markers, and serum IL-6 levels. We used a contemporarily treated cohort (n = 136), with a median follow-up of 13.8 years (range, 0.59-15.9 years). We performed immunohistochemistry with an IL-6 antibody on tissue microarrays from diagnostic biopsies of cHL patients. Patients with IL-6+ leukocytes ≥1% (n = 54 of 136) had inferior event-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80-7.15) and overall survival (HR = 6.71; 95% CI, 2.51-17.99). The adverse survival was maintained in multivariate Cox regression and propensity score-matched analyses, adjusting for well-known poor-prognostic covariates. The presence of IL-6+ HRS cells and high serum IL-6 levels were not associated with survival. IL-6+ leukocytes correlated with increased proportions of IL-6+ HRS cells (P < .01), CD138+ plasma cells (P < .01), CD68+ macrophages (P = .02), and tryptase-positive mast cells (P < .01). IL-6+ HRS cells correlated with increased proportions of CD68+ macrophages (P = .03), programmed death-ligand 1-positive (PD-L1+) leukocytes (P = .04), and PD-L1+ HRS cells (P < .01). Serum-IL-6 lacked correlation with IL-6 expression in the TME. This is the first study highlighting the adverse prognostic impact of IL-6+ leukocytes in the TME in a cohort of contemporarily treated adult patients with cHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993098PMC
March 2021

Unmarried or less-educated patients with mantle cell lymphoma are less likely to undergo a transplant, leading to lower survival.

Blood Adv 2021 03;5(6):1638-1647

Clinical Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

It is unknown how many mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients undergo consolidation with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT), and the reasons governing the decision, are also unknown. The prognostic impact of omitting AHCT is also understudied. We identified all MCL patients diagnosed from 2000 to 2014, aged 18 to 65 years, in the Swedish Lymphoma Register. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression models were used to compare the likelihood of AHCT within 18 months of diagnosis. All-cause mortality was compared between patients treated with/without AHCT using hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs estimated from Cox regression models. Probabilities of being in each of the following states: alive without AHCT, alive with AHCT, dead before AHCT, and dead after AHCT, were estimated over time from an illness-death model. Among 369 patients, 148 (40%) were not treated with AHCT within 18 months. Compared with married patients, never married and divorced patients had lower likelihood of undergoing AHCT, as had patients with lower educational level, and comorbid patients. Receiving AHCT was associated with reduced all-cause mortality (HR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.40-0.85). Transplantation-related mortality was low (2%). MCL patients not receiving an AHCT had an increased mortality rate, and furthermore, an undue concern about performing an AHCT in certain societal groups was seen. Improvements in supportive functions potentially increasing the likelihood of tolerating an AHCT and introduction of more tolerable treatments for these groups are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993102PMC
March 2021

Genetically Raised Circulating Bilirubin Levels and Risk of Ten Cancers: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Cells 2021 Feb 15;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Nutrition and Metabolism Branch, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO), 69008 Lyon, France.

Bilirubin, an endogenous antioxidant, may play a protective role in cancer development. We applied two-sample Mendelian randomization to investigate whether genetically raised bilirubin levels are causally associated with the risk of ten cancers (pancreas, kidney, endometrium, ovary, breast, prostate, lung, Hodgkin's lymphoma, melanoma, and neuroblastoma). The number of cases and their matched controls of European descent ranged from 122,977 and 105,974 for breast cancer to 1200 and 6417 for Hodgkin's lymphoma, respectively. A total of 115 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated ( < 5 × 10) with circulating total bilirubin, extracted from a genome-wide association study in the UK Biobank, were used as instrumental variables. One SNP (rs6431625) in the promoter region of the uridine-diphosphoglucuronate glucuronosyltransferase1A1 ( gene explained 16.9% and the remaining 114 SNPs (non- SNPs) explained 3.1% of phenotypic variance in circulating bilirubin levels. A one-standarddeviation increment in circulating bilirubin (≈ 4.4 µmol/L), predicted by non- SNPs, was inversely associated with risk of squamous cell lung cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma (odds ratio (OR) 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-0.99, 0.04 and OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.42-0.99, 0.04, respectively), which was confirmed after removing potential pleiotropic SNPs. In contrast, a positive association was observed with the risk of breast cancer after removing potential pleiotropic SNPs (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04-1.20, 0.002). There was little evidence for robust associations with the other seven cancers investigated. Genetically raised bilirubin levels were inversely associated with risk of squamous cell lung cancer as well as Hodgkin's lymphoma and positively associated with risk of breast cancer. Further studies are required to investigate the utility of bilirubin as a low-cost clinical marker to improve risk prediction for certain cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10020394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918902PMC
February 2021

Late toxicities in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: extended follow-up matters.

Lancet Haematol 2021 04 2;8(4):e242-e243. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Division of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(21)00058-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Incidence of relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) including CNS relapse in a population-based cohort of 4243 patients in Sweden.

Blood Cancer J 2021 01 7;11(1). Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

We performed a national population-based study of all patients diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in Sweden in 2007-2014 to assess treatment intent and risk of relapsed/refractory disease, including central nervous system (CNS) relapse, in the presence of competing risks. Overall, 84% of patients started treatment with curative intent (anthracycline-based) (n = 3550, median age 69 years), whereas 14% did not (n = 594, median age 84 years) (for 2% the intent was uncertain). Patients treated with curative intent had a 5-year OS of 65.3% (95% CI: 63.7-66.9). The median OS among non-curatively treated patients was 2.9 months. The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapsed/refractory disease in curative patients was 23.1% (95% CI: 21.7-24.6, n = 847). The 2-year cumulative incidence of CNS relapse was 3.0% (95% CI: 2.5-3.6, n = 118) overall, and 8.0% (95% CI: 6.0-10.6, n = 48) among patients with high CNS-IPI (4-6), when considering other relapse locations and death as competing events. The incidence of relapsed/refractory DLBCL overall and in the CNS was lower than in previous reports, still one in seven patients was not considered fit enough to start standard immunochemotherapy at diagnosis. These results are important for quantification of groups of DLBCL patients with poor prognosis requiring completely different types of interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-00403-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7791057PMC
January 2021

Clinical characteristics and outcomes among 2347 patients aged ≥85 years with major lymphoma subtypes: a Nordic Lymphoma Group study.

Br J Haematol 2021 02 24;192(3):551-559. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Medicine Solna, Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

There is a lack of data regarding treatment and prognosis for the growing group of oldest old patients with lymphoma. Therefore, we studied 2347 patients aged ≥85 years from the Danish and Swedish lymphoma registers 2000-2016 (Denmark) and 2007-2013 (Sweden). Outcome was assessed using relative survival (RS). The 2-year RS overall for patients with aggressive lymphomas was 38% [95% confidence interval (CI) 35-42%], of whom 845 (66%) patients received active treatment (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, other). For aggressive lymphomas, not receiving active treatment was associated with an inferior 2-year RS of 12% (95% CI 9-17%) compared to 49% (95% CI 45-53%) for patients who received active treatment (excess mortality rate ratio 2·84, 95% CI 2·3-3·5; P < 0·0001). For patients with indolent lymphoma, the 2-year RS was 77% (95% CI 72-82%). Here, 383 (46%) patients received active treatment at diagnosis, but did not have better 2-year RS (75%, 95% CI 67-81%) compared to those who did not receive active treatment (83%, 95% CI 74-89%). We conclude that outcomes for the oldest old patients with lymphoma are encouraging for several subtypes and that active treatment is associated with improved outcome amongst the oldest old patients with aggressive lymphomas, indicating that age itself should not be a contraindication to treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894517PMC
February 2021

Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and depression, anxiety, and stress-related disorders following a cancer diagnosis: a nationwide register-based cohort study.

BMC Med 2020 09 9;18(1):238. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Unit of Integrative Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Cancer patients have a highly increased risk of psychiatric disorders following diagnosis, compared with cancer-free individuals. Inflammation is involved in the development of both cancer and psychiatric disorders. The role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the subsequent risk of psychiatric disorders after cancer diagnosis is however unknown.

Methods: We performed a cohort study of all patients diagnosed with a first primary malignancy between July 2006 and December 2013 in Sweden. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association of NSAID use during the year before cancer diagnosis with the risk of depression, anxiety, and stress-related disorders during the first year after cancer diagnosis.

Results: Among 316,904 patients identified, 5613 patients received a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or stress-related disorders during the year after cancer diagnosis. Compared with no use of NSAIDs, the use of aspirin alone was associated with a lower rate of depression, anxiety, and stress-related disorders (hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 0.97), whereas the use of non-aspirin NSAIDs alone was associated with a higher rate (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.32), after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, comorbidity, indications for NSAID use, and cancer characteristics. The association of aspirin with reduced rate of depression, anxiety, and stress-related disorders was strongest for current use (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.93), low-dose use (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.98), long-term use (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.94), and among patients with cardiovascular disease (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.95) or breast cancer (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.98).

Conclusion: Pre-diagnostic use of aspirin was associated with a decreased risk of depression, anxiety, and stress-related disorders during the first year following cancer diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01709-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7487710PMC
September 2020

Relative and absolute cancer risks among Nordic kidney transplant recipients-a population-based study.

Transpl Int 2020 12 25;33(12):1700-1710. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Clinical Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) have an increased cancer risk compared to the general population, but absolute risks that better reflect the clinical impact of cancer are seldom estimated. All KTRs in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland, with a first transplantation between 1995 and 2011, were identified through national registries. Post-transplantation cancer occurrence was assessed through linkage with cancer registries. We estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIR), absolute excess risks (AER), and cumulative incidence of cancer in the presence of competing risks. Overall, 12 984 KTRs developed 2215 cancers. The incidence rate of cancer overall was threefold increased (SIR 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.2-3.4). The AER of any cancer was 1560 cases (95% CI: 1468-1656) per 100 000 person-years. The highest AERs were observed for nonmelanoma skin cancer (838, 95% CI: 778-901), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (145, 95% CI: 119-174), lung cancer (126, 95% CI: 98.2-149), and kidney cancer (122, 95% CI: 98.0-149). The five- and ten-year cumulative incidence of any cancer was 8.1% (95% CI: 7.6-8.6%) and 16.8% (95% CI: 16.0-17.6%), respectively. Excess cancer risks were observed among Nordic KTRs for a wide range of cancers. Overall, 1 in 6 patients developed cancer within ten years, supporting extensive post-transplantation cancer vigilance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tri.13734DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7756726PMC
December 2020

Concordance in survival among first-degree relatives diagnosed with indolent lymphoid malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Eur J Haematol 2020 Dec 29;105(6):779-785. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Medicine Solna, Clinical Epidemiology Division, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objectives: To investigate concordance in survival time among first-degree relatives with lymphoid malignancies.

Methods: By linkage of national Swedish registers, we identified 66 430 patients diagnosed with a lymphoid malignancy 1958-2016 with information on first-degree relationships and follow-up until 2017. Among these, we identified pairs of first-degree relatives with any (N = 3326) or a similar (N = 690) lymphoid malignancy subtype. We defined survival in the first-degree relative as good, expected, or poor based on tertiles of deviance residuals from a multivariable Cox regression model. Next, we used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of death with 95% confidence intervals (CI) among patients, using the survival of their first-degree relative as exposure and adjusting for confounders.

Results: There was no concordance in survival among first-degree relatives with any lymphoid malignancy (HR  = 1.00 (reference), HR  = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.89-1.17, HR  = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.98-1.27, P  = .08). Among first-degree relatives with indolent lymphoma, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia, those with a first-degree relative to an expected or poor survival had worse outcome compared to those with a first-degree relative with good survival (HR  = 1.44, 95% CI: 0.82-2.53, HR  = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.07-3.00, P  = .03).

Conclusion: Our results support a role of inherited factors in the outcome of indolent lymphoma, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7702025PMC
December 2020

Lymphoma risks in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biological drugs-a Swedish cohort study of risks by time, drug and lymphoma subtype.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 02;60(2):809-819

Unit of Rheumatology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Objectives: To estimate the association between biological DMARDs (bDMARDs; overall and by drug) as used in RA and the risk of malignant lymphomas including subtypes.

Methods: By linking nationwide Swedish registers we identified cohorts of patients with RA initiating treatment with a bDMARD (n = 16 392), bDMARD-naïve (n = 55 253), an age- and sex-matched general population comparator cohort (n = 229 047), and all incident lymphomas 2001-16. We used Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) of lymphoma taking calendar period and other factors into account.

Results: There were 82 lymphomas among the bDMARD-treated patients with RA, crude incidence rate 76/100 000 person-years, and 310 lymphomas among the bDMARD-naïve patients with RA, crude incidence rate 90/100 000 person-years. This resulted in an adjusted HR (aHR) associated with bDMARD treatment (vs not) of 1.08 (95% CI: 0.83, 1.41). The corresponding aHR for bDMARD-treated and bDMARD-naïve vs the general population was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.31, 2.08) and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.37, 1.78) respectively. Restricting follow-up period to after 2006, the aHR of lymphoma for patients with RA starting a first bDMARD vs bDMARD-naïve was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.00), and for bDMARD treated vs patients with RA switching from one conventional synthetic DMARDs to another, aHR was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.28, 0.73). There were no signals of different risks with any particular TNF inhibitor (TNFi) agent. We found no different lymphoma subtype pattern following bDMARD therapy.

Conclusion: Treatment with bDMARDs, including both TNFi and non-TNFi bDMARDs, does not further increase the lymphoma risk in RA; instead, bDMARD treatment may actually reduce the excess lymphoma risk in RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keaa330DOI Listing
February 2021

Sarcoma of the breast: breast cancer history as etiologic and prognostic factor-A population-based case-control study.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2020 Oct 21;183(3):669-675. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Purpose: Sarcomas of the breast account for about 1% of all breast malignancies. The aim of this national survey was to explore etiologic and prognostic factors.

Methods: Utilizing national Swedish registers, all patients registered with mesenchymal tumors in the breast during the period 1993-2013 (n = 344) were identified and compared to up to ten age and gender matched controls. Cancer history was retrieved for cases and controls. Conditional Poisson regression models were used for calculation of odds ratios.

Results: Previous breast cancer was overrepresented among patients with angiosarcoma. The highest risk occurred ≥ 5 years after treatment for breast cancer (OR 73.9, 95% confidence interval, CI, 25.4-215; P < 0.001). An increase in incidence of angiosarcoma was observed during the study period (1.10, 95% CI 1.05-1.16; P < 0.001). The overall incidence of breast sarcoma increased from 1.52 to 2.04 cases per million per year. Angiosarcoma of the breast was associated with a significant excess mortality compared to age-matched controls (HR 4.65, 95% CI 3.01-7.19; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Angiosarcoma increased in incidence and displayed a more severe clinical course, with significantly shorter survival. The strong association between a history of breast cancer 5 years or more prior to the diagnosis of angiosarcoma points to radiotherapy as a contributing factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-05802-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7497680PMC
October 2020

ROR1 Is Expressed in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) and a Small Molecule Inhibitor of ROR1 (KAN0441571C) Induced Apoptosis of Lymphoma Cells.

Biomedicines 2020 Jun 23;8(6). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Oncology-Pathology, BioClinicum, Karolinska University Hospital Solna and Karolinska Institutet, 17164 Stockholm, Sweden.

The receptor tyrosine kinase ROR1 is absent in most normal adult tissues, but overexpressed in several malignancies. In this study, we explored clinical and functional inhibitory aspects of ROR1 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). ROR1 expression in tumor cells was more often observed in primary refractory DLBCL, Richter's syndrome and transformed follicular lymphoma than in relapsed and non-relapsed DLBCL patients ( < 0.001). A survival effect of ROR1 expression was preliminarily observed in relapsed/refractory patients independent of gender and stage but not of age, cell of origin and international prognostic index. A second generation small molecule ROR1 inhibitor (KAN0441571C) induced apoptosis of ROR1+ DLBCL cell lines, similar to venetoclax (BCL-2 inhibitor) but superior to ibrutinib (BTK inhibitor). The combination of KAN0441571C and venetoclax at EC concentrations induced almost complete killing of DLBCL cell lines. Apoptosis was accompanied by the downregulation of BCL-2 and MCL-1 and confirmed by the cleavage of PARP and caspases 3, 8, 9. PI3Kδ/AKT/mTOR (non-canonical Wnt pathway) as well as β-catenin and CK1δ (canonical pathway) were inactivated. In zebra fishes transplanted with a ROR1+ DLBCL cell line, KAN0441571C induced a significant tumor reduction. New drugs with mechanisms of action other than those available for DLBCL are warranted. ROR1 inhibitors might represent a novel promising approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8060170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7344684PMC
June 2020

Risk of infections in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms-a population-based cohort study of 8363 patients.

Leukemia 2021 02 16;35(2):476-484. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Infections are a common complication in patients with many hematologic malignancies, however, whether patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) also are at an increased risk of infections is largely unknown. To assess the risk of serious infections, we performed a large population-based matched cohort study in Sweden including 8 363 MPN patients and 32,405 controls using high-quality registers between the years 1992-2013 with follow-up until 2015. The hazard ratio (HR) of any infection was 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.9-2.0), of bacterial infections 1.9 (1.8-2.0), and of viral infections 2.1 (1.9-2.3). One of the largest risk increases was that of sepsis, HR 2.6 (2.4-2.9). The HR of any infection was highest in primary myelofibrosis 3.7 (3.2-4.1), and significantly elevated in all MPN subtypes; 1.7 (1.6-1.8) in polycythemia vera and 1.7 (1.5-1.8) in essential thrombocythemia. There was no significant difference in risk of infections between untreated patients and patients treated with hydroxyurea or interferon-α during the years 2006-2013. These novel findings of an overall increased risk of infections in MPN patients, irrespective of common cytoreductive treatments, suggest the increased risk of infection is inherent to the MPN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0909-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738400PMC
February 2021

Psychiatric Disorders Are Associated with Increased Risk of Sepsis Following a Cancer Diagnosis.

Cancer Res 2020 08 12;80(16):3436-3442. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Psychiatric disorders and infections are both common comorbidities among patients with cancer. However, little is known about the role of precancer psychiatric disorders on the subsequent risk of sepsis as a complication of infections among patients with cancer. We conducted a cohort study of 362,500 patients with newly diagnosed cancer during 2006-2014 in Sweden. We used flexible parametric models to calculate the HRs of sepsis after cancer diagnosis in relation to precancer psychiatric disorders and the analyses were performed in two models. In model 1, analyses were adjusted for sex, age at cancer diagnosis, calendar period, region of residence, and type of cancer. In model 2, further adjustments were made for marital status, educational level, cancer stage, infection history, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score. During a median follow-up of 2.6 years, we identified 872 cases of sepsis among patients with cancer with precancer psychiatric disorders (incidence rate, IR, 14.8 per 1,000 person-years) and 12,133 cases among patients with cancer without such disorders (IR, 11.6 per 1000 person-years), leading to a statistically significant association between precancer psychiatric disorders and sepsis in both the simplified (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.22-1.40) and full (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.18-1.35) models. The positive association was consistently noted among patients with different demographic factors or cancer characteristics, for most cancer types, and during the entire follow-up after cancer diagnosis. Collectively, preexisting psychiatric disorders were associated with an increased risk of sepsis after cancer diagnosis, suggesting a need of heightened clinical awareness in this patient group. SIGNIFICANCE: These results call for extended prevention and surveillance of sepsis among patients with cancer with psychiatric comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-0502DOI Listing
August 2020

Beta-adrenergic receptor blockers and liver cancer mortality in a national cohort of hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2020 May 15;55(5):597-605. Epub 2020 May 15.

Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

β-adrenergic signaling has been implicated in the pathology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the evidence from clinical studies is limited. In this national population-based cohort study, we investigated the possible association of β-adrenergic receptor blockers and cancer-specific mortality among patients with primary HCC diagnosed in Sweden between 2006 and 2014. Patients were identified from the Swedish Cancer Register ( = 2104) and followed until 31 December 2015. We used Cox regression to evaluate the association of β-blockers dispensed within 90 days prior to cancer diagnosis, ascertained from the national Prescribed Drug Register, with liver cancer mortality identified from the Cause of Death Register, while controlling for socio-demographic factors, tumor characteristics, comorbidity, other medications and treatment procedures. Over a median follow-up of 9.9 months, 1601 patients died (of whom 1309 from liver cancer). Compared with non-use, β-blocker use at cancer diagnosis [ = 714 (predominantly prevalent use, 93%)] was associated with lower liver cancer mortality [0.82 (0.72-0.94); = .005]. Statistically significant associations were observed for non-selective [0.71 (0.55-0.91); = .006], β1-receptor selective [0.86 [0.75-1.00); = .049] and lipophilic [0.78 (0.67-0.90); = .001] β-blockers. No association was observed for hydrophilic β-blockers [1.01 (0.80-1.28); = .906] or other antihypertensive medications. Further analysis suggested that the observed lower liver cancer mortality rate was limited to patients with localized disease at diagnosis [0.82 (0.67-1.01); = .062]. β-blocker use was associated with lower liver cancer mortality rate in this national cohort of patients with HCC. A higher-magnitude inverse association was observed in relation to non-selective β-blocker use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2020.1762919DOI Listing
May 2020

Survival of very elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to treatment intensity in the immunochemotherapy era: a Swedish Lymphoma Register study.

Br J Haematol 2021 01 12;192(1):75-81. Epub 2020 May 12.

Division of Haematology, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) incidence rises with increasing age. Rituximab-anthracycline-based regimens offer a potential cure but also risks of adverse events, especially in the elderly. Using Swedish registers, we conducted a nationwide, population-based study of DLBCL in the very elderly. We obtained information on clinical characteristics, residence, comorbidity, therapy and survival for the 1194 patients aged ≥80 years diagnosed in Sweden 2007-2014. To address selection bias, we also investigated treatment differences between Sweden's Healthcare Regions and whether there were survival differences between the Regions. The 2-year overall and relative survivals were better in patients aged ≥80 years given treatment with curative intent (54%; 64%) than low-intensity (26%; 33%), or palliative treatment (6%; 7%). The fraction of patients treated with curative intent varied between the Healthcare Regions (45-76%). Survival was significantly inferior in Regions with few patients treated with curative intent (multivariable hazard ratio 1.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1-1.6). When treatment intensity and Regions competed, Regions were no longer independent, suggesting that Regional survival differences are due to therapeutic differences. Furthermore, we found that the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index was independently associated with survival. We conclude that patients aged ≥80 years with DLBCL appear to benefit from rituximab-anthracycline-based treatment given with curative intent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16737DOI Listing
January 2021

International prognostic score for asymptomatic early-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Blood 2020 05;135(21):1859-1869

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Most patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are diagnosed with early-stage disease and managed with active surveillance. The individual course of patients with early-stage CLL is heterogeneous, and their probability of needing treatment is hardly anticipated at diagnosis. We aimed at developing an international prognostic score to predict time to first treatment (TTFT) in patients with CLL with early, asymptomatic disease (International Prognostic Score for Early-stage CLL [IPS-E]). Individual patient data from 11 international cohorts of patients with early-stage CLL (n = 4933) were analyzed to build and validate the prognostic score. Three covariates were consistently and independently correlated with TTFT: unmutated immunoglobulin heavy variable gene (IGHV), absolute lymphocyte count higher than 15 × 109/L, and presence of palpable lymph nodes. The IPS-E was the sum of the covariates (1 point each), and separated low-risk (score 0), intermediate-risk (score 1), and high-risk (score 2-3) patients showing a distinct TTFT. The score accuracy was validated in 9 cohorts staged by the Binet system and 1 cohort staged by the Rai system. The C-index was 0.74 in the training series and 0.70 in the aggregate of validation series. By meta-analysis of the training and validation cohorts, the 5-year cumulative risk for treatment start was 8.4%, 28.4%, and 61.2% among low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk patients, respectively. The IPS-E is a simple and robust prognostic model that predicts the likelihood of treatment requirement in patients with early-stage CLL. The IPS-E can be useful in clinical management and in the design of early intervention clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019003453DOI Listing
May 2020

Outcome and determinants of failure to complete primary R-CHOP treatment for reasons other than non-response among patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Am J Hematol 2020 07 3;95(7):740-748. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who fail to complete planned treatment with R-CHOP due to toxicity are sparsely described. We investigated the extent of failure to complete treatment (six cycles or more, or three cycles + RT for patients with stage I disease) with R-CHOP for reasons unrelated to non-response, the determinants of such failure and the outcome among these patients. Three thousand one hundred and forty nine adult DLBCL patients who started primary treatment with R-CHOP were identified through the Swedish lymphoma register 2007-2014. Of these, 147 (5%) stopped prematurely after 1-3 cycles of R-CHOP for reasons unrelated to non-response, 168 (5%) after 4-5 cycles and 2639 patients (84%) completed planned treatment. Additionally, 195 (6%) patients did not complete treatment due to non-response or death before treatment end. In a multivariable logistic regression model, age > 75 years, poor performance status, extranodal disease and Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥1 were significantly associated with failure to complete planned R-CHOP treatment for other reasons than non-response. Non-completion of treatment strongly correlated with survival. Five-year overall survival for patients who received 1-3 cycles was 26% (95% CI: 19%-33%), 49% (95% CI: 41%-57%) for 4-5 cycles and 76% (74%-77%) for patients who completed treatment. Failure to complete planned R-CHOP treatment is an important clinical issue associated with inferior survival. Old age and poor performance status most strongly predict such failure. These results indicate a need for improved treatment tailoring for patients with certain baseline demographics to improve tolerability and chance for treatment completion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25789DOI Listing
July 2020

Birthweight and all-cause mortality after childhood and adolescent leukemia: a cohort of children with leukemia from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Washington State.

Acta Oncol 2020 Aug 14;59(8):949-958. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

High birthweight may predispose children to acute lymphoid leukemia, whereas low birthweight is associated with childhood morbidity and mortality. Low and high birthweight have been inconsistently associated with mortality in children with leukemia. In a cohort of childhood and adolescent leukemia (0-19 years) patients from registries in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Washington State in the United States (1967-2015), five-year all-cause mortality was assessed by birthweight and other measures of fetal growth using the cumulative incidence function and Cox regression with adjustment for sex, diagnosis year, country, the presence of Down's syndrome or other malformations, and type of leukemia. Among 7148 children and adolescents with leukemia (55% male), 4.6% were low (<2500 g) and 19% were high (≥4000 g) birthweight. Compared with average weight, hazard ratios (HRs) of death associated with low birthweight varied by age at leukemia diagnosis: 1.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7, 3.2) for patients 0-1 year old, 1.6 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.6) for >1-2 years old; 1.0 (95% CI: 0.6, 1.5) for 3-8 years old; 1.0 (95% CI: 0.6, 1.8) for 9-13 years old; and 1.2 (95% CI: 0.7, 2.1) for 14-19 years old, and were similar for size for gestational age and Ponderal index. In analyses restricted to children born full term (37-41 weeks of gestation), results were only slightly attenuated but risk was markedly increased for infants aged ≤1 year (HR for low birthweight = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.2, 8.8). This cohort study does not suggest that low birthweight or SGA is associated with increased five-year all-cause mortality risk among children with any type of childhood leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia, specifically, beyond infancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2020.1738546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7392817PMC
August 2020

Risk of breast cancer before and after rheumatoid arthritis, and the impact of hormonal factors.

Ann Rheum Dis 2020 05 11;79(5):581-586. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Clinical Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objectives: To examine the risk of incident breast cancer in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and the risk of RA in women with a history of breast cancer, taking antihormonal treatment for breast cancer into account.

Methods: Using nationwide Swedish registers, women with new-onset RA diagnosed in 2006-2016 were identified and analysed using a cohort and a case-control design. Each patient with RA was matched on age, sex and place of residence to five randomly selected subjects from the general population. Through register linkages, we collected information on breast cancer, breast cancer risk factors (reproductive history and hormone replacement therapy) and socio-economy. The relative risk of breast cancer after RA was assessed using Cox regression, and the relative risk of RA in women with a history of breast cancer was assessed using conditional logistic regression.

Results: The risk of incident breast cancer in women with RA was reduced and the association was not attenuated by adjustment for breast cancer risk factors (HR=0.80, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.93). The risk of RA in women with a history of breast cancer was similarly reduced (OR=0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.95). Women with breast cancer treated with tamoxifen (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.20) or aromatase inhibitors (OR=0.97, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.37) did not have an increased risk of RA compared with women with breast cancer treated differently.

Conclusions: The decreased occurrence of breast cancer in patients with RA is present already before RA diagnosis; these reduced risks are not readily explained by hormonal risk factors. Adjuvant antihormonal therapy for breast cancer does not seem to increase RA risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-216756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7213316PMC
May 2020

Statin use is associated with improved survival in multiple myeloma: A Swedish population-based study of 4315 patients.

Am J Hematol 2020 06 20;95(6):652-661. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Statin use has been associated with reduced cancer-specific mortality among patients with several cancer types, including multiple myeloma (MM). We aimed to further elucidate the association of statin use and dose intensity with MM survival. Using Swedish population-based national health registers, we identified all incident MM diagnoses occurring January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2013 and their drug dispensations and comorbidities. We assessed statin exposure in 6-month periods pre- and post-diagnosis, treated diagnosis as baseline for calculating survival time, and calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of exposure-related MM-specific and all-cause mortality using Cox regression. We assessed statin exposure during the entire follow-up and risk of MM-specific mortality in a nested case-control analysis. We classified dose intensity according to American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association recommendations. We ascertained 4315 MM cases during follow-up. Statin use was associated with reduced MM-specific mortality (pre-diagnosis use multivariate-adjusted HR, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.71-0.96; 6 months post-diagnosis: 0.73, 0.60-0.89; entire follow-up: 0.65, 0.52-0.80) and (more weakly) with all-cause mortality. Intensity analyses suggested a dose-response; MM-specific mortality decreased with increasing statin intensity in all time windows (eg, 6 months post-diagnosis: low [0.76 (0.56-1.03)], medium [0.73 (0.58-0.92)], high [0.33 (0.08-1.32)] intensity). However, relatively few patients received high intensity treatment, and the trend was statistically significant only for unadjusted pre-diagnosis use. In this large population-based MM cohort, statin use was associated with improved MM-specific survival in both sexes. Randomized prospective studies are warranted to evaluate statins as adjuvant treatment in MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25778DOI Listing
June 2020

Adult height in patients with childhood-onset inflammatory bowel disease: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2020 04 4;51(8):789-800. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Growth retardation is well described in childhood-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Aims: To study if childhood-onset IBD is associated with reduced final adult height.

Methods: We identified 4201 individuals diagnosed with childhood-onset IBD 1990-2014 (Crohn's disease: n = 1640; ulcerative colitis: n = 2201 and IBD-unclassified = 360) in the Swedish National Patient Register.

Results: Patients with IBD attained a lower adult height compared to reference individuals (adjusted mean height difference [AMHD] -0.9 cm [95% CI -1.1 to -0.7]) and to their healthy siblings (AMHD -0.8 cm [-1.0 to -0.6]). Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) were slightly shorter than patients with ulcerative colitis (UC; -1.3 cm vs -0.6 cm). Lower adult height was more often seen in patients with pre-pubertal disease onset (AMHD -1.6 cm [-2.0 to -1.2]), and in patients with a more severe disease course (AMHD -1.9 cm, [-2.4 to -1.4]). Some 5.0% of CD and 4.3% of UC patients were classified as growth retarded vs 2.5% of matched reference individuals (OR 2.42 [95% CI 1.85-3.17] and 1.74 [1.36-2.22] respectively).

Conclusion: Patients with childhood-onset IBD on average attain a slightly lower adult height than their healthy peers. Adult height was more reduced in patients with pre-pubertal onset of disease and in those with a more severe disease course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15667DOI Listing
April 2020

Lipid Trait Variants and the Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 05 27;29(5):1074-1078. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Lipid traits have been inconsistently linked to risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We examined the association of genetically predicted lipid traits with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) using Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis.

Methods: Genome-wide association study data from the InterLymph Consortium were available for 2,661 DLBCLs, 2,179 CLLs, 2,142 FLs, 824 MZLs, and 6,221 controls. SNPs associated ( < 5 × 10) with high-density lipoprotein (HDL, = 164), low-density lipoprotein (LDL, = 137), total cholesterol (TC, = 161), and triglycerides (TG, = 123) were used as instrumental variables (IV), explaining 14.6%, 27.7%, 16.8%, and 12.8% of phenotypic variation, respectively. Associations between each lipid trait and NHL subtype were calculated using the MR inverse variance-weighted method, estimating odds ratios (OR) per standard deviation and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results: HDL was positively associated with DLBCL (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.30) and MZL (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18), while TG was inversely associated with MZL risk (OR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99), all at nominal significance ( < 0.05). A positive trend was observed for HDL with FL risk (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.99-1.19; = 0.087). No associations were noteworthy after adjusting for multiple testing.

Conclusions: We did not find evidence of a clear or strong association of these lipid traits with the most common NHL subtypes. While these IVs have been previously linked to other cancers, our findings do not support any causal associations with these NHL subtypes.

Impact: Our results suggest that prior reported inverse associations of lipid traits are not likely to be causal and could represent reverse causality or confounding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7196490PMC
May 2020

Subsequent primary neoplasms among bone sarcoma survivors; increased risks remain after 30 years of follow-up and in the latest treatment era, a nationwide population-based study.

Br J Cancer 2020 04 18;122(8):1242-1249. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Medicine, Solna (MedS), K2, Group K Ekström Smedby, Eugeniahemmet, T2, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Solna, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: The long-term risks and time trends of subsequent primary neoplasms (SPNs) among Ewing (ES) and osteosarcoma (OS) survivors are not fully understood.

Methods: We performed a nationwide study of all ES and OS patients identified in the Swedish Cancer Registry from 1958 to 2015 with up to 58 years of follow-up. The risk of SPN was compared with that of the general population using standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs).

Results: One hundred and fifteen SPNs were diagnosed among 1779 patients with ES or OS, yielding an overall SIR of 2.3 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.9-2.7). The risk remained significantly increased in the latest treatment era (SIR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5). The highest absolute excess risks (AER) was due to breast cancer (AER 15.2/10,000 person-years; 95% CI, 5.0-29.8) followed by female genital malignancies (AER 9.5/10,000 person-years; 95% CI, 2.4-21.5). The excess breast cancer risk among ES survivors was noted also after 30 years of follow-up with 127 extra breast cancers/10,000 person-years (95% CI, 6.6-419).

Conclusions: Breast- and female genital malignancies contribute most to the excess risk of SPN among ES and OS survivors. Importantly, excess risks did not decline over calendar time or long-term follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-0748-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156510PMC
April 2020

Trends in the prevalence, incidence and survival of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes during the 21st century - a Swedish lymphoma register study.

Br J Haematol 2020 06 17;189(6):1083-1092. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Clinical Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicin Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) prognosis has improved in recent years, yet the number of patients living with the diagnosis, i.e. the prevalence, has seldom been reported. The prevalence provides a measure of the burden of disease, useful for healthcare planning and to optimise resource allocation. We provide a systematic presentation of temporal trends in absolute numbers of prevalent patients by NHL subtypes, linking them to trends in incidence, survival and mortality. Patients diagnosed 2000-2016 were identified in the national Swedish lymphoma register. Incidence and mortality rates, relative survival and prevalence were estimated for NHL overall and for major clinical and morphological subtypes. Poisson regression was used to test for temporal trends. Increasing incidence and improved survival have led to a 47% increase in the five-year prevalence of NHL overall in 2016 compared to 2004. An increasing prevalence was observed for all investigated subtypes during the study period, but most notably for diffuse large B cell lymphomas among aggressive subtypes (66%), and marginal zone lymphomas among indolent subtypes (135%). This dramatic increase in NHL prevalence underscores the need to develop and evaluate alternative follow-up schemes to use resources efficiently and still ensure optimal care of lymphoma survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16489DOI Listing
June 2020
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