Publications by authors named "Karima F Mahrous"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Synthesis, antimicrobial, anti-cancer and in silico studies of new urea derivatives.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jul 29;112:104953. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sadat City, Menoufia, Egypt.

The reaction of an alkyl or aryl isocyanates with some primary amines in acetonitrile at room temperature afforded the corresponding alkyl- and aryl-urea derivatives. All the prepared urea compounds have been elucidated by FTIR, NMR, and elemental analysis. The compounds 1 and 3 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The 4-tolylsulfonyl isocyanate reacted with the aryl amines 1, 2, 3, and 2,4-dichloroaniline to afford the corresponding sulfonylurea derivatives 5-8. Likewise, the reaction of the isocyanates with 2,4-dichloroaniline, 5-methyl isoxazole-3-amine, and 2-aminothiazole derivatives gave the corresponding urea derivatives 9-17. All the prepared compounds 5-17 were tested in vitro as anti-microbial and anti-HepG2 agents. Moreover, analyzing gene expression of TP53-exon4 and TP53-exon7, DNA damage values, and DNA fragmentation percentages have been discussed. The compounds 5 and 8 recorded the highest activity against the tested microbial strains with maximum activity against C. albicans (50 mm) and B. mycoides (40 mm), respectively. The compounds 5 inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. aureus, and C. Albicans at the MIC level of 0.0489 µM, while the compound 8 was able to inhibit the visible growth of E. coli and C. albicans at MIC value of 3.13 µM and S. aureus at 0.3912 µM. In the same line, compound 5 showed the best cytotoxic activity against the HepG2 cell line (IC = 4.25 µM) compared to 5 fluorouracil with IC = 316.25 µM. Expression analysis of liver cancer related to a gene including TP53-exon4 and TP53-exon7 was used in HepG2 Liver cancer cell lines using RT-qPCR. The expression values of TP53-exon4 and TP53-exon7 genes were decreased. The DNA damage values and DNA fragmentation percentages were increased significantly (P < 0.01) in the treated HepG2 (5) sample compared with the negative control. Docking studies were performed for the synthetic compounds against 2 bacterial proteins (DNA gyrase subunit B, and penicillin binding protein 1a) that are known targets for some antibiotics, and one cell division protein kinase 2 (CDK2) as target for anticancer drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.104953DOI Listing
July 2021

Genetic variations in the gene affecting growth traits in sheep.

Vet World 2021 Feb 23;14(2):475-482. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Cell Biology, National Research Centre, El Buhouth Street, 12311, Dokki, Egypt.

Background And Aim: Sheep productivity in developing countries is crucial, as this animal is an essential source of meat and wool. () plays an important role in the regulation of muscle mass through the regulation of muscle growth, differentiation, and regeneration. The present study sought to investigate genetic variation in the first intron of the gene and the association of variants with growth traits in major sheep breeds in Egypt (Barki, Ossimi, and Rahmani) and Saudi Arabia (Najdi) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing.

Materials And Methods: Blood samples were collected, and DNA was extracted from 75 animals. A 386 bp fragment in the first intron of the gene was amplified using PCR. Polymorphic sites were detected using direct sequencing and then correlated with growth traits using a general linear model.

Results: Sequence analysis of the first intron of gene identified six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the studied breeds. Four mutual SNPs were determined: c.18 G>T, c.241 T>C, c.243 G>A, and c.259 G>T. In addition, two SNPs c.159 A>T and c.173 T>G were monomorphic (AA and TT, respectively) in the Ossimi, Rahmani, and Najdi breeds and polymorphic in the Barki breed. The association analysis revealed that the c.18 G>T and c.241 C>T significantly associated (p<0.05) with birth weight and average daily weight gain, respectively.

Conclusion: Our results strongly support as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in sheep breeding programs. Furthermore, the identified variants may be considered as putative markers to improve growth traits in sheep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2021.475-482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994128PMC
February 2021

Study the Effect of Microinjection of Zn, Fe, and Cu Loaded in Montmorillonite on Development Activities in Fertilized Chicken Eggs.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2020 Nov 13. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Cell Biology Department, National Research Centre, 33 Bohouth St., Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

This study aims to reduce embryonic mortality, increase body weight, and improve immune system in chicken. A total of 240 eggs were assigned to three treatments (n = 60) and injected with cooper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) loaded by montmorillonite (Mnt), and one untreated group (n = 60). Some hormones and enzymes related with growth were measured in terms of serum, and expression of some genes related to growth, immune, and programmed cell deaths that were determined in the liver and spleen of chicken by RT-qPCR. The embryonic death on the fifth and seventh days after injecting eggs with Fe-Mnt was less obvious than in other groups. The heaviest body weight was recorded for Fe-Mnt and Cu-Mnt treatment. Fe-Mnt treatment had higher serum GSH, SOD, GH, and Myostatin contents and lower MDA than those in the other treatments. Cu-Mnt treatment included the highest contents of CAT enzyme and IGF-1 hormone in serum. The highest expression of IGF-1, GH, BCL6, and SYK genes in liver tissue were recorded by Zn-Mnt, IGFBP2, FGF8, and IFNW1 genes by Cu-Mnt, and TC1RG1 and IFNW1 genes by Fe-Mnt in spleen tissue. In conclusion, Fe-Mnt was the best treatment for reducing embryonic mortality, and increasing body weight of chickens and expression of growth and immune genes, followed by Cu-Mnt treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02488-yDOI Listing
November 2020

Molecular characterization and immunohistochemical localization of tilapia piscidin 3 in response to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Nile tilapia.

J Pept Sci 2020 Nov 18;26(11):e3280. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Cell Biology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division Research, National Research Centre, 33 El Buhouth St., Dokki, Giza, 12622, Egypt.

The antimicrobial activity of tilapia piscidin 3 (TP3) was determined in vitro against a locally isolated Aeromonas hydrophila. A 388 bp fragment was amplified from the TP3 cDNA and sequenced. The coding sequence (CDS) of TP3 was estimated to be 231 bp codes for 76 amino acids long and stop codon. In silico analysis was performed to detect both the signal peptide and the prodomain cleavage sites to follow the amino acids number 22 and 70, respectively. Based on this, a peptide 23 amino acids long with a remarkably high computed antimicrobial probability was synthesized and used in the subsequent experiments. The antimicrobial activity of TP3 was determined with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minim um bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods. TP3 exhibited relatively weak antimicrobial activities against the tested bacteria. A challenge experiment was then performed in Nile tilapia with low and high doses of A. hydrophila, followed by timely recognition; after 3, 6, 24 h, and 7 days of the specific TP3 gene expression, immunohistochemical localization was also performed. Histopathological examination revealed provoked inflammatory responses and congestion in the same organs of TP3 expression. Immunohistochemical localization showed that A. hydrophila induced tilapia fish to express TP3 after 24 h within the gills, intestine, hepatopancreas, spleen, and posterior kidney. In quantitative real time (RT)-polymerase chain reaction analysis, the high dose showed higher mRNA expression levels than the low dose, and its expression levels increased in the A. hydrophila-infected fish. It was therefore concluded that TP3 plays an essential role in fish immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/psc.3280DOI Listing
November 2020

Novel 2-cyanoacrylamido-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene derivatives as potent anticancer agents.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2020 Oct 13;353(10):e2000069. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Ethyl 2-acrylamido-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxylate as well as its corresponding bis-derivatives, 5-10, with aliphatic linkers were synthesized, fully characterized, and tested as novel anticancer agents. The targeted compounds, 5-10, were obtained by the Knoevenagel condensation reactions of bis-o- or -p-aldehyde with a molar ratio of ethyl 2-(2-cyanoacetamido)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxylate of 2 in the presence of piperidine in excellent yields (93-98%). The in vitro anticancer activities of the prepared compounds were evaluated against HepG2, MCF-7, HCT-116, and BJ1 cells. Compounds 7 and 9 emerged as the most promising compounds, with IC values of 13.5 and 32.2 µg/ml, respectively, against HepG2 cells, compared with the reference drug doxorubicin (IC : 21.6 µg/ml). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the changes in expression levels of the COL10A1 and COL11A1, ESR1, and ERBB2, or AXIN1 and CDKN2A genes within the treated cells, as genetic markers for colon, breast, or liver cancers, respectively. Treatment of the colon cancer cells with compounds 5, 9, and 10, or breast and liver cancers cells with compounds 7, 8, 9, and 10 downregulated the expression of the investigated tumor markers. The DNA damage values (depending on comet and DNA fragmentation assays) increased significantly upon treatment of colon cancer cells with compounds 5, 9, and 10, and breast and liver cells with compounds 8, 9, and 10. The structure-activity relationship suggested that the increase of the chain of the alkyl linker increases the anticancer activity and the compounds with bis-cyanoacrylamide moieties are more active than those with one cyanoacrylamide moiety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ardp.202000069DOI Listing
October 2020

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the growth hormone receptor gene and polymorphisms in the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 gene as related to meat production in sheep.

Vet World 2020 May 14;13(5):884-889. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Cell Biology, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Aim: This study aimed to investigate the polymorphisms in genes related to meat production, including growth hormone receptor () and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 () genes, in different breeds of sheep, including Barki, Najdi, and Harri.

Materials And Methods: Blood samples were collected from 75 randomly selected healthy Barki, Najdi, and Harri breeds of sheep, with 25 samples per breed. and genes were identified using a single nucleotide polymorphism assay followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme .

Results: The analysis of the gene sequence showed nucleotide substitutions at nt 69 in exon 10 (c.69 G > A); this mutation is considered a transition mutation. The sequences of detected SNPs in the gene in the different sheep breeds were submitted to the GenBank database with accession numbers MG906773 to MG906781. The substitutions at exon 10 (c.69 G > A) results in an alteration to the amino acid (p. Lysine > Arginine). At c.69, the A allele frequency was 0.61, 0.59, and 0.54, while the G allele frequency was 0.39, 0.41, and 0.46, for Barki, Najdi, and Harri breeds, respectively. The genotype AG at nt 69 locus had the highest frequency in the Najdi and Harri sheep. The frequency of AG was 0.62, 0.61, and 0.64, while the frequency of AA was 0.30, 0.28, and 0.22, for Barki, Najdi, and Harri sheep, respectively. After digestion with the restriction enzyme , the locus had two genotypes, CC and CT. The highest frequency, 0.88, was found for allele C, which was detected in Barki breed. The lowest frequency, 0.75, for the same allele was found for Harri.

Conclusions: The detected CT genotype may explain the moderate intramuscular fat content and muscle marbling in the Barki sheep breed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2020.884-889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311874PMC
May 2020

Piscidin 4: Genetic expression and comparative immunolocalization in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) following challenge using different local bacterial strains.

Dev Comp Immunol 2020 11 4;112:103777. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Cell Biology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division Research, National Research Centre, 33 El Buhouth St., 12622, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. Electronic address:

The antimicrobial activity of tilapia piscidin 4 (TP4) was determined in vitro against four bacterial strains, Aeromonas hydrophilla, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Streptococcus iniae and Vibrio anguillarum. Nile tilapia were infected with low and high doses of the tested pathogens; after 3, 6, 24 h and 7 days of the specific TP4 gene expression, tissue immunolocalization was also performed. Histopathological examination revealed septicaemia and necrosis of hemopoietic tissue for all of the tested bacteria. Immunolocalization showed abundance in S. iniae-infected fish tissues. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that high doses raised mRNA expression levels compared to low doses and expression levels increased in the infected fish, particularly after 24 h, indicating that TP4 exerts potent bactericidal activity against some fish pathogens and plays an essential role in fish immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2020.103777DOI Listing
November 2020

Detection of polymorphism within leptin gene in Egyptian river buffalo and predict its effects on different molecular levels.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2020 Feb 10;18(1). Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Background: Leptin (LEP) regulates the glucose homeostasis directly and centrally by the regulation of the insulin levels or indirectly by alternation of the levels of the other glucose metabolism regulator hormones. The present investigation studied the polymorphism in LEP gene which is related to fertility in 81 female Egyptian river buffalo.

Results: The PCR-RFLP pattern of the gene using the restriction enzyme Eco91I showed that all the animals had monomorphic pattern in the studied gene which consists of CC. A 511-bp fragment from LEP gene was amplified and sequenced. The homology between the amplified LEP gene fragment in buffalo and cattle, sheep, goat, human, and mouse on the nucleotides sequence level was 99, 97, 97, 87, and 79%, respectively, and on the translated amino acids sequence level was 100, 98, 98, 85, and 82%, respectively. Several SNPs were detected; among them, the T27C SNP disrupted an intronic splicing silencer. The A114G, A310G, G263A, and G379A SNPs disrupt exonic splicing enhancers, and the last two SNPs create new exonic splicing enhancers. The A114G, C163A, A211G, G288A, A310G, A322G, G330C, C348T, T360C, and G379A SNPs cause S71G, T87 N, N103S, E129K, E136G, Y140C, E143Q, R149W, S153P, and R159Q amino acids mutations. N103S, E129K, E136G, Y140C, E143Q, and S153P were classified as deleterious mutations. Y140, E143, N103, and R149 were the most conserved among the mutated amino acids. S71G only increased the stability of the leptin protein while the remaining mutations decreased it.

Conclusion: Four SNPs were revealed among the tested animals. Twenty-one SNPs were found between the sequenced amplicon and the buffalo records in the Genbank. Some SNPs were predicted to have several effects on different biological processes like mRNA splicing, protein stability, and the gene functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43141-020-0020-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008111PMC
February 2020

Towards breast cancer targeting: Synthesis of tetrahydroindolocarbazoles, antibreast cancer evaluation, uPA inhibition, molecular genetic and molecular modelling studies.

Bioorg Chem 2019 12 1;93:103332. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Applied Organic Chemistry, National Research Centre, 12622 Dokki, Giza, Egypt. Electronic address:

A series of some new tetrahydroindolocarbazole derivatives has been synthesized. The structure of the synthesized compounds has been confirmed by different spectroscopic techniques such as IR, NMR, elemental analysis and mass spectrometry. The target compounds were evaluated for their antitumor activity against breast cancer cell line MCF-7, their GI% and their LC have been determined. Six of the synthesized compounds exhibited GI% values against MCF-7 cell lines exceeding 70% ranging from 71.9 to 85.0% in addition that compound 11 expressed GI% values of 99.9% and considered the most active derivatives among the synthesized ones. Compound 11 showed a remarkable decrease of u PA level to 3.5 ng/ml compared to DOX. Compound 5, 11 and 15 showed significant decrease in expression of MTAP and CDKN2A, in addition to a remarkable decrease in DNA damage comet assay method. Molecular modeling studies were performed to interpretate the behavior of active ligands as uPA inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.103332DOI Listing
December 2019

The impact of several hydraulic fracking chemicals on Nile tilapia and evaluation of the protective effects of Spirulina platensis.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jul 10;26(19):19453-19467. Epub 2019 May 10.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) chemicals are used to maximize the extraction of hard-to-reach underground energy resources. Large amounts of fracking fluid could escape to the surrounding environments, including underground and surface water resources, during the chemical mixing stage of the hydraulic fracturing water cycle due to equipment failure or human error. However, the impact of pollution resulting from operational discharges is difficult to assess in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, pathological investigations, chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage, and biochemical and hematological parameters were used to evaluate the effects of such chemicals on Nile tilapia. Chromosomal aberrations are considered very sensitive genetic markers of exposure to genotoxic chemicals and are used as indicators of DNA damage. The appearance of different types of chromosomal aberrations (gaps and breaks) due to chemical exposure was significantly reduced by treatment with spirulina. Various deleterious findings in Nile tilapia, in the current study, could attributed to the presence of fracking chemicals in the aquatic environment. However, the presence of spirulina in the diet reduced the hazards of such chemicals. In addition, cytogenetic studies in the current work revealed the importance of spirulina in ameliorating the genotoxic effects of a mixture of some chemicals used in fracking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05246-3DOI Listing
July 2019

Mitochondrial DNA genetic variations among four horse populations in Egypt.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2017 Dec 6;15(2):469-474. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Cell Biology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt.

Horses are one of the early domesticated animals in the world that changed societies and civilizations on a continent-wide scale. Due to the rare information about the genetic characterization of different horse populations in Egypt, this study aimed to identify the genetic biodiversity and relationships between four horse populations reared in Egypt. Genomic DNA was extracted and mtDNA region was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The alignment of 384-bp amplified fragments showed the presence of 41 polymorphic sites resulting in 29 haplotypes which their sequences were submitted to GenBank under the accession numbers: -. The phylogeny tree for tested horses declared the presence of mixing maternal lineages between the four tested populations but still there are some separated lineages especially for Arabian and Thoroughbred horses. The sequences of 72 tested sequences were aligned with 13 published sequences as references, 11 of them for different whereas the other two reference sequences for and . The results showed that all tested horses from the four populations are grouped with reference sequences of and separated from the other two reference sequences of and . It is concluded that sequence analysis of mtDNA control region is still the most informative tool for the identification of genetic biodiversity and phylogeny of different horse breeds and populations. The horse populations reared in Egypt possess low genetic diversity and all of them are belonged to breed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296616PMC
December 2017

Tetrahydroindolocarbazoles (THICZs) as new class of urokinase (uPA) inhibitors: Synthesis, anticancer evaluation, DNA-damage determination, and molecular modelling study.

Bioorg Chem 2018 10 30;80:545-554. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Department of Applied Organic Chemistry, National Research Centre, 12622 Dokki, Giza, Egypt. Electronic address:

Tetrahydroindolocarbazoles (THICZs) with versatile substituents, have been designed, synthesized, structure characterized, then investigated for their in-vitro anticancer screening, urokinase inhibition (uPA) evaluated, DNA-damage determination was further explored. Compounds 5, 8, 10 and 17 displayed the most promising antitumor activities against the breast cancer cell line as compared to the standard drug, doxorubicin with IC = 5.24 ± 0.37, 4.00 ± 0.52, 7.20 ± 0.90 and 9.60 ± 1.10 µg/ml (versus 3.30 ± 0.48 µg/ml for doxorubicin). Compounds 5, 8, 10 and 17 represents the most significant uPA inhibitors of our study with IC of 3.80, 2.70. 4.75, 10.80 (ng/ml) respectively. The expression levels of CDKN2A gene were decreased in 8, 10 and 17 cell lines as compared to those in positive control samples. Cell lines treated with 5, 8, 10 and 17 clearly observed a high score of damaged DNA cells. A deeper examination revealed that our hetroaromatics showed an extensive hydrogen bonding interactions that is required in the S pocket which is important for activity Arg 217, Gly 219, Gly 216, Lys 143 and Ser 190. So we present THICZs as promising uPA inhibitors expected as significant promise for further development as anti-invasiveness drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2018.06.033DOI Listing
October 2018

Inhibition of cadmium- induced genotoxicity and histopathological changes in Nile tilapia fish by Egyptian and Tunisian montmorillonite clay.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2015 Sep 19;119:140-7. Epub 2015 May 19.

Department of Pathology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, El Giza Square, Giza, Egypt.

Cadmium (Cd) is an important inorganic toxicant widely distributed in the environment because of its various industrial uses. The aims of the current study were to investigate the efficacy of purified Egyptian and Tunisian montmorillonite clays (EMC and TMC) to inhibit genotoxicity and histological alterations induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) utilizing the Nile tilapia fish as an in vivo model. Chromosomal aberrations (CAs), micronucleus (MN) frequencies and DNA fingerprinting profile were genotoxic end points and histopathological changes that were used in this investigation. Six groups of fish were treated for 2 weeks and included control group, CdCl2-treated group and groups treated with EMC or TMC alone or in combination with CdCl2. The present results revealed that, treatment of fish with CdCl2 exhibited significant increased in the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MnRBCs), frequency of CAs and instability of genomic DNA. Treatment of EMC and TMC in combination with CdCl2 significantly reduced the frequency of MnRBCs by the percentage of 53.28% and 60.77% and the frequency of CAs by 43.91% and 52.17% respectively. As well as, normalized DNA fingerprinting profile and significantly improved histopathological picture induced by Cadmium treatment. It is worth mention that both clays have the ability to tightly bind CdCl2 and decreased its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity; however, Tunisian clay was more efficient in binding with the CdCl2 than Egyptian clay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.04.054DOI Listing
September 2015

Feed restriction as a biostimulant of the production of oocyte, their quality and GDF-9 gene expression in rabbit oocytes.

Anim Reprod Sci 2012 Dec 28;136(1-2):121-7. Epub 2012 Sep 28.

Animal Reproduction & A. I, Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Tahrir Street, Egypt.

The use of short-term feed restriction (R) without or with subsequent refeeding (F) as biostimulant of rabbit fertility was examined in this study. A total of 40 mature, non-pregnant, non-lactating New Zealand white female rabbits were allocated to five treatments. The rabbits were individually caged and fed a complete pelleted diet (16.7% CP; 13.1 CF; 2490kcalDE/kg). Rabbits on the control (C) treatment received 150g/d of the diet. Two groups of 8 rabbits received 70% of the control daily feed intake (105g/d; moderate restriction; M) and the other two groups received 50% of the control feed intake (75g/d; severe restriction; S) for 21d. At the end of this period, one group each of M and S fed rabbits were slaughtered for oocyte recovery. Rabbits in the remaining three groups (C, MF and SF) were retained for a further 8d before slaughter and fed the control level of the diet during this period. The effects on body weight, oocyte number and quality, GDF-9 gene expression in oocytes, and changes in serum levels of leptin and IGF-1 were recorded. Initial mean body weights were not significantly different ranging from 2.50±0.33kg (S) to 2.58±0.24kg (C). After 3wk on treatment the C rabbits were significantly heavier (2.65±0.32kg; P<0.05) than rabbits on the M (2.26±0.33kg) or S (2.10±0.33kg) treatments. Following 8d of refeeding, the remaining group of S treated rabbits (SF) were still significantly lighter (2.40±0.21kg; P<0.05) than C (2.71±0.31kg) with MF rabbits having an intermediate weight (2.50±0.20kg). The number of mature grade A oocytes recovered per ovary was significantly lower for control (3.3±0.35) than the refed treatments (MF 4.0±0.30; SF 4.5±0.39; P<0.05). Semi-quantitative PCR analysis of GDF-9 expression showed that control mature grade A oocytes had significantly lower levels of expression (1.27±0.20; P<0.05) than those of refed rabbits (MF 1.60±0.10; SF 1.39±0.01). Leptin and IGF-1 values for refed rabbits were significantly higher (P<0.05) than at the end of feed restriction and the start point. It was concluded that this biostimulant method has the potential to improve the fertility of rabbits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2012.09.011DOI Listing
December 2012

C-Phycocyanin inhibits cell proliferation and may induce apoptosis in human HepG2 cells.

Egypt J Immunol 2008 ;15(2):161-7

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

C-Phycocyanin (C-Pc) is one of the major biliprotein pigments of unicellular cyanbacterium of Spirulina platenesis, it has nutritional, medicinal, and hepatoprotectant application. The growth and multiplication of human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2) under the effect of different concentrations of C-PC (0.8, 1.75, 3.5 and 7.0 microg/ml) against untreated cells as control for 24h were investigated. The results showed that the proliferating cells in presence of C-PC reached 70, 51, 44, and 39%, respectively. The results revealed that the greatest reduction in proliferation of cells was recorded at 7.0 microg/ml and LC50 at 1.75 microg/ml of C-PC. In parallel, to the previous results HCl-denatured MG-P revealed that in mass of cells there is a pattern of apoptosis because the expanded cytoplasmic area (bluish-green) reduced and appeared faintly red as C-PC concentration increased. Moreover, the cells lost all the nuclear entities then, become fragmented and having no nuclear remnants. The C-PC may be a new potential anti-cancer drug for therapy of human hepatoma cells.
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April 2010

A sub-acute study of metronidazole toxicity assessed in Egyptian Tilapia zillii.

J Appl Toxicol 2007 Jul-Aug;27(4):380-90

Cell Biology Department, National Research Center, 12622 Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Metronidazole (MTZ), an antiparasitic and antibacterial compound, is one of the world's most widely used drugs. Despite being considered as a rodent mutagen and a carcinogen, it is still widely used in humans for the treatment of infections with anaerobic organisms. Therefore, the main objective of the current study was to evaluate the in vivo toxicity of MTZ using the micronucleus (MN) assay and random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD-PCR) analysis as well as histopathological examination in Tilapia zillii. Moreover, the protective effect of vitamin C (VitC) against toxicity of MTZ was investigated in the present study. Fish were treated with three doses of MTZ (5, 10 and 20 mg l(-1)) alone or in combination with VitC (200 mg kg(-1) food) at several time intervals (2 days, 7 days and 14 days). The results of the present study showed a significant effect of MTZ on micronucleus formation and changes in polymorphic band patterns as well as induction of different histopathological alterations in Tilapia zillii. The effects of the drug were reduced when fish were exposed to a combination of MTZ and VitC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.1217DOI Listing
August 2007

Adsorption of sterigmatocystin by montmorillonite and inhibition of its genotoxicity in the Nile tilapia fish (Oreachromis nilaticus).

Mutat Res 2005 Apr 26;582(1-2):20-7. Epub 2005 Jan 26.

Food Toxicology and Contaminants Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Sterigmatocystin (Stg) is closely related to the mycotoxin aflatoxin as a precursor in aflatoxin biosynthesis and classified as an IARC Group-2B carcinogen. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Egyptian montmorillonite (EM), a clay mineral, to adsorb Stg, to test the stability of the resulting complex under different conditions in vitro, and to utilize the Nile tilapia fish as an in vivo model to evaluate the protective effect of EM against Stg-induced toxicity and clastogenicity. In the in vitro study, four concentrations of EM (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/L aqueous solution) and three concentrations of Stg (5, 10 and 50 microg/ml) were tested. The results show that EM had a high capacity of adsorbing Stg at different concentrations tested. The adsorption ranged from 93.1 to 97.8% of the available Stg in aqueous solutions. The complex was stable at different pHs at 37 degrees C in different organic solvents. An in vivo experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of EM to prevent the toxicity and chromosomal aberrations induced by Stg in the Nile tilapia fish. Fish received an intragastric dose of EM in corn oil (0.5 mg/kg bw) with or without Stg (1.6 microg/kg bw) twice a week for 4 weeks. Body weight was recorded during dosing, and blood and tissue samples were collected at the end of treatment. Stg residues were determined in fish tissue. The results show that Stg was toxic and clastogenic to fish as indicated by the significant decrease of body weight and the increase in frequencies of micronucleated red blood cells (MN RBC) and chromosomal aberrations in the kidney. The intragastric administration of EM combined with Stg to fish resulted in a reduction of the number of MN RBC and the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the kidney compared with the group treated with Stg alone. It could be concluded that EM itself was safe and successful in the prevention of Stg toxicity and clastogenicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2004.12.009DOI Listing
April 2005