Publications by authors named "Karin A Fox"

50 Publications

Clinical Outcomes of a False-Positive Antenatal Diagnosis of Placenta Accreta Spectrum.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Objective:  Antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) is critical to reduce maternal morbidity. While clinical outcomes of women with PAS have been extensively described, little information is available regarding the women who undergo cesarean delivery with a presumptive PAS diagnosis that is not confirmed by histopathologic examination. We sought to examine resource utilization and clinical outcomes of this group of women with a false-positive diagnosis of PAS.

Study Design:  This is a retrospective analysis of patients with prenatally diagnosed PAS cared for between 2015 and 2020 by our multidisciplinary PAS team. Maternal outcomes were examined. Univariate analysis was performed and a multivariate model was employed to compare outcomes between women with and without histopathologically confirmed PAS.

Results:  A total of 162 patients delivered with the preoperative diagnosis of PAS. Of these, 146 (90%) underwent hysterectomy and had histopathologic confirmation of PAS. Thirteen women did not undergo the planned hysterectomy. Three women underwent hysterectomy but pathologic examination did not confirm PAS. In comparing women with and without pathologic confirmation of PAS, the false-positive PAS group delivered later in pregnancy (34 vs. 33 weeks of gestation,  = 0.015) and had more planned surgery (88 vs. 47%,  = 0.002). There was no difference in skin incision type or hysterotomy placement for delivery. No significant difference in either the estimated blood loss or blood components transfused was noted between groups.

Conclusion:  Careful intraoperative evaluation of women with preoperatively presumed PAS resulted in a 3/149 (2%) retrospectively unnecessary hysterectomy. Management of women with PAS in experienced centers benefits patients in terms of both resource utilization and avoidance of unnecessary maternal morbidity, understanding that our results are produced in a center of excellence for PAS. We also propose a management protocol to assist in the avoidance of unnecessary hysterectomy in women with the preoperative diagnosis of PAS.

Key Points: · Evaluation and delivery planning of patients with suspected placenta accreta spectrum in experienced centers provides acceptable outcomes.. · Under specific circumstances, delivery of placenta may be attempted if placenta accreta is suspected.. · Patients with suspected placenta accreta rarely undergo unindicated hysterectomy..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1673-5103DOI Listing
October 2021

Urologic morbidity associated with placenta accreta spectrum surgeries: single-center experience with a multidisciplinary team.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

Background: Hysterectomy for placenta accreta spectrum may be associated with urologic morbidity, including intentional or unintentional cystostomy, ureteral injury, and bladder fistula. Although previous retrospective studies have shown an association between placenta accreta spectrum and urologic morbidities, there is still a paucity of literature addressing these urologic complications.

Objective: We sought to report a systematic description of such morbidity and associated factors.

Study Design: This was a retrospective study of all histology-proven placenta accreta spectrum deliveries in an academic center between 2011 and 2020. Urologic morbidity was defined as the presence of at least one of the following: cystotomy, ureteral injury, or bladder fistula. Variables were reported as median (interquartile range) or number (percentage). Analyses were made using appropriate parametric and nonparametric tests. Multinomial regression analysis was performed to assess the association of adverse urologic events with the depth of placental invasion.

Results: In this study, 58 of 292 patients (19.9%) experienced urologic morbidity. Patients with urologic morbidity had a higher rate of placenta percreta (compared with placenta accreta and placenta increta) than those without such injuries. Preoperative ureteral stents were placed in 54 patients (93.1%) with and 146 patients (62.4%) without urologic injury (P=.003). After adjusting for confounding variables, multinomial regression analysis revealed that the odds of having adverse urologic events was 6.5 times higher in patients with placenta percreta than in patients with placenta accreta.

Conclusion: Greater depth of invasion in placenta accreta spectrum was associated with more frequent and severe adverse urologic events. Whether stent placement confers any protective benefit requires further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.08.010DOI Listing
August 2021

Placenta Accreta Spectrum: Correlation between FIGO Clinical Classification and Histopathologic Findings.

Am J Perinatol 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas.

Objective:  Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) covers a wide spectrum of placental adherence/invasion with varied clinical significance. Histopathologic examination is considered the confirmatory gold standard, but is only obtained sometime after definitive treatment. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) has published a new clinical classification that can be assigned at delivery, and we aimed to investigate the association between this new FIGO classification and histopathology and also to assess its correlation with maternal outcomes.

Study Design:  We studied a retrospective cohort of 185 subjects with histopathologically proven PAS managed at our referral center between September 2012 and January 2019. Two experienced surgeons retrospectively reviewed charts and assigned the FIGO grading based on findings reported at delivery. A third experienced reviewer adjudicated to determine the classification used for final analysis. Categorical outcomes were compared with the use of chi-squared and the Fisher exact test, as appropriate. A multivariate model was designed to adjust outcomes in different FIGO groups for the involvement of a formal multidisciplinary management team.

Results:  Among 185 subjects, there were 41 (22%) placenta accreta, 44 (24%) placenta increta, and 100 (54%) placenta percreta on histopathology. The inter-rater reliability was found to be substantial with Kappa = 0.661 ( < 0.001), and 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.449-0.872. There was a significant association between all histopathology groupings and the FIGO clinical classification ( < 0.001). However, we found no association between FIGO classifications and maternal complications.

Conclusion:  The new FIGO clinical classification is strongly associated with histopathologic findings. A better understanding of the depth and extent of invasion as afforded by the clinical classification system will help standardize reporting and future research.

Key Points: · PAS includes a wide spectrum of placental invasion with varied clinical significance.. · Histopathological examination is considered the confirmatory gold standard.. · The new FIGO clinical classification is strongly associated with histopathologic findings..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1728834DOI Listing
May 2021

Placenta Accreta Spectrum 2021: Roundtable Discussion.

J Ultrasound Med 2022 Jan 31;41(1):7-15. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Baylor College of Medicine/Texas Children's Hospital and Fetal Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jum.15685DOI Listing
January 2022

Association of peripartum management and high maternal blood loss at cesarean delivery for placenta accreta spectrum (PAS): A multinational database study.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2021 03 21;100 Suppl 1:29-40. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Department of Obstetrics, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Introduction: Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) carries a high burden of adverse maternal outcomes, especially significant blood loss, which can be life-threatening. Different management strategies have been proposed but the association of clinical risk factors and surgical management options during cesarean delivery with high blood loss is not clear.

Material And Methods: In this international multicenter study, 338 women with PAS undergoing cesarean delivery were included. Fourteen European and one non-European center (USA) provided cases treated retrospectively between 2008 and 2014 and prospectively from 2014 to 2019. Peripartum blood loss was estimated visually and/or by weighing and measuring of volume. Participants were grouped based on blood loss above or below the 75th percentile (>3500 ml) and the 90th percentile (>5500 ml).

Results: Placenta percreta was found in 58% of cases. Median blood loss was 2000 ml (range: 150-20 000 ml). Unplanned hysterectomy was associated with an increased risk of blood loss >3500 ml when compared with planned hysterectomy (adjusted OR [aOR] 3.7 [1.5-9.4], p = 0.01). Focal resection was associated with blood loss comparable to that of planned hysterectomy (crude OR 0.7 [0.2-2.1], p = 0.49). Blood loss >3500 ml was less common in patients undergoing successful conservative management (placenta left in situ, aOR 0.1 [0.0-0.6], p = 0.02) but was more common in patients who required delayed hysterectomy (aOR 6.5 [1.7-24.4], p = 0.001). Arterial occlusion methods (uterine or iliac artery ligation, embolization or intravascular balloons), application of uterotonic medication or tranexamic acid showed no significant effect on blood loss >3500 ml. Patients delivered by surgeons without experience in PAS were more likely to experience blood loss >3500 ml (aOR 3.0 [1.4-6.4], p = 0.01).

Conclusions: In pregnant women with PAS, the likelihood of blood loss >3500 ml was reduced in planned vs unplanned cesarean delivery, and when the surgery was performed by a specialist experienced in the management of PAS. This reinforces the necessity of delivery by an expert team. Conservative management was also associated with less blood loss, but only if successful. Therefore, careful patient selection is of great importance. Our study showed no consistent benefit of other adjunct measures such as arterial occlusion techniques, uterotonics or tranexamic acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aogs.14103DOI Listing
March 2021

Trimester-specific thromboelastic values and coagulation activation markers in pregnancy compared across trimesters and compared to the nonpregnant state.

Int J Lab Hematol 2021 Oct 25;43(5):1216-1224. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

The Department of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Introduction: Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) rapidly identifies deficits underlying coagulopathy during massive hemorrhage. Prompt coagulopathy correction is balanced with the risk of blood product overutilization, making the ability to quickly target therapy highly desirable. However, data about ROTEM reference ranges in pregnancy are limited. We hypothesized that ROTEM parameters change across trimesters of pregnancy and differ from the nonpregnant state. Also, we sought to identify which hemostatic test best predicts coagulation activation during pregnancy.

Methods: A prospective cohort study in healthy pregnant patients in the first (n = 34), second (n = 34), and third trimesters (n = 41) against healthy, nonpregnant controls (n = 33) was performed. Citrated blood was collected, and ROTEM, complete blood count, and plasma-based assays of coagulation were performed. Mean ± SD or median [IQR] were compared across trimesters and between each trimester against the nonpregnant state. ROTEM parameters vs. plasma-based assays were also compared.

Results: Maximum clot firmness and A10 in FIBTEM correlated strongly with fibrinogen level. INTEM and EXTEM values demonstrated only weak to modest correlation with corresponding tests using plasma assays. Thrombin antithrombin complex (TAT) increased from the first trimester onward, whereas other coagulation activation markers did not show difference compared with control group.

Conclusion: Rotational thromboelastometry parameters differ variably across trimesters of pregnancy and compared with the nonpregnant state. The development and use of pregnancy-specific values are critical to the proper clinical interpretation of ROTEM in women with serious hemorrhage during different stages in pregnancy. TAT was the earliest laboratory marker for coagulation activation among others.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijlh.13472DOI Listing
October 2021

A multicenter observational survey of management strategies in 442 pregnancies with suspected placenta accreta spectrum.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2021 03;100 Suppl 1:12-20

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Introduction: Management options for women with placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) comprise termination of pregnancy before the viable gestational age, leaving the placenta in situ for subsequent reabsorption of the placenta or delayed hysterectomy, manual removal of placenta after vaginal delivery or during cesarean section, focal resection of the affected uterine wall, and peripartum hysterectomy. The aim of this observational study was to describe actual clinical management and outcomes in PAS in a large international cohort.

Material And Methods: Data from women in 15 referral centers of the International Society of PAS (IS-PAS) were analyzed and correlated with the clinical classification of the IS-PAS: From Grade 1 (no PAS) to Grade 6 (invasion into pelvic organs other than the bladder). PAS was usually diagnosed antenatally and the operators performing ultrasound rated the likelihood of PAS on a Likert scale of 1 to 10.

Results: In total, 442 women were registered in the database. No maternal deaths occurred. Mean blood loss was 2600 mL (range 150-20 000 mL). Placenta previa was present in 375 (84.8%) women and there was a history of a previous cesarean in 329 (74.4%) women. The PAS likelihood score was strongly correlated with the PAS grade (P < .001). The mode of delivery in the majority of women (n = 252, 57.0%) was cesarean hysterectomy, with a repeat laparotomy in 20 (7.9%) due to complications. In 48 women (10.8%), the placenta was intentionally left in situ, of those, 20 (41.7%) had a delayed hysterectomy. In 26 women (5.9%), focal resection was performed. Termination of pregnancy was performed in 9 (2.0%), of whom 5 had fetal abnormalities. The placenta could be removed in 90 women (20.4%) at cesarean, and in 17 (3.9%) after vaginal delivery indicating mild or no PAS. In 34 women (7.7%) with an antenatal diagnosis of PAS, the placenta spontaneously separated (false positives). We found lower blood loss (P < .002) in 2018-2019 compared with 2009-2017, suggesting a positive learning curve.

Conclusions: In referral centers, the most common management for severe PAS was cesarean hysterectomy, followed by leaving the placenta in situ and focal resection. Prenatal diagnosis correlated with clinical PAS grade. No maternal deaths occurred.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aogs.14096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8048500PMC
March 2021

Open versus endovascular REBOA control of blood loss during cesarean delivery in the placenta accreta spectrum: A single-center retrospective case control study.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Mar 13;258:23-28. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Shaare Zedek Medical Center and Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare two vascular control options for blood loss prevention and hysterectomy during cesarean delivery (CD): endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) and open bilateral common iliac artery occlusion (CIAO) in women with extensive placenta accreta spectrum (PAS).

Study Design: This was retrospective comparison of cases of PAS using either CIAO (October 2017 through October 2018) or REBOA (November 2018 through November 2019) to prevent pathologic hemorrhage during scheduled CD. Women with confirmed placenta increta/percreta underwent either CD then intraoperative post-delivery, pre-hysterectomy open vascular control of both CIA (CIAO group) or pre-operative, ultrasound-guided, fluoroscopy-free REBOA followed by standard CD and balloon inflation after fetal delivery (REBOA group). Intraoperative blood loss, transfusion volumes, surgical time, blood pressure, maternal and neonatal outcomes, hospitalization length and postoperative complications were compared.

Results: The REBOA and CIAO groups included 12 and 16 women, respectively, with similar median age of 35 years and gestational age of 34-35 weeks. All REBOA catheters were successfully placed into aortic zone three under ultrasound guidance. The quantitated median intraoperative blood loss was significantly lower for the REBOA group, (541 [IQR 300-750] mL) compared to the CIAO group (3331 [IQR 1150-4750] mL (P = 0.001). As a result, the total volume of fluid and blood replacement therapy was significantly lower in the REBOA group (P < 0.05). Median surgical time in the REBOA group was less than half as long: 76 [IQR 64-89] minutes compared to 168 [IQR 90-222] minutes in the CIAO group (P = 0.001). None of the women with REBOA required hysterectomy, while 8/16 women in the CIAO group did (P = 0.008). Furthermore, the post-anesthesia recovery and hospital discharge times in the REBOA-group were shorter (P < 0.05). One thromboembolic complication occurred in each group. The only REBOA-associated complication was non-occlusive femoral artery thrombosis, with no surgical management required. No maternal or neonatal deaths occurred in either group.

Conclusion: Fluoroscopy-free REBOA for women with PAS is associated with improved vascular control, perioperative blood loss, the need for transfusion and hysterectomy and reduces surgical time when compared to bilateral CIAO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.12.022DOI Listing
March 2021

Critical care in obstetrics: a strategy for addressing maternal mortality.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 06 24;224(6):567-573. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ.

The acute rise in maternal morbidity and mortality in the United States is in part because of an increasingly medically complex obstetrical population. An estimated 1% to 3% of all obstetrical patients require intensive care, making timely delivery and availability of critical care imperative. The shifting landscape in obstetrical acuity places a burden on obstetrical providers, many of whom have limited experience in identifying and responding to critical illness. The levels of maternal care definitions by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine designate hospitals based on the availability of obstetrical resources and highlight the need for critical care resources and expertise. The growing need for critical care skills in the evolving contemporary obstetrical landscape serves as an opportunity to redefine the concept of delivery of care for high-risk obstetrical patients. We summarized the key tenets in the prevention of maternal morbidity and mortality, including the use of evidence-based tools for risk stratification and timely referral of patients to facilities with appropriate resources; innovative pathways for hospitals to provide critical care consultations on labor and delivery; and training of obstetrical providers in high-yield critical care skills, such as point-of-care ultrasonography. These critical care-focused interventions are key in addressing an increasingly complex obstetrical patient population while providing an educational foundation for the training of future obstetrical providers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.12.1208DOI Listing
June 2021

Placenta Accreta Spectrum Among Women With Twin Gestations.

Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jan;137(1):132-138

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford University, Stanford, California; the Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas; and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Objective: To assess whether placenta accreta spectrum occurs more frequently among women with twin gestations compared with singleton gestations.

Methods: All live births in California from 2016 to 2017 were identified from previously linked records of birth certificates and birth hospitalization discharges. The primary outcome was placenta accreta spectrum (which includes placenta accreta, increta, and percreta), identified using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification codes (O43.2x) for placenta accreta, increta, and percreta. We analyzed the association between twin gestation and placenta accreta spectrum by using multivariable logistic regression and assessed whether our findings were replicated by using a previously validated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM)-based approach.

Results: Among 918,452 live births, 1,126 were diagnosed with placenta accreta spectrum. The prevalence of placenta accreta spectrum was 11.8 per 10,000 among singleton pregnancies and 41.6 per 10,000 among twin pregnancies. In the unadjusted regression analysis, twin pregnancy was associated with higher relative risk of placenta accreta spectrum (RR 3.41, 95% CI 2.57-4.52). After adjusting the regression model for maternal age, previous cesarean birth, and sociodemographic factors, the association held with higher relative risk of placenta accreta spectrum (aRR 2.96, 95% CI 2.23-3.93). Women with twin compared with singleton gestations with placenta accreta spectrum were less likely to have placenta previa. When assessed using ICD-9-CM codes, placenta accreta spectrum was similarly more prevalent among twins than singletons, with an increase in the relative risk of placenta accreta spectrum (aRR 2.45, 95% CI 2.33-3.25).

Conclusion: Twin gestation conferred an increased risk for placenta accreta spectrum independent of measured risk factors, which may contribute to increased maternal morbidity in twin gestation compared with singleton gestation. Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk for placenta accreta spectrum in twin gestation and should consider it during ultrasonographic screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000004204DOI Listing
January 2021

Placenta Accreta Spectrum Without Placenta Previa.

Obstet Gynecol 2020 09;136(3):458-465

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; Stanford University, Stanford, California; University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah; and the Pan-American Society for Placenta Accreta Spectrum, Houston, Texas.

Objective: To evaluate placenta accreta spectrum with and without placenta previa with regard to risk factors, antepartum diagnosis, and maternal morbidity.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pathology-confirmed placenta accreta spectrum deliveries with hysterectomy from two U.S. referral centers from January 2010-June 2019. Maternal, pregnancy, and delivery characteristics were compared among placenta accreta spectrum cases with (previa PAS group) and without (nonprevia PAS group) placenta previa. Surgical outcomes and a composite of severe maternal morbidities were evaluated, including eight or more blood cell units transfused, reoperation, pulmonary edema, acute kidney injury, thromboembolism, or death. Logistic regression was used with all analyses controlled for delivery location.

Results: Of 351 deliveries, 106 (30%) had no placenta previa at delivery. When compared with the previa group, nonprevia placenta accreta spectrum was less likely to be identified antepartum (38%, 95% CI 28-48% vs 87%, 82-91%), less likely to receive care from a multidisciplinary team (41%, 31-51% vs 86%, 81-90%), and less likely to have invasive placenta increta or percreta (51% 41-61% vs 80%, 74-84%). The nonprevia group had more operative hysteroscopy (24%, 16-33% vs 6%, 3-9%) or in vitro fertilization (31%, 22-41% vs 9%, 6-13%) and was less likely to have had a prior cesarean delivery (64%, 54-73% vs 93%, 89-96%) compared with the previa group, though the majority in each group had a prior cesarean delivery. Rates of severe maternal morbidity were similar in the two groups, at 19% (nonprevia) and 20% (previa), even after controlling for confounders (adjusted odds ratio for the nonprevia group 0.59, 95% CI 0.30-1.17).

Conclusion: Placenta accreta spectrum without previa is less likely to be diagnosed antepartum, potentially missing the opportunity for multidisciplinary team management. Despite the absence of placenta previa and less placental invasion, severe maternal morbidity at delivery was not lower. Broader recognition of patients at risk for placenta accreta spectrum may improve early clinical diagnosis and patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003970DOI Listing
September 2020

Intravenous labetalol versus oral nifedipine for acute hypertension in pregnancy: effects on cerebral perfusion pressure.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020 09 13;223(3):441.e1-441.e8. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

Background: Pregnant women with preeclampsia have been found to have elevated cerebral perfusion pressure and impaired cerebral autoregulation compared with normal pregnant women. Transcranial Doppler is a noninvasive technique used to estimate cerebral perfusion pressure. The effects of different antihypertensive medications on cerebral perfusion pressure in preeclampsia are unknown.

Objective: To compare the change in cerebral perfusion pressure before and after intravenous labetalol vs oral nifedipine in the setting of acute severe hypertension in pregnancy.

Study Design: This is a prospective cohort study of pregnant women between 24 and 42 weeks' gestation with severe hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥160 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥110 mm Hg). Women who consented to the study and received either intravenous labetalol or oral nifedipine were included. Exclusion criteria included active labor or receipt of any antihypertensive medication within 2 hours of initial cerebral perfusion pressure measurement. Peripheral blood pressure and transcranial Doppler studies for middle cerebral artery hemodynamics were performed prior to the administration of antihypertensive medications and repeated 30 minutes after medication administration.

Results: A total of 16 women with acute severe hypertension were enrolled; 8 received intravenous labetalol and 8 received oral nifedipine. There were no significant differences between the labetalol and nifedipine groups in baseline characteristics such as maternal age, race and ethnicity, payment, hospital site, body mass index, nulliparity, gestational age, preexisting diabetes mellitus or chronic hypertension, fetal growth restriction, magnesium sulfate administration, and symptomatology (P>.05). When examined 30 minutes after the administration of either intravenous labetalol or oral nifedipine, there was a significantly greater decrease in systolic blood pressure (-9.8 mm Hg vs -39 mm Hg; P=.003), mean arterial pressure (-7.1 mm Hg vs -22.3 mm Hg; P=.02), and cerebral perfusion pressure (-2.5 mm Hg vs -27.7 mm Hg; P=.01) in the nifedipine group. There was no statistically significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure (-12.9 mm Hg vs -5.4 mm Hg; P=.15). The change in middle cerebral artery velocity by transcranial Doppler was compared between the groups and was not different (0.07 cm/s vs 0.16 cm/s; P=.64).

Conclusion: Oral nifedipine resulted in a significant decrease in cerebral perfusion pressure, whereas labetalol did not, after administration for acute severe hypertension among women with preeclampsia. This decrease seems to be driven by a decrease in peripheral arterial blood pressure rather than a direct change in cerebral blood flow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.06.018DOI Listing
September 2020

In vitro fertilization as an independent risk factor for placenta accreta spectrum.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020 10 30;223(4):568.e1-568.e5. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. Electronic address:

Background: Placenta accreta spectrum is well known for its association with catastrophic maternal outcomes. However, its pathophysiology is not well defined. There have been emerging data that in vitro fertilization may be a risk factor for placenta accreta spectrum.

Objective: We investigated the hypothesis that in vitro fertilization is an independent risk factor for placenta accreta spectrum.

Study Design: A retrospective analysis of all deliveries in a prospective, population-based cohort (2012-2019) was performed in a tertiary academic center. Primary outcome variable was placenta accreta spectrum. Univariate analysis was performed on potential risk factors for predicting placenta accreta spectrum, and a multivariate model was designed to best fit the prediction of placenta accreta spectrum adjusted for risk factors such as cesarean delivery, placenta previa, age, and parity. History of previous cesarean delivery was known as a risk factor for both placenta previa and placenta accreta spectrum; hence, the interaction between "placenta previa" and "previous cesarean delivery" was included in the final model. Odds ratios were calculated as exponential of beta coefficients from the multivariate regression analysis.

Results: A total of 37,461 deliveries were included in this analysis, 5464 (15%) of which had a history of cesarean delivery, 281 (0.7%) had placenta previa in their index pregnancy, and 571 (1.5%) had in vitro fertilization pregnancy. The frequency of placenta accreta spectrum was 230 (0.6%). Independent risk factors for placenta accreta spectrum were in vitro fertilization pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio, 8.7; 95% confidence interval, 3.8-20.3), history of previous cesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 21.1; 95% confidence interval, 11.4-39.2), and presence of placenta previa (adjusted odds ratio, 94.6; 95% confidence interval, 29.3-305.1). After adjustment for number of previous cesarean deliveries, the correlation persisted for in vitro fertilization (adjusted odds ratio, 6.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.9-15.6).

Conclusion: Our data suggested that in vitro fertilization is an independent risk factor for placenta accreta spectrum, although its relative clinical importance compared with that of the presence of placenta previa and history of cesarean delivery is small. The pathophysiology behind this relationship remains to be investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.04.026DOI Listing
October 2020

Minimizing surgical blood loss at cesarean hysterectomy for placenta previa with evidence of placenta increta or placenta percreta: the state of play in 2020.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020 09 30;223(3):322-329. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Maternal-Fetal Medicine Division, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

The evolution of multidisciplinary team-based care for women with placenta accreta spectrum disorder has delivered stepwise improvements in clinical outcomes. Central to this overall goal is the ability to limit blood loss at surgery. Placement of inflatable balloons within the pelvic arteries, most commonly in the anterior divisions of the internal iliac arteries, became popular in many centers, at the expense of prolonging surgical care and with attendant risks of vascular injury. In tandem, the need to expose pelvic sidewall anatomy to safely identify the course of the ureters re-popularized the alternative strategy of ligating the same anterior divisions of the internal iliac arteries. With incremental gains in surgical expertise, described in 5 steps in this review, our teams have witnessed a steady decline in surgical blood loss. Nevertheless, a subset of women has the most severe form of placenta accreta spectrum, namely placenta previa-percreta. Such women are at risk of major hemorrhage during surgery from vessels arising outside the territories of the internal iliac arteries. These additional blood supplies, mostly from the external iliac arteries, pose significant risks of major blood loss even in experienced hands. To address this risk, some centers, principally in China, have adopted an approach of routinely placing an infrarenal aortic balloon, with both impressively low rates of blood loss and an ability to conserve the uterus by resecting the placenta with the affected portion of the uterine wall. We review these literature developments in the context of safely performing elective cesarean hysterectomy for placenta previa-percreta, the most severe placenta accreta spectrum disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.01.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8725207PMC
September 2020

Nanoparticle Contrast-enhanced T1-Mapping Enables Estimation of Placental Fractional Blood Volume in a Pregnant Mouse Model.

Sci Rep 2019 12 10;9(1):18707. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

The Singleton Department of Pediatric Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Non-invasive methods for estimating placental fractional blood volume (FBV) are of great interest for characterization of vascular perfusion in placentae during pregnancy to identify placental insufficiency that may be indicative of local ischemia or fetal growth restriction (FGR). Nanoparticle contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) may enable direct placental FBV estimation and may provide a reliable, 3D alternative to assess maternal-side placental perfusion. In this pre-clinical study, we investigated if placental FBV at 14, 16, and 18 days of gestation could be estimated through contrast-enhanced MRI using a long circulating blood-pool liposomal gadolinium contrast agent that does not penetrate the placental barrier. Placental FBV estimates of 0.47 ± 0.06 (E14.5), 0.50 ± 0.04 (E16.5), and 0.52 ± 0.04 (E18.5) were found through fitting pre-contrast and post-contrast T1 values in placental tissue using a variable flip angle method. MRI-derived placental FBV was validated against nanoparticle contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) derived placental FBV, where signal is directly proportional to the concentration of iodine contrast agent. The results demonstrate successful estimation of the placental FBV, with values statistically indistinguishable from the CT derived values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55019-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6904754PMC
December 2019

Preventing severe hypocalcemia during surgery for placenta accreta spectrum.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2019 10 12;98(10):1358-1359. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aogs.13704DOI Listing
October 2019

Maternal outcomes in unexpected placenta accreta spectrum disorders: single-center experience with a multidisciplinary team.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2019 10 4;221(4):337.e1-337.e5. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX. Electronic address:

Objective: In a 2015 Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network study, only half of placenta accreta spectrum cases were suspected before delivery, and the outcomes in the anticipated cases were paradoxically poorer than in unanticipated placenta accreta spectrum cases. This was possibly because the antenatally suspected cases were of greater severity. We sought to compare the outcomes of expected vs unexpected placenta accreta spectrum in a single large US center with multidisciplinary management protocol.

Study Design: This was a retrospective cohort study carried out between Jan. 1, 2011, and June 30, 2018, of all histology-proven placenta accreta spectrum deliveries in an academic referral center. Patients diagnosed at the time of delivery were cases (unexpected placenta accreta spectrum), and those who were antentally diagnosed were controls (expected placenta accreta spectrume). The primary and secondary outcomes were the estimated blood loss and the number of red blood cell units transfused, respectively. Variables are reported as median and interquartile range or number (percentage). Analyses were made using appropriate parametric and nonparametric tests.

Results: Fifty-four of the 243 patients (22.2%) were in the unexpected placenta accreta spectrum group. Patients in the expected placenta accreta spectrum group had a higher rate of previous cesarean delivery (170 of 189 [89.9%] vs 35 of 54 [64.8%]; P < .001) and placenta previa (135 [74.6%] vs 19 [37.3%]; P < .001). There was a higher proportion of increta/percreta in expected placenta accreta spectrum vs unexpected placenta accreta spectrum (125 [66.1%] vs 9 [16.7%], P < .001). Both primary outcomes were higher in the unexpected placenta accreta spectrum group (estimated blood loss, 2.4 L [1.4-3] vs 1.7 L [1.2-3], P = .04; red blood cell units, 4 [1-6] vs 2 [0-5], P = .03).

Conclusion: Our data contradict the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units results and instead show better outcomes in the expected placenta accreta spectrum group, despite a high proportion of women with more severe placental invasion. We attribute this to our multidisciplinary approach and ongoing process improvement in the management of expected cases. The presence of an experienced team appears to be a more important determinant of maternal morbidity in placenta accreta spectrum than the depth of placental invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2019.05.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8651298PMC
October 2019

FIGO classification for the clinical diagnosis of placenta accreta spectrum disorders.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2019 Jul;146(1):20-24

Nuffield Department of Women's and Reproductive Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Placenta accreta spectrum is impacting maternal health outcomes globally and its prevalence is likely to increase. Maternal outcomes depend on identification of the condition before or during delivery and, in particular, on the differential diagnosis between its adherent and invasive forms. However, accurate estimation of its prevalence and outcome is currently problematic because of the varying use of clinical criteria to define it at birth and the lack of detailed pathologic examination in most series. Adherence to this new International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification should improve future systematic reviews and meta-analyses and provide more accurate epidemiologic data which are essential to develop new management strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.12761DOI Listing
July 2019

New evidence-based diagnostic and management strategies for placenta accreta spectrum disorders.

Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2019 Nov 30;61:75-88. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Nuffield Department of Women's and Reproductive Health, University of Oxford, and the Fetal Medicine Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.

The increasing incidence of caesarean delivery (CD) has resulted in an increase in placenta accreta spectrum (PAS), adversely impacting maternal outcomes globally. Currently, more than 90% of women diagnosed with PAS present with a placenta praevia (praevia PAS). Praevia PAS can be reliably diagnosed antenatally with ultrasound, and it is unclear whether magnetic resonance imaging improves diagnosis beyond what can be achieved by skilled ultrasound operators. Therefore, any screening programme for PAS will require improved training in the diagnosis of placental disorders and development of targeted scanning protocols. Management strategies for praevia PAS vary depending on the accuracy of prenatal diagnosis, findings at laparotomy and local surgical expertise. Current epidemiological data for PAS are highly heterogeneous, mainly due to wide variation in the clinical criteria used to diagnose the condition at birth. This significantly impacts research into all aspects of the condition, especially comparison of the efficacy of different management strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2019.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6929563PMC
November 2019

Outcomes, care utilization, and expenditures in adolescent pregnancy complicated by diabetes.

Pediatr Diabetes 2019 09 1;20(6):769-777. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Background And Objective: Adolescence and pregestational diabetes separately increase risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes, but little is known about their combined effect. To analyze pregnancy outcomes, healthcare utilization, and expenditures in adolescent pregnancies with and without pregestational diabetes using a national claims database.

Methods: Retrospective study using Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database, 2011 to 2015. Females 12 to 19 years old, continuously enrolled for at least 12 months before a livebirth until 2 months after, were included. Pregestational diabetes, diabetes complications (ketoacidosis, retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy), comorbidities, and pregnancy outcomes (preeclampsia, preterm delivery, high birthweight, cesarean delivery) were identified using claims data algorithms. Healthcare utilization and payer expenditure were tabulated per enrollee. Multivariate logistic regressions assessed pregnancy outcomes; multivariate OLS regression assessed payer expenditures.

Results: About 33 502 adolescents were included. Adolescents without diabetes had pregnancy outcomes consistent with national estimates. Adolescents with uncomplicated diabetes had increased odds of preeclampsia adjusted odds ratios 2.41 (95% confidence interval 1.93-3.02), preterm delivery 1.50 (1.21-1.87), high birthweight 1.84 (1.50-2.27), and cesarean delivery 1.81 (1.52-2.15). Diabetes with ketoacidosis and/or end-organ damage had higher odds of preeclampsia 5.62 (2.77-11.41), preterm delivery 5.81 (3.00-11.25), high birthweight 2.38 (1.08-5.24), and cesarean delivery 3.43 (1.78-6.64). Adolescents with diabetes utilized significantly more outpatient and inpatient care during pregnancy. Payer expenditures increased by 45.3% (34.8-55.9%) among adolescents with diabetes and by 82.6% (49.1-116.0%) among adolescents with diabetes complicated by ketoacidosis and/or end-organ damage.

Conclusion: Compared with normal adolescent pregnancies, pregestational diabetes significantly increases risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes and significantly escalates healthcare utilization and cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pedi.12871DOI Listing
September 2019

Severe hypocalcemia during surgery for placenta accreta spectrum: The case for empiric replacement.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2019 10 23;98(10):1326-1331. Epub 2019 May 23.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USA.

Introduction: We aimed to determine predictive factors for severe hypocalcemia in women with placenta accreta spectrum.

Material And Methods: Study of 123 women with histology-proven placenta accreta spectrum with cesarean hysterectomy between 2011 and 2017. Two groups were selected: Cases: critically low ("panic value") serum total calcium (≤7 mg/dL) and Controls: normal serum total calcium (≥8.5 mg/dL). Regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to evaluate the potential associations.

Results: There were 13 women with critically low (cases) and 18 with normal calcium (controls). Baseline characteristics were not statistically different. The median estimated blood loss, units of red blood cells (RBCs) transfused and volume of crystalloid transfused, were higher in the low calcium group. Six out of 13 (46.2%) cases had received ≥4 units of RBCs during surgery vs 2 of 18 (11.1%) controls (P = 0.04). ROC analysis showed that estimated blood loss, units of RBCs transfused, and crystalloid transfused were associated with severe hypocalcemia and univariate regression analysis confirmed that estimated blood loss ≥1500 mL, RBC transfusion ≥4 units, and crystalloid transfused ≥4L were associated with severe hypocalcemia.

Conclusions: Intraoperative transfusion of ≥4 units RBCs is predictive of the development of severe hypocalcemia in placenta accreta spectrum patients experiencing active bleeding. Empiric replacement of 1 g CaCL is recommended for every 4 U RBC transfused.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aogs.13636DOI Listing
October 2019

Coagulopathy in surgical management of placenta accreta spectrum.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2019 Jun 19;237:126-130. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, United States.

Background: One of the major complications of the placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) is the development of coagulopathy. The detection, prevention and prompt treatment of coagulopathy may be lifesaving.

Objective: Our objective was to study selected factors associated with coagulopathy in the management of PAS by a well-established multidisciplinary team.

Study Design: This is a retrospective review of all patients with pathologically proven PAS (including placenta accreta, increta or percreta) who underwent surgery by our multidisciplinary team between January 2011 and February 2017. Coagulopathy in this setting was defined as a platelet count of <100,000/mm, international normalized ratio >1.5, and/or fibrinogen <300 mg/dL based on institutional protocols developed by our Division of Transfusion Medicine & Coagulation. The outcomes of those patients with and without coagulopathy were compared with appropriate adjustments. Receiver operating characteristics curves (ROCs) were constructed to assess the ability of select variables to discriminate between women with and without coagulopathy, and the area under the curves (AUCs) were calculated.

Results: Of 123 singleton patients with PAS, 37 (30.1%; 95%CI 22.1-39.0) developed coagulopathy and 86 (69.9%; 95%CI 61.0-77.9) did not. Baseline patient demographic characteristics did not differ significantly between these groups. Estimated blood loss (median and Inter-quartile range) was 2100cc (1800, 400) and 1400 (1000, 2500) in the presence and absence of coagulopathy, respectively (P < 0.01). The overall number of units of red blood cells (RBC) transfused was greatest in the coagulopathy group [3 (2, 9) vs. 1 (0, 4); P < 0.01]. Univariate regression analysis confirmed the association between coagulopathy and (i) the number of units of RBC's transfused, and (ii) the estimated blood loss. ROC curves showed that an estimated blood loss ≥ 1500 mL had the best discriminating power. Depth and/or severity of placental invasion were not associated with coagulopathy in patients with PAS.

Conclusions: Coagulopathy in patients with PAS undergoing hysterectomy is strongly associated with blood loss and replacement. It may be prudent to establish protocols that aggressively monitor for, and treat, coagulopathy when EBL exceeds 1500 mL in such surgeries, prior to the development of clinical coagulopathy which if uncorrected may lead to massive blood loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2019.04.026DOI Listing
June 2019

Pre-clinical magnetic resonance imaging of retroplacental clear space throughout gestation.

Placenta 2019 02 25;77:1-7. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

The Singleton Department of Pediatric Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Visualization of the retroplacental clear space (RPCS) may provide critical insight into the development of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP). In this pre-clinical study, we characterized the appearance of the RPCS on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the second half of gestation using a liposomal gadolinium contrast agent (liposomal-Gd).

Materials And Methods: Studies were performed in fifteen pregnant C57BL/6 mice at 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 days of gestation. MRI was performed on a 1T permanent magnet scanner. Pre-contrast and post-contrast images were acquired using T1-weighted gradient-recalled echo (T1w-GRE) and T2-weighted fast spin echo (T2w-FSE) sequences. Animals were euthanized after imaging and feto-placental units harvested for histological examination. Visualization of the RPCS was scored by a maternal-fetal radiologist and quantified by measuring the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) on T1w images. Feto-placental features were segmented for analysis of volumetric changes during gestation.

Results: Contrast-enhanced T1w images enabled the visualization of structural changes in placental development between days 10-18 of gestation. Although the placental margin on the fetal side was clearly visible at all time points, the RPCS was partially visible at day 10 of gestation, and clearly visible by day 12. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of the placental tissue corroborated MRI findings of structural and morphological changes in the placenta.

Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced MR imaging using liposomal-Gd enabled adequate visualization of the retroplacental clear space starting at day 12 of gestation. The agent also enabled characterization of placental structure and morphological changes through gestation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.placenta.2019.01.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6400291PMC
February 2019

Identifying and addressing gaps in reproductive health education for adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(11):e0206102. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

McNair Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

Aims: Adolescent girls with diabetes are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes due to age, risk-taking behavior, poor glycemic control, and lack of knowledge. Our aims were to assess attitudes and behaviors related to reproductive health education (RHE) among diabetes healthcare providers and adolescent girls with diabetes, and to pilot a brief clinic-based RHE intervention.

Methods: We surveyed 29 providers and 50 adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes about RHE experiences, attitudes, and behaviors. We piloted the RHE intervention with 9 adolescent-parent dyads.

Results: 50% of providers were very uncomfortable discussing pregnancy or contraception. Most (72%) did not proactively initiate RHE; common barriers included insufficient time and subject knowledge. Fewer than 10% recommended long-acting reversible contraceptives. A minority (10%) of adolescents had discussed pregnancy or contraception with a provider. RHE sessions lasted a median of 16 (range 13-24) minutes, and there were promising trends for changes in adolescents' self-efficacy and intentions to use contraception and seek preconception counseling and in their knowledge of reproductive health.

Conclusion: Adolescent girls with diabetes rarely receive education on pregnancy and contraception due to provider discomfort, limited knowledge, and limited time. RHE using easily-accessible materials with an educator may help address this gap in care.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206102PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6219771PMC
April 2019

The Role of Centers of Excellence With Multidisciplinary Teams in the Management of Abnormal Invasive Placenta.

Clin Obstet Gynecol 2018 12;61(4):841-850

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas.

Abnormal invasive placenta (AIP) causes significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. With the increasing incidence of cesarean delivery, this condition is dramatically more common in the last 20 years. Advances in grayscale and Doppler ultrasound have facilitated prenatal diagnosis of abnormal placentation to allow the development of multidisciplinary management plans. Outcomes are improved when delivery is accomplished in centers with multidisciplinary expertise and experience in the care of AIP. This article highlights the desired features for developing and managing a multidisciplinary team dedicated to the treatment of AIP in center of excellence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GRF.0000000000000393DOI Listing
December 2018

In Reply.

Obstet Gynecol 2018 06;131(6):1165

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000002667DOI Listing
June 2018

Outcomes of Planned Compared With Urgent Deliveries Using a Multidisciplinary Team Approach for Morbidly Adherent Placenta.

Obstet Gynecol 2018 02;131(2):234-241

Divisions of Maternal-Fetal Medicine and Gynecologic Oncology and Inpatient Women's Service, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, the Department of Urology, and the Division of Transfusion Medicine, Department of Pathology & Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas.

Objective: To compare outcomes between planned and urgent cesarean hysterectomy for morbidly adherent placenta managed by a multidisciplinary team.

Methods: This is a retrospective case-control study of women with singleton pregnancies with antenatally suspected and pathologically confirmed morbidly adherent placenta who underwent cesarean hysterectomy between January 1, 2011, and February 30, 2017. Timing of delivery was classified as either planned (delivery at 34-35 weeks of gestation) or urgent (need for urgent delivery as a result of uterine contractions, bleeding, or both). The primary outcome variable was composite maternal morbidity. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate risk factors for urgent delivery.

Results: One hundred thirty patients underwent hysterectomy. Sixty (46.2%) required urgent delivery. Composite maternal morbidity was identified in 34 (56.7%) of the urgent and 26 (37.1%) of the planned deliveries (P=.03). Fewer units of red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma were transfused in the planned delivery group (red blood cells, median interquartile range 3 [0-8] versus 1 [0-4], P=.02; fresh frozen plasma, median interquartile range 1 [0-2] versus 0 [0-0], P=.001). Rates of low Apgar score and respiratory distress syndrome were higher in the urgent compared with the planned delivery group (5-minute Apgar score less than 7, 34 [59.6%] versus 14 [23.3%], P<.01; respiratory distress syndrome, 34 [61.8%] versus 16 [27.1%], P<.01). A history of two or more prior cesarean deliveries was an independent predictor of urgent delivery (adjusted odds ratio 11.4, 95% CI 1.8-71.1).

Conclusion: Women with morbidly adherent placenta requiring urgent delivery have a worse outcome than women with planned delivery. Women with morbidly adherent placenta and two or more prior cesarean deliveries are at increased risk for urgent delivery. In such women, scheduling delivery before the standard 34- to 35-week timeframe may be reasonable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000002442DOI Listing
February 2018

Evaluation of opioid prescribing after rescheduling of hydrocodone-containing products.

Am J Health Syst Pharm 2017 Dec;74(24):2046-2053

Department of Pediatric Anesthesiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

Purpose: Institutional prescribing trends of hydrocodone-containing products (HCPs) before and after the Drug Enforcement Administration's rescheduling of HCPs were evaluated.

Methods: A retrospective evaluation was performed on 6 oral opioid analgesics on the hospital formulary that were prescribed to patients treated at Texas Children's Hospital and Pavilion for Women for the 6 months before and after the rescheduling of HCPs on October 6, 2014. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were prescribed any of the following oral agents: HCPs (e.g., hydrocodone with acetaminophen), codeine-containing products (e.g., codeine, codeine with acetaminophen), morphine, hydromorphone, oxycodone-containing products (e.g., oxycodone, oxycodone with acetaminophen), and tramadol.

Results: During the 12-month study period, a total of 38,928 inpatient orders and outpatient prescriptions were processed for the studied agents in both locations; the majority were orders for inpatients. An overall reduction in the total number of opioid prescriptions was observed after the rescheduling of HCPs. Substantial increases in the proportional use of codeine were observed in all 4 settings after HCP rescheduling. Data for each of the agents revealed a shift in prescribing patterns centered along the HCP rescheduling date of October 6, 2014, and revealed a decrease in HCP use across all areas with an accompanying increase in codeine-containing products, oxycodone-containing products, and tramadol.

Conclusion: The rescheduling of HCPs resulted in a reduction in HCP prescriptions but was accompanied by increases in the use of codeine-containing products and tramadol in all settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2146/ajhp160548DOI Listing
December 2017

The diagnosis and management of morbidly adherent placenta.

Semin Perinatol 2018 02 28;42(1):49-58. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of OB-GYN, Baylor College of Medicine/TCH Pavilion for Women, Houston, TX.

The incidence of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) has risen 13-fold since the early 1900s and is directly correlated with the rising rate of cesarean delivery. It is important for clinicians to screen all pregnancies for MAP at the time of routine second-trimester ultrasonography. In addition, patients with risk factors (e.g., multiple prior cesarean deliveries) should undergo targeted screening for MAP. Optimal maternal and fetal outcomes for these high-risk pregnancies result from accurate prenatal diagnosis and comprehensive multidisciplinary preparation and delivery between 34 and 36 weeks of gestation. There continue to be large knowledge gaps with respect to the optimal management of this condition especially around diagnosis, obstetric care, timing of delivery, and surgical management. Accordingly, most recommendations are based on expert opinion rather than on high-quality evidence. Prospective clinical trials are needed to address knowledge gaps and to continue to improve outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semperi.2017.11.009DOI Listing
February 2018
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