Publications by authors named "Karim Ebrahimpour"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A novel ternary heterogeneous TiO/BiVO/NaY-Zeolite nanocomposite for photocatalytic degradation of microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) under visible light.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Mar 8;210:111862. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran. Electronic address:

Microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) is a carcinogenic toxin, produced by cyanobacteria. The release of this toxin into drinking water sources can threaten public health and environmental safety. Therefore, effective MC-LR removal from water resources is necessary. In the present study, the hydrothermal method was used to synthesize a novel ternary BiVO/TiO/NaY-Zeolite (B/T/N-Z) nanocomposite for MC-LR degradation under visible light. FESEM, FTIR, XRD, and DRS were performed for characterizing the nanocomposite structure. Also, the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the impact of catalyst dosage, pH, and contact time on the MC-LR removal. High-performance liquid chromatography was performed to measure the MC-LR concentration. Based on the results, independent parameters, including contact time, catalyst dosage, and pH, significantly affected the MC-LR removal (P < 0.05). In other words, increasing the contact time, catalyst dosage, and acidic pH had positive effects on MC-LR removal. Among these variables, the catalyst dosage, with the mean square and F-value of 1041.37 and 162.84, respectively, had the greatest effect on the MC-LR removal efficiency. Apart from the interaction between the catalyst dosage and contact time, the interaction effects of other parameters were not significant. Also, the maximum MC-LR removal efficiency was 99.88% under optimal conditions (contact time = 120 min, catalyst dosage = 1 g/L, and pH = 5). According to the results, the B/T/N-Z nanocomposite, as a novel and effective photocatalyst could be used to degrade MC-LR from polluted water.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111862DOI Listing
March 2021

Urinary concentrations of parabens amongst Iranian adults and their associations with socio-demographic factors.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 19;18(2):1227-1238. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Parabens are widely used to prevent organism growth and increase the shelf life of foods, medicines and personal care products (PCPs). Recent studies indicate their potentially harmful effects on human health. There is no information on the extent of exposure to parabens among Iranians.

Methods: We measured the concentration of urinary methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP) and butylparaben (BP) among Iranian adults and calculated their estimated daily intake (EDI). Also, association between the level of urinary parabens with socio-demographic and lifestyle variables were investigated.

Results: Detection frequencies of MP, EP, PP, and BP were 98.9, 91, 94.3, and 88.2%, and their median urinary concentrations were 69.06, 9.10, 12.4, and 9.87 µg/l, respectively. Urinary parabens were higher in females, and the difference in the concentration of MP and PP was significant. A significantly positive correlation between MP and PP (r = 0.638) and a moderate to a weak correlation between other parabens were observed. There was a significantly negative weak correlation between age and MP, BP and PP. There was also a significant association between different age groups and MP, BP and PP as well as different BMI values and MP. The highest EDI value belonged to MP in the female group. Despite being lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI), its value was higher than that reported in other countries (except the US).

Conclusions: Our findings indicated that Iranians are widely exposed to the parabens and the range of exposure was associated with socio-demographic factors. These results could serve as a basis for assessing the risk of exposure to parabens amongst Iranians.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00540-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721947PMC
December 2020

Association of maternal urinary concentration of parabens and neonatal anthropometric indices.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 12;18(2):617-628. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Pediatrics Department, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Purpose: Parabens are used as preservatives in a wide range of products. Although parabens are generally known as safe, but recent evidences indicate that these compounds could lead to potential adverse effects on fetal growth. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association between maternal parabens level in a sample of Iranian pregnant women with neonatal anthropometric measures.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2018-2019 in Isfahan city, Iran. Early morning urine samples were collected from 117 pregnant women who were in their first trimester of pregnancy. The urinary concentrations of four parabens including methylparaben (MeP), ethylparaben (EtP), propylparaben (PrP), and butylparaben (BuP) were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. To compensate for variation in urine dilution, the paraben concentrations were adjusted by the creatinine levels. Associations between maternal parabens level and neonatal anthropometric indices were evaluated.

Results: The MeP, EtP, PrP, and BuP were detected in %92, %36, %65, and %89 of the urine samples, respectively. No significant association was observed between maternal parabens level and birth length (-value>0.05). In adjusted model, the BuP concentration in first trimester urine samples showed significantly negative association with head circumference in female neonates [β = -0.013, 95% CI: -0.024, -0.003], while positive significant association with that index in male neonates [β = 0.019, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.038]. In subgroup analysis by sex, in crude and adjusted analyses BuP was found to be only associated with higher birth weight in female neonates. PrP also showed significant positive association with head circumference and birth weight of male neonates in crude analysis.

Conclusion: Findings of this study on the association of urinary parabens of pregnant mothers with birth weight and head circumference suggest that maternal exposure to parabens might impact the fetal growth, However, these findings are based on cross-sectional data, thus the results should be interpreted with caution. The current findings underscore the necessity of providing more strict regulations in industries for limiting parabens use in their products, and the importance of public education for women of reproductive age for using paraben-free compounds.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00487-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721758PMC
December 2020

Assessment of Oxidative DNA Damages in Radiography Staff via Evaluation of Its Urinary Biomarker (8-hydroxy2-deoxyguanosine).

Int J Prev Med 2020 5;11:164. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Environmental Health, Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Studies have shown that one of the most important complications of exposure to ionizing radiation is the emergence of cancer tumors, as a result of oxidative DNA. Since different radiography groups have high rate of exposure to ionizing radiation, examining the susceptibility rate of cancer in these groups is of prime importance. Therefore, the present study was conducted to measure the level of 8-hydroxy2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the radiographers' urine as a biomarker of oxidative damage while comparing it with the nonradiography staff.

Methods: Samples of two groups were selected for this case-control study, wherein 35 subjects were selected from different radiography groups (including nuclear medicine, radiology, radiotherapy, and CT scan) while the other 35 subjects were staffs who had no exposure to radiation. Later, urine samples were collected at the end of the working shift to determine the 8-OHdG concentration. The samples were obtained via SPE (solid-phase extraction) method. Subsequently, the 8-OHdG concentration was measured by the GC-MS analyzer.

Results: The results confirmed that, the average concentration of 8-OHdG in the radiographers' urine (253.4 ± 31.2 ng/mg of creatinine) had a significant difference as compared to the nonradiographers' urine (141.1 ± 21.9 ng/mg of creatinine) ( = 0.004).

Conclusions: In conclusion, due to elimination of interfering factors, ionizing radiation affects the increase in 8-OHdG levels and acts as a potential biomarker for the damaged oxidative DNA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_44_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716609PMC
October 2020

The association between maternal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and neonatal anthropometric measures: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Res Med Sci 2020 24;25:79. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological studies on the relationship between organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure during pregnancy and neonatal anthropometric measures.

Materials And Methods: In this systematic review and meta analyses, a comprehensive search of the literature for the association of maternal exposure to OP pesticides and birth outcome including birth weight, birth length, and head circumference was conducted from scientific databases of MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane library until the end of April 2019. We used the following keyword to identify the relevant studies: "birth weight," "birth length," "pregnancy outcome,"birth outcome," "organophosphate pesticides," and "organophosphate metabolites." Only English language studies investigating the relationship between pregnant mothers' exposure to OP metabolites and birth outcomes were examined.

Results: Of the 10 articles reviewed, eight studies used to assess the association with birth weight, as well as five, and six studies were used in meta analysis to determine the association between OP exposure and birth length and head circumference. Pooled estimates were performed using a fixed effects model or random effects model. No significant association was observed between maternal exposure to OPs and birth weight (β = 1.520;95% confidence interval [CI] [-10.781, 13.820]), birth length (β = -0.011; [-0.132, 0.109]), and head circumference (β =0.022; 95%CI [-0.06, 0.103]).

Conclusion: Although the effect of maternal exposure to OP on the birth outcome is not completely clear, strategies should be adopted to control the use of these substances.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_919_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554421PMC
August 2020

Environmental disinfection against COVID-19 in different areas of health care facilities: a review.

Rev Environ Health 2020 Aug 26. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Hezar Jerib Avenue, Isfahan, Iran.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) originated in bats and human-to-human transmission through respiratory droplets and contact with surfaces of infected aerosol are the main ways of transmitting this virus. Until now, there is no effective pharmaceutical treatment; conclusively it is important to evaluate the types of applied disinfectants in different areas against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19. The aim of this review was to summarize the information about environmental disinfection for preventing of COVID-19. We performed a review of the science direct database to find articles providing information on disinfection used for SARS-CoV-2. The extracted results were given the original data on inactivation coronaviruses by disinfectants in different places of health care facilities. The final search recognized that five groups of disinfectants include: chlorine containing disinfectants, alcohol, UV irradiation, Hydrogen peroxide, and other disinfectant were used against SARS-CoV-2 in different environments. Among these groups, bleach (chlorine containing disinfectants) has the most applicability. Also, in many studies by using disinfectants with 62-71% ethanol can reduce coronavirus in contaminated areas. Furthermore, after the using of operating room for COVID-19 patients, hydrogen peroxide and UV irradiation should be used for 24 h before it can be used again. The povidone-iodine or the chlorhexidine, could be recommended when there is a risk of SARS-CoV-2 contamination especially for open wounds. According to the different studies on SARS-CoV-2 disinfection, because of the SARS-CoV-2 can remain in the air and on surfaces, as well as observing individual disinfection guidelines in different hospital areas, disinfection of surfaces is necessary to decrease SARS-CoV-2 spreading. Moreover, the most suggested disinfectants have been limited to bleach and alcohol, it's better to be considered the potential of other disinfectants in different areas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2020-0075DOI Listing
August 2020

The association of personal care products uses and dietary habits with the urinary concentration of parabens in Iranian adults.

Int J Environ Health Res 2020 Jul 31:1-17. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan, Iran.

We evaluated the relationships between the use of individual personal care products (PCPs) and food items with the urinary Methylparaben (MP), Ethylparaben (EP), Propylparaben (PP) and Butylparaben (BP) among 178 Iranian adults. The urinary concentrations of parabens were found to be significantly different between low, medium, and high users of PCPs (P < 0.05). The frequency of PCP use was associated with higher urinary MP, PPand BP concentrations. Significant positive association was found between the frequency of food products use and urinary MP and EP concentrations. The urinary concentration of parabens was higher in individuals who used body wash, makeup base, shaving cream and, lotion in the past 24 h compared to non-users. Consumers of cookies and dairy products had significantly higher urinary MP and jelly consumers had higher urinary MP and PP concentrations than non-consumers. Our findings indicated that certain types of foods and PCPs could be important sources of exposure to parabens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2020.1798362DOI Listing
July 2020

Genotoxicity and phytotoxicity comparison of cigarette butt with cigarette ash.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Nov 14;27(32):40383-40391. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

The damage potential of cigarette butt and cigarette ash was determined and compared using genotoxicity and phytotoxicity assessments. The concentrations of five heavy metals, As, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Ni, were determined in both cigarette butt and ash leachates to find out if the results of heavy metals are in parallel with toxicity findings. Cigarette ashes and cigarette butts were soaked in distilled water for 7 days. Six leachate butt concentrations, including 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, and 6.25 piece/L, were examined. HUVEC cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) were exposed to these dilution series for genotoxicity, and Vicia faba seeds were exposed to the same dilution series for phytotoxicity assessments. Three parameters of genotoxicity, including tail length, %DNA in tail, and tail moment, were obtained by the comet assay method, and three parameters of phytotoxicity, including germination rate, root length, and water content percentage, were employed. The results showed that cigarette ash at the concentrations of 50, 25, 12.5, and 6.25 pc/L brings about DNA damage. Meanwhile, cigarette butt causes DNA damage at the concentrations of 100, 50, 25, and 12.5 pc/L. The highest concentrations (200 pc/L for cigarette butt and 200 and 100 pc/L for cigarette ash) were considered lethal for HUVEC cells. Besides, the levels of genotoxicity in the cigarette ash were twice as high as those in the cigarette butt. The Vicia faba phytotoxicity test demonstrated a germination rate restriction from 100 to 52 and 100 to 0% for cigarette butt and cigarette ash, respectively. It also caused a reduction in the length of roots from 35 to 7.85 and 3 mm for cigarette butt and cigarette ash, respectively. The moisture amounts of cigarette remnants had a decline from 93.14 to 44.61 and 36.72% for cigarette butt and cigarette ash, respectively. Concentrations of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Ni were 17.45, 2.5, 0.15, 6, and 0.62 ppb in the butt leachate and 7.21, 2.64, 0.29, 13.61, and 1.24 ppb in the ash leachate, respectively, indicating that heavy metals could explain the higher toxicity of cigarette ash. Based on the present study, cigarette ash imposes not only higher levels of genotoxicity and phytotoxicity but also more values of toxic heavy metals on our planet. Thus, cigarette ash plays a major role in environmental pollution, and the importance of cigarette ashes should receive attention even more than cigarette butts. This paper casts new light on the toxic impacts of cigarette ash.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10080-zDOI Listing
November 2020

Urinary Concentrations of Parabens in a Population of Iranian Adolescent and Their Association with Sociodemographic Indicators.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2020 Aug 22;79(2):195-207. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Parabens are widely used as preservatives in personal care products, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals. Concerns have been raised regarding the potential endocrine disruption effects of parabens. In the present study, the urinary concentration of four common parabens, including methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), and butylparaben (BP), in 100 Iranian adolescents randomly referring to health services centres were analyzed using GC/MS. The association of sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, collected through questionnaire, with the concentration of parabens also were studied. Median concentrations of MP, EP, PP, and BP were 92.21, 8.46, 12.26, and 8.42 µg/g creatinine, respectively. There was a strong positive significant correlation between MP and PP (r = 0.694) and moderate to a weak correlation between the other parabens. The concentration of urinary MP in females was significantly higher than those in male (p = 0.021). There was a significant negative association between different BMI groups and MP and EP. There also was a positive significant association between the MP and age, and between MP, EP, and PP, and tobacco use. Although the estimated daily intake of the parabens was lower than the Acceptable Daily Intake, it was higher than those reported in other countries. This confirms the widespread exposure of Iranian adolescents to the paraben compounds and their association with sociodemographic factors. This was the first study reporting the urinary parabens level in Iranian adolescents, and the data can be used as a basis for assessing the risk of exposure to parabens in the Iranian population in future studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-020-00746-7DOI Listing
August 2020

Evaluation of toxic effects of platinum-based antineoplastic drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin) on green alga Chlorella vulgaris.

Aquat Toxicol 2020 Jun 24;223:105495. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Platinum-based antineoplastic drugs (PBADs) enter the environment via hospital and municipal wastes as reactive and highly toxic molecules. Chlorella vulgaris is a freshwater microalgae and is used as an excellent aquatic model for toxicity assessment. In the present study, the toxicity of PBADs to C. vulgaris was investigated for better understanding of PBADs environmental toxicity. The algae were cultured in Bold´s Basal Medium (BBM) and exposed to different concentrations of PBADs for 48, 72 and 96 h. Then, cell proliferation, the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments, protein content, malondialdehyde (MDA) release and antioxidant potential were determined. IC s of cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin for 96 h of exposure were 106.2, 124.3 and 153.9 mg/L respectively. Cell proliferation, synthesis of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and algal protein content significantly decreased in a time and dose-dependent manner. The release of MDA to culture media significantly increased and antioxidant potential decreased. Cisplatin showed more toxic effects on C. vulgaris compared to carboplatin and oxaliplatin indicating its severe toxicity for marine organisms. PBADs induce their toxic effects in algal cells via the interaction with DNA, production of free radicals (such as reactive oxygen species), lipid peroxidation and cell wall damages. Due to these toxic effects of PBADs for various environmental organisms, there must be severe restriction on their release into the environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105495DOI Listing
June 2020

A Novel Bilayer Wound Dressing Composed of a Dense Polyurethane/Propolis Membrane and a Biodegradable Polycaprolactone/Gelatin Nanofibrous Scaffold.

Sci Rep 2020 02 20;10(1):3063. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Medical Physics and Radiotherapy, Arak School of Paramedicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.

One-layer wound dressings cannot meet all the clinical needs due to their individual characteristics and shortcomings. Therefore, bilayer wound dressings which are composed of two layers with different properties have gained lots of attention. In the present study, polycaprolactone/gelatin (PCL/Gel) scaffold was electrospun on a dense membrane composed of polyurethane and ethanolic extract of propolis (PU/EEP). The PU/EEP membrane was used as the top layer to protect the wound area from external contamination and dehydration, while the PCL/Gel scaffold was used as the sublayer to facilitate cells' adhesion and proliferation. The bilayer wound dressing was investigated regarding its microstructure, mechanical properties, surface wettability, anti-bacterial activity, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and its efficacy in the animal wound model and histopathological analyzes. Scanning electron micrographs exhibited uniform morphology and bead-free structure of the PCL/Gel scaffold with average fibers' diameter of 237.3 ± 65.1 nm. Significant anti-bacterial activity was observed against Staphylococcal aureus (5.4 ± 0.3 mm), Escherichia coli (1.9 ± 0.4 mm) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1.0 ± 0.2 mm) according to inhibition zone test. The bilayer wound dressing exhibited high hydrophilicity (51.1 ± 4.9°), biodegradability, and biocompatibility. The bilayer wound dressing could significantly accelerate the wound closure and collagen deposition in the Wistar rats' skin wound model. Taking together, the PU/EEP-PCL/Gel bilayer wound dressing can be a potential candidate for biomedical applications due to remarkable mechanical properties, biocompatibility, antibacterial features, and wound healing activities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-59931-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7033255PMC
February 2020

Urinary paraben concentrations and their implications for human exposure in Iranian pregnant women.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 May 12;27(13):14723-14734. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Student Research Committee, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Parabens are widely used as preservatives in cosmetics, medicines, and foods due to its antimicrobial properties. Concerns have been raised regarding the estrogenic activity and potential endocrine disruption effects of parabens. Studies on monitoring of paraben exposure in the Iranian population are very scarce. This study was carried out to measure urinary concentrations of parabens, to estimate their daily intake, and to identify some of the sociodemographic factors affecting exposure to these compounds. The concentrations of methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), and butylparaben (BP) were measured in urine samples collected from 95 Iranian pregnant women by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The highest median concentration was 87.0 μg/L for MP, followed by PP, EP, and BP with median concentrations of 15.6, 9.64, and 8.57 μg/L, respectively. Except BP, the urinary concentrations of other parabens were comparable to those in other countries. Also, the highest daily intake was related to MP (median = 16.5 μg/kg-BW/day), which is less than the acceptable daily intake (ADI). A significant positive correlation was observed between the measured parabens. Significant negative associations were observed between age and BP, BMI and EP as well as parity and PP. On the other hand, income and smoking were significantly positively associated with MP, BP and EP, BP, respectively. The urinary MP and BP concentrations were higher among the subjects with diploma education (P = 0.003 and P = 0.006, respectively), and during the spring, urinary MP concentration was higher than other seasons. The results showed that Iranian pregnant women are more prone to parabens and their urinary paraben concentrations are associated with sociodemographic factors. This result could serve as a basis for evaluating the rate of exposure of the Iranian population to parabens in future studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-07991-2DOI Listing
May 2020

Efficient degradation of microcystin-LR by BiVO/TiO photocatalytic nanocomposite under visible light.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Dec 2;17(2):1171-1183. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

2Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Microcystin-Leucine Arginine (MC-LR) is one of the most studied cyanotoxins due to its toxicity and abundant that cause health hazards for humans through of the drinking water. In this study, BiVO/TiO nanocomposite was synthesized by hydrothermal method and employed for the removal of MC-LR. The characteristics of the catalysts were determined by FESEM, XRD and FTIR spectra. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to assess the effects of operating variables (pH, contact time, and catalyst dose) on the MC-LR removal. The coefficient of determination (R) was calculated 98.7% for the response. The residual concentration of MC-LR was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that the highest removal efficiency of MC-LR was 98% under the optimum conditions (pH = 5, contact time = 90 min, and catalyst dose = 0.5 g/l). MC-LR decomposition efficiency by BiVO/TiO nanocomposite was enhanced by pH reduction and increasing of contact time and catalyst dose. The prepared BiVO/TiO nanocomposite with technological potential can be used directly in environmental preservation, specifically in the decontamination of MC-LR from aqueous solutions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00432-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985378PMC
December 2019

Monitoring of urinary phthalate metabolites among pregnant women in Isfahan, Iran: the PERSIAN birth cohort.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Dec 17;17(2):969-978. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

4Department of Pediatrics, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Recently, increasing evidences have shown that the exposure to phthalates can adversely affect health status of pregnant women and their newborns. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated the concentrations of these compounds in the body fluids of pregnant women. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the concentrations of phthalate metabolites in urinary samples of pregnant women in correlation with the population characteristics and different lifestyle factors. The study was conducted in 2018-2019 and urinary samples were taken from 121 pregnant women during their first pregnancy trimester who lived in Isfahan, Iran. The concentrations of monobutyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), and mono (2-ethyl-5hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) metabolites in urinary samples were determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The socio-demographic profile of the participants (maternal education, age, family income, pre-pregnancy BMI), their lifestyle information (smoking habit, food pattern, and physical activity), cleaning products use data (cosmetic and household cleaning products) were collected by the use of PERSIAN birth cohort questionnaire. MBzP, MBP, MEHP, and MEHHP were detected in 100% of participated pregnant women with the mean concentration of 342.5 ± 193.8, 308.5 ± 229.4, 126.5 ± 118.3, and 866.5 ± 307.6 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the mean concentration of urinary phthalate metabolites with the following variables: using plastic packaging (for bread, lemon juice, pickle, leftover, and water), lower physical activity, passive smoking exposure during pregnancy ( value<0.05). Furthermore, the pre-pregnancy BMI (r = 0.27, r = 0.3, r = 0.26, and r = 0.26), use of the household cleaning products (r = 0.2, r = 0.22, r = 0.3, and r = 0.26), utilize of the cosmetic products (r = 0.46, r = 0.48, r = 0.49, and r = 0.54), and passive smoking status (r = 0.5, r = 0.44, r = 0.44, and r = 0.26) directly correlated with the urinary concentrations of MBP, MBzP, MEHP, and MEHHP, respectively. No significant association was seen between the concentration of urinary phthalate metabolites with the maternal education level and family income. According to our findings, higher amounts of phthalate metabolites were detected in urinary samples of pregnant women who were passive smokers, or had higher pre-pregnancy BMI and lower physical activity, as well as those women who used higher amounts of cosmetic and household cleaning products, or used plastic packaging for food and non-food products.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00412-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985356PMC
December 2019

Paraben Content in Adjacent Normal-malignant Breast Tissues from Women with Breast Cancer.

Biomed Environ Sci 2019 12;32(12):893-904

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objective: Accumulation of estrogenic compounds and other carcinogens in normal breast tissues contributes to unpredictable breast cancer incidence during adolescence and throughout life. To assess the role of parabens in this phenomenon, the paraben content of adjacent normal-malignant breast tissues is measured in women with breast cancer living in Isfahan Province, Iran.

Methods: Adjacent normal-malignant breast tissue samples were obtained from 53 subjects. The parabens including methyl-paraben (MePB), ethyl-paraben (EtPB), propyl-paraben (PrPB), and butylparaben (BuPB) were extracted from the sample supernatant and then subjected to gas chromatography analysis.

Results: Some risk factors for breast cancer were stimulated by parabens in adjacent malignant-normal breast tissues among young and middle-aged women with breast cancer. We observed a significant association for dose-response pattern of MePB [OR = 98.34 (11.43-185.2), P = 0.027] for both ER+ and PR+ women and MePB [OR = 164.3 (CI: 112.3-216.3), P < 0.001] for HER2+ women than women with negative receptors. The risk of 95-fold increase in MePB dose and 164-fold increase in ΣPBs dose were significant for women with hereditary breast cancer in first-degree relatives.

Conclusion: These results may promote future epidemiology studies and strategies to improve women's lifestyle and consume paraben-free products.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2019.112DOI Listing
December 2019

Exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A is associated with higher risk of cardiometabolic impairment in normal weight children.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jun 4;26(18):18604-18614. Epub 2019 May 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Hezarjerib Ave, Isfahan, Iran.

Some obese individuals have normal metabolic profile, and some normal-weight persons have impaired metabolic status. Our hypothesis was that one of the potential underlying factors for such differences in cardiometabolic profiles might be the exposure to some environmental chemicals. This study aimed to investigate the association of serum bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalate metabolites with cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents independent of their weight status. This case-control study was conducted on a subsample of 320 participants of a national school-based surveillance program in Iran. We measured serum BPA and phthalate metabolites by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry. We compared them in children and adolescents with and without excess weight and those with and without cardiometabolic risk factors (80 in each group). We categorized the concentrations of chemicals to tertiles and then we applied logistic regression models after adjustment for potential confounding factors. The concentrations of BPA and some metabolites of phthalates were significantly different in the four groups studied. MEHP concentration was associated with higher odds ratio of cardiometabolic risk factors in participants with normal weight (OR, 95% CI 2.82, 1.001-7.91) and those with excess weight (OR, 95% CI 3.15, 1.27-7.83). MBP concentration increased the odds ratio of cardiometabolic risk factors only in normal weight children and adolescents (OR, 95% CI 6.59, 2.33-18.59, P < 0.001). In participants without cardiometabolic risk factor, MMP and MEHHP were significantly associated with increased risk of excess weight (OR, 95% CI 5.90, 1.21-28.75 and 7.82, 1.5-41.8, respectively). This study showed that the association of BPA and phthalate with cardiometabolic risk factors is independent of the weight status. Our findings suggest that the metabolic impairment in some normal weight children and normal metabolic profile of some obese children can be, in part, related to exposure to these environmental chemicals. Graphical abstract.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05123-zDOI Listing
June 2019

Cornstarch-based wound dressing incorporated with hyaluronic acid and propolis: In vitro and in vivo studies.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Jul 30;216:25-35. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

The unique physicochemical and functional characteristics of starch-based biomaterials and wound dressings have been proposed for several biomedical applications. Film dressings of cornstarch/hyaluronic acid/ ethanolic extract of propolis (CS/HA/EEP) were prepared by solvent-casting and characterized by attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, light transmission, opacity measurements, EEP release, equilibrium swelling, and in vitro and in vivo evaluations. The CS/HA/0.5%EEP film dressing exhibited higher antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (2.08 ± 0.14 mm), Escherichia coli (2.64 ± 0.18 mm), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1.02 ± 0.15 mm) in comparison with the CS, CS/HA, and CS/HA/0.25%EEP films. Also, it showed no cytotoxicity for the L929 fibroblast cells. This wound dressing could effectively accelerate the wound healing process at Wistar rats' skin excisions. These results indicate that enrichment of cornstarch wound dressings with HA and EEP can significantly enhance their potential efficacy as wound dressing material.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.03.091DOI Listing
July 2019

Association of benzene exposure with insulin resistance, SOD, and MDA as markers of oxidative stress in children and adolescents.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 3;25(34):34046-34052. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Benzene is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with various health effects. It is reported that benzene exposure might be associated with insulin resistance in elderly adults. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between urinary benzene metabolite, trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-ma) and markers of oxidative stress and insulin resistance in children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2017 among 86 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, living in Isfahan, Iran. t,t-ma was measured as urinary benzene metabolite and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was determined as an index of insulin resistance. Moreover, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assessed as oxidative stress markers. We found significant association between insulin resistance, fasting blood glucose, and fasting blood insulin with t,t-ma (p values = 0.002, 0.03, and 0.001, respectively). Results of this study indicate that benzene metabolite in higher concentrations in comparison with lower concentrations is associated with increased risk of insulin resistance. Moreover, after adjustment for age, sex, and household passive smoking, statistically significant increase were documented in SOD and MDA (4.49- and 3.54-fold, respectively) in intermediate levels of t,t-ma vs. low levels of t,t-ma (p values = 0.01 and 0.034, respectively). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in its kind in the pediatric age group. It showed that benzene exposures, even in environmental levels, might be associated with insulin resistance and oxidative stress in children and adolescents. Further longitudinal studies are necessary to assess the clinical impacts of this finding.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3354-7DOI Listing
December 2018

Association of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites with cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity in children and adolescents.

Chemosphere 2018 Nov 31;211:547-556. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

This study aimed to investigate the association of urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites with obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in a pediatric population. This study was conducted in 2016 on 242 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, living in Isfahan, Iran. Urinary concentration of mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), Mono (2-ethyl-5-exohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono (2-ethyl-5hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) metabolites were determined. The association of these metabolites with obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors was examined using student t-test, linear and logistics regression tests. Of the 242 participants studied, 140 (57.9%) were girls and 102 (42.1%) were boys. The mean (SD) age of the population was 11.34 (2.55) years and no significant difference existed in terms of age (p-value = 0.374). MBzP, MBP, MMP were observed in urine samples of all subjects, and MEHP, MEOHP, and MEHHP were observed in 99.6, 95.87, and 96.28% of the subjects, respectively. Of the total participants, 15.2% (n = 37) were obese and 37.7% (n = 92) were overweight. According to the logistic regression analysis, except MEOHP, all other pollutants were significantly associated with obesity (OR >1, p-value ≤ 0.002). A significant association existed between MBP and elevated blood pressure [OR in tertile3 = 4.87 (CI: 1.02-23.32), p-value = 0.024]. MBzP and MEHP were significantly associated with obesity, elevated levels of triglyceride and blood pressure. Increase in MBzP metabolite in the 3rd tertile resulted to about 2.5-fold increase in triglyceride levels than the first tertile [OR  = 2.7 (CI: 1.23-6.22)]. The findings of this study clearly showed the association between phthalate metabolites with obesity, cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents, however further longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical effects of this finding.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.07.172DOI Listing
November 2018

Association of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity in children.

Environ Int 2018 09 7;118:203-210. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

A limited body of evidence exists on the association of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity in children. No study has evaluated these associations in subgroups of children with and without excess weight, and those with and without cardiometabolic risk factors. We aimed to investigate the association between PAH exposure and cardiometabolic risk factors in children independent of their weight status. The secondary aim was to evaluate the obesogen properties of PAHs in children independent of their cardiometabolic risk factors. This study was based on a representative sample of 186 children (aged 6-18 years) living in Isfahan, Iran (2014-2016). We enrolled four groups of participants with and without excess weight and with and without cardiometabolic risk factor. Urinary levels of monohydroxy PAHs (OH-PAHs) were measured twice, six months apart. Logistic regression models were developed to estimate the associations of tertiles of urinary OH-PAH concentrations with cardiometabolic risk factors and excess weight, adjusted for the relevant covariates. The findings in all participants combined showed that increased risk of cardiometabolic risk factors and excess weight was associated with exposure to most of evaluated PAHs. Exposure to 1-hydroxypyrene was associated with higher risk of cardiometabolic risk factors in participants with excess weight. Exposure to 2-Naphtol was also associated with higher risk of cardiometabolic risk factors in both groups, but the associations were not significant (p < 0.1). For participants without cardiometabolic risk factors, exposure to 2-naphtol, 9-phenanthrol, and ∑ OH-PAH was associated with increased risk of obesity. For participants with cardiometabolic risk factors, we observed similar pattern of associations for 2-naphtol and ∑ OH-PAH, but the associations were not statistically significant (p < 0.1). We found that exposure to PAHs could possibly explain, in part, the cardiometabolic risk factors in children with excess weight as well as obesity in children with normal cardiometabolic profile.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.05.048DOI Listing
September 2018

Comment on Salt-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with programmed temperature vaporization gas chromatography-massspectrometry for the determination of haloacetonitriles in drinking water.

J Chromatogr A 2018 05 8;1551:75. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Hezar Jarib Avenue, 81745 185, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2018.02.010DOI Listing
May 2018

Association of urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Apr 7;25(11):11143-11151. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

This study aims to investigate the association of urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in 2016 on 242 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years living in Isfahan, Iran. Urinary concentration of mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono (2-ethyl-5-exohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono (2-ethyl-5hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) metabolites were determined. For comparison of means, t test and to evaluate the association of analytes in different groups according to weight ANOVA was used. The correlation was applied to determine the association between phthalate metabolites with age, sex, WC, BMI, and BMI z-score. The univariate and multivariate regression models were used to determine the association of metabolites concentration with BMI z-score and WC. Mean (SD) BMI, BMI z-score and WC were 23.89 (4.41) kg/m, 1.37 (1.3), and 82.37 (12.71) cm, respectively. There was a significant correlation between boys' age with BMI z-score (p value = 0.03) and WC (p value = 0.01), while the corresponding figures were not statistically significant in girls (p value = 0.48, and 0.4, respectively). Of the total population, 37 participants (15.3%) were obese. MMP, MBP, and MBzP metabolites were observed in all samples while MEHP, MEOHP, and MEHHP in 99.6, 95.86, and 96.28% of the studied population. Mean concentration of MMP (64.38 μg/L) and MBzP (268 μg/L) had the lowest and highest concentrations of metabolites, respectively. A significant relationship was observed among all studied metabolites and weight groups (p value ≤ 0.02). After adjustment for potential confounders, all metabolites (except MMP) showed a low-to-moderate positive and significant relationship with BMI z-score (β = 0.17-0.3). A weak to moderate positive and significant relationship was observed between all phthalate metabolites and WC (β = 0.14-0.39). The concentration of phthalate metabolites was much higher in the population living in Isfahan-Iran than in some other populations, indicating a high exposure to contaminants. Therefore, further studies and preventive measures are required for improving the environmental health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1413-8DOI Listing
April 2018

Association of urinary concentrations of four chlorophenol pesticides with cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity in children and adolescents.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Feb 29;25(5):4516-4523. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

This study was undertaken to determine the association of four chlorophenol pesticides with cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity in children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 on 242 children and adolescents, aged 6 to 18 years. The concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) in the urine were examined and their association with indices of obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors was determined. Multivariate linear regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were applied. Overall, 242 participants with mean (SD) ages of 11.3 (2.5) years completed the survey. After adjustment for confounders, a significant positive association was found between body mass index (BMI) z-score and waist circumference (WC) with 2,5-DCP (0.07 (95% CI 0.04, 0.1)) and 0.79 (95% CI 0.54, 1.03), respectively. A significant association of 2,4,5-TCP was only found with WC (0.23 (95% CI 0.0, 0.46), but the relationship with 2,4-DCP was not significant. 2,5-DCP had a significant relationship only with obesity (1.09 (95% CI 1.1, 1.19)), while 2,4-DCP and 2,4,5-TCP showed no significant correlation with overweight or obesity. 2,4-DCP showed a significant positive relationship with high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Moreover, 2,5-DCP showed a significant negative relationship only with systolic blood pressure and 2,4,5-TCP had a statistically significant inverse association with total cholesterol and HDL-C (-0.71 (95% CI -0.98, -0.45)). This study suggests potential associations of chlorophenol pesticides with overweight, obesity, lipid profile, and blood pressure in children and adolescents. Longitudinal studies are necessary to assess the clinical impact of these findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0771-yDOI Listing
February 2018

Is there any association between urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and thyroid hormone levels in children and adolescents?

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Jan 5;25(2):1962-1968. Epub 2017 Nov 5.

Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Considering the possible effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on thyroid function, the current study aims to investigate the association of PAH urinary metabolites with the level of thyroid hormones in a sample of Iranian children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2015 to July 2016 in Isfahan, Iran. Participants were 150 students, aged 6-18 years, who were selected by multistage cluster random sampling from schools of Isfahan province. Blood and urine samples of participants were obtained for measurement of thyroid hormone levels (measured by immunoradiometric assay) and PAH urinary metabolites, including 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene. The association of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and PAH urinary metabolites was determined by correlation and regression analyses. Multivariate regression analysis revealed significant association between serum TSH and PAH urinary metabolites; this association remained significant after adjustment for gender and age. The corresponding figures were r = 0.85 for 1-naphthol, r = 0.86 for 2-naphthol, r = 0.87 for 1-hydroxypyrene, and r = 0.42 for 9-phenantrol, respectively, all p values < 0.001. The mean levels of 1-hydroxypyrene and 9-phenanthrol were higher in boys than those in girls (p < 0.05). The findings of this study indicated significant positive association between urinary PAH biomarkers and the TSH level in children and adolescents. It can be suggested that long-term exposure to PAHs might result in thyroid function impairment. The clinical implication of the current findings should be confirmed by future longitudinal studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0577-yDOI Listing
January 2018