Publications by authors named "Karen Wilson"

229 Publications

Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane: catalytic and mechanistic aspects and future trends.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Centre for Applied Materials and Industrial Chemistry (CAMIC), School of Science, RMIT University, 124 La Trobe Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.

Ethene is a commodity chemical of great importance for manufacturing diverse consumer products, whose synthesis via crude oil steam cracking is one of the most energy-intensive processes in the petrochemical industry. Oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethane is an attractive, low energy, alternative route to ethene which could reduce the carbon footprint for its production, however, the commercial implementation of ODH requires catalysts with improved selectivity. This review critically assesses recent developments in catalytic technologies for ethane ODH, and discusses how insight into proposed mechanisms from computational studies, and CO2 assisted ethane dehydrogenation (CO2-DHE), provide opportunities for economically viable processes to meet growing demands for ethene while reducing carbon emissions. Future trends and emerging technologies for ethane ODH are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs01518kDOI Listing
February 2021

Reported Marijuana and Tobacco Smoke Incursions Among Families Living in Multiunit Housing in New York City.

Acad Pediatr 2021 Jan 16. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Kravis Children's Hospital, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (C Elaiho, L Boguski, M Yaker, M Resnick, A Malbari, and KM Wilson), New York City, NY. Electronic address:

Background: While public knowledge on the prevalence and adverse health effects of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure is well established, information on the prevalence of secondhand marijuana smoke (SHMS) exposure is limited.

Methods: A convenience sample of parents of children attending 1 of 4 pediatric practices in the Mount Sinai Health System completed an anonymous questionnaire assessing demographics, housing characteristics, and the child's health status, as well as smoke incursions and household smoking behaviors.

Results: About 450 parents completed the survey between 2018 and 2019; those with incomplete data were excluded, and 382 surveys were included in the analysis. Approximately 40% of the children were white; the median age was 15 months (interquartile range: 5-40 months). About 30.9% (n = 118) of participants reported marijuana incursions in their home while with their child, while 33.5% (n = 122) reported tobacco smoke incursions. SHMS exposure differed by race (P = .0043); and by housing types (P < .0001). Participants in New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) developments were more likely to report smelling SHMS (adjusted odds ratio = 3.45, 95% confidence interval = 1.18, 10.10], P = .02). Those in Section 8 housing were also more likely to report smelling SHMS, but the association was not significant (adjusted odds ratio = 3.29, 95% confidence interval = 0.94, 11.55, P = .06). Approximately two thirds of the participants reported viewing marijuana smoke as being harmful to their child.

Conclusions: About one third of the families enrolled in the study reported smelling SHMS while at home with their child. Reported marijuana smoke exposure was associated with living in NYCHA housing. Policies that limit all smoke in multiunit housing should be supported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2021.01.005DOI Listing
January 2021

Smoking Cessation Counseling in the Inpatient Unit: A Survey of Pediatric Hospitalists.

Hosp Pediatr 2021 Jan;11(1):30-35

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and.

Objectives: To determine practices and beliefs of pediatric hospitalists regarding smoking cessation counseling for caregivers of hospitalized children.

Methods: An electronic survey was distributed to 249 members of the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings Network over 6 weeks in 2017 (83 responses [33%]). Questions explored beliefs regarding the impact of tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) and practices in TSE screening, provision of counseling, resources, and pharmacotherapy. Nonparametric tests were used to compare groups on numeric variables, χ tests were used to compare groups on nominal variables, and McNemar's test was used to compare dichotomous responses within subjects.

Results: All respondents were familiar with the term "secondhand smoke," and >75% were familiar with "thirdhand smoke" (THS). Familiarity with THS was associated with more recent completion of training ( = .04). Former smokers (7%) were less likely to agree that THS has a significant impact on a child's health ( = .04). Hospitalists ask about TSE more often than they provide counseling, resources, or pharmacotherapy to caregivers who want to quit smoking. Hospitalists are more likely to ask about TSE and provide cessation counseling when patients have asthma as opposed to other diseases. Time was identified by 41% of respondents as a barrier for providing counseling and by 26% of respondents as a barrier for providing resources. Most respondents never prescribe pharmacotherapy (72%), nor do they follow-up with caregivers after hospitalization regarding cessation (87%).

Conclusions: Although most respondents ask about TSE, opportunities are missed for counseling and providing support to caregivers who want to quit smoking. Providers should be educated about THS, and systems should be streamlined to facilitate brief counseling sessions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2020-000414DOI Listing
January 2021

Trends in Incidence of Nicotine Use Disorder Among Adolescents in the Pediatric Hospital, 2012-2019.

Hosp Pediatr 2021 Jan 4;11(1):25-29. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Mount Sinai Kravis Children's Hospital, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, New York.

Objectives: To assess trends in the incidence of nicotine use disorder (NUD) and describe associated factors among adolescents in the pediatric emergency department (ED) and inpatient settings.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all adolescents (11-18 years) with a hospital encounter (inpatient, observation, or ED) in the Pediatric Health Information System between January 1, 2012, and September 30, 2019. After excluding adolescents with a previous , and , NUD diagnosis in the past 2 years, adolescents with new NUD diagnosis (ie, NUD incidence) were identified. A multivariable generalized liner mixed model was used to assess adjusted NUD incidence and investigate the relationship of NUD with patient characteristics and any interactions between characteristics and time. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between NUD incidence and e-cigarette use reported among youth.

Results: Of 3 963 754 adolescents, 15 376 (0.4%) had a new diagnosis of NUD. Between 2012 and 2019, NUD incidence increased from 0.3% to 0.4% ( < .001). Findings from the time interaction effect analysis revealed increasing NUD incidence among certain subpopulations, including boys, those with a commercial or other insurance type, adolescents seen in the ED, those from the lowest and highest median household income quartile, and those in the South and West US Census regions. The correlation between NUD incidence and e-cigarette use among high school students was ρ = 0.884 ( = .006).

Conclusions: The incidence of NUD among adolescents is increasing. Efforts to increase the screening and treatment of NUD among adolescents in the hospital, particularly among the at-risk populations identified, are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2020-0183DOI Listing
January 2021

Smoking Behaviors Among Tobacco-Using Parents of Hospitalized Children and Association With Child Cotinine Level.

Hosp Pediatr 2021 Jan 3;11(1):17-24. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Julius B. Richmond Center of Excellence, American Academy of Pediatrics, Itasca, Illinois.

Objectives: Understanding patterns of parental tobacco use and their association with child exposure can help us target interventions more appropriately. We aimed to examine the association between parental smoking practices and cotinine levels of hospitalized children.

Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data collected from parents of hospitalized children, recruited for a cessation intervention randomized controlled trial. Smoking parents were identified by using a medical record screening question. Parent-reported demographics and smoking habits were compared to child urine cotinine by using geometric means and log-transformed cotinine levels in multivariable linear regression analyses.

Results: A total of 213 patients had complete baseline parent-interview and urine cotinine data. The median age was 4 (interquartile range: 1-9); 57% were boys; 56% were white, 12% were Black, and 23% were multiracial; 36% identified as Hispanic. Most families (54%) had 1 smoker in the home; 36% had 2, and 9% had ≥3. Many (77%) reported having a ban on smoking in the home, and 86% reported smoking only outside. The geometric mean cotinine level of the cohort was 0.98 ng/mL. Higher cotinine levels were associated with more smokers in the home (ratio of 2.99) and smoking inside the house (ratio of 4.11).

Conclusions: Having more smokers in the home and parents who smoke inside are associated with increased smoke exposure; however, even children whose families who smoke only outside the home have significant levels of cotinine, a marker for toxin exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2020-0122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769203PMC
January 2021

Laser tongue debridement for oral malodor-A novel approach to halitosis.

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Jan - Feb;42(1):102458. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Ohio State University, Campus Microscopy and Imaging Facility, Departments of Microbial Infection and Immunity and Orthopaedics, Infectious Diseases Institute, United States of America.

Study Objective: Malodor is a multifactorial condition with oral pathology representing the main culprit and the tongue being the first to second contributor to the malodor. Bacterial load can represent a quantifiable measure regardless of the original pathology. We hypothesize that reduction in malodor can be represented by tongue changes both in appearance, bacterial and biofilm load reduction (measured by CFU and volatile gases measurement), organoleptic measurement and subjective improvement.

Methods: A randomized controlled prospective study under IRB approval. Diagnostic criteria for enrollment and follow up were organoleptic test by 2 judges, Halimeter reading, tongue colors changes HALT questionnaire and direct aerobic and anaerobic tongue cultures measured by CFU. Patients were treated with laser tongue debridement (LTD) with an Er,Cr:YSGG solid state laser has been shown to be effective in biofilm reduction.

Results: 54 patients recruited with 35 available for follow up. Improvement was observed on all objective and QOL subjective parameters. Treatment was tolerated well with minimal discomfort.

Conclusions: The tongue is proven to be a major contributor to oral malodor and must be addressed in treatment protocol. LTD significantly reduces malodor by subjective and objective criteria. While impossible to determine whether the tongue serves as a bacterial reservoir or is the origin for oral bacteria it is clear that LTD improves oral hygiene and reduces malodor. LTD is safe and easy to perform. We encourage LTD to be a crucial part of any oral malodor treatment protocol.

Trial Registration: clinical trials, NCT04120948. Registered 25 September 2019 - Retrospectively registered, https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/prs/app/action/SelectProtocol?sid=S00098SX&selectaction=Edit&uid=U0000W0Y&ts=51&cx=-elnx7e.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102458DOI Listing
March 2020

A Multidisciplinary Home Visiting Program for Children With Medical Complexity.

Hosp Pediatr 2020 Nov 2;10(11):925-931. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics and.

Objectives: Given the high needs and costs associated with the care of children with medical complexity (CMC), innovative models of care are needed. Home-visiting care models are effective in subpopulations of pediatrics and medically complex adults, but there is no literature on this model for CMC. We describe the development and outcomes of a multidisciplinary program that provides comprehensive home-based primary care for CMC.

Methods: Medical records from our institution were reviewed for patients enrolled in our program from July 2013 through March 2019. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and health care use were collected. We compared the differences in pre- and postprogram enrollment health care use using Wilcoxon signed rank test. We applied Cox proportional hazard models to examine the association between the time-dependent postenrollment health care use and numbers of home visits. We collected total claims data for a subset of our patients to examine total costs of care.

Results: We reviewed data collected from 121 patients. With our findings, we demonstrate that enrollment in our program is associated with reductions in average length of stay. More home visits were associated with decreased emergency department visits and hospitalizations. We also observed in patients with available cost data that total costs of care decreased after enrollment into the program.

Conclusions: Our model has the potential to improve health outcomes and be financially sustainable by providing home-based primary care to CMC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2020-0093DOI Listing
November 2020

Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C).

Cell 2020 11 14;183(4):982-995.e14. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Precision Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, NY, USA; Mindich Child Health and Development Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, NY, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, NY, USA; Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Initially, children were thought to be spared from disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, a month into the epidemic, a novel multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) emerged. Herein, we report on the immune profiles of nine MIS-C cases. All MIS-C patients had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure, mounting an antibody response with intact neutralization capability. Cytokine profiling identified elevated signatures of inflammation (IL-18 and IL-6), lymphocytic and myeloid chemotaxis and activation (CCL3, CCL4, and CDCP1), and mucosal immune dysregulation (IL-17A, CCL20, and CCL28). Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood revealed reductions of non-classical monocytes, and subsets of NK and T lymphocytes, suggesting extravasation to affected tissues. Finally, profiling the autoantigen reactivity of MIS-C plasma revealed both known disease-associated autoantibodies (anti-La) and novel candidates that recognize endothelial, gastrointestinal, and immune-cell antigens. All patients were treated with anti-IL-6R antibody and/or IVIG, which led to rapid disease resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489877PMC
November 2020

Elective caesarean section and bronchiolitis hospitalization: A retrospective cohort study.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2021 Feb 16;32(2):280-287. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: We sought to evaluate whether elective caesarean section is associated with subsequent hospitalization for bronchiolitis.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study that used the electronic medical record database of Clalit Health Services, the largest healthcare fund in Israel, serving over 4.5 million members and over half of the total population. The primary outcome was bronchiolitis admission in the first 2 years of life. We performed logistic regression analyses to identify independent associations. We repeated the analysis using boosted decision tree machine learning techniques to confirm our findings.

Results: There were 124 553 infants enrolled between 2008 and 2010, and 5168 (4.1%) were hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the first 2 years of life. In logistic regression models stratified by seasons, elective caesarean section birth was associated with 15% increased odds (95% CI: 1.02-1.30) for infants born in the fall season, 28% increased odds (95% CI: 1.11, 1.47) for those born in the winter, 35% increased odds (95% CI: 1.12-1.62) for those born in the spring and 37% increased odds (95% CI: 1.18-1.60) for those born in the summer. In the boosted gradient decision tree analysis, the area under the curve for risk of bronchiolitis admission was 0.663 (95% CI: 0.652, 0.674) with timing of birth as the most important feature.

Conclusion: Elective caesarean section, a potentially modifiable risk factor, is associated with increased odds of hospitalization for bronchiolitis in the first 2 years of life. These data should be considered when scheduling elective caesarean sections especially for infants born in spring and summer months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pai.13380DOI Listing
February 2021

Cytotoxic lymphocytes are dysregulated in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children.

medRxiv 2020 Sep 2. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) presents with fever, inflammation and multiple organ involvement in individuals under 21 years following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. To identify genes, pathways and cell types driving MIS-C, we sequenced the blood transcriptomes of MIS-C cases, pediatric cases of coronavirus disease 2019, and healthy controls. We define a MIS-C transcriptional signature partially shared with the transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and with the signature of Kawasaki disease, a clinically similar condition. By projecting the MIS-C signature onto a co-expression network, we identified disease gene modules and found genes downregulated in MIS-C clustered in a module enriched for the transcriptional signatures of exhausted CD8 T-cells and CD56 CD57 NK cells. Bayesian network analyses revealed nine key regulators of this module, including , a central coordinator of exhausted CD8 T-cell differentiation. Together, these findings suggest dysregulated cytotoxic lymphocyte response to SARS-Cov-2 infection in MIS-C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.29.20182899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7480058PMC
September 2020

Effect of Hydrocortisone on Mortality and Organ Support in Patients With Severe COVID-19: The REMAP-CAP COVID-19 Corticosteroid Domain Randomized Clinical Trial.

Authors:
Derek C Angus Lennie Derde Farah Al-Beidh Djillali Annane Yaseen Arabi Abigail Beane Wilma van Bentum-Puijk Lindsay Berry Zahra Bhimani Marc Bonten Charlotte Bradbury Frank Brunkhorst Meredith Buxton Adrian Buzgau Allen C Cheng Menno de Jong Michelle Detry Lise Estcourt Mark Fitzgerald Herman Goossens Cameron Green Rashan Haniffa Alisa M Higgins Christopher Horvat Sebastiaan J Hullegie Peter Kruger Francois Lamontagne Patrick R Lawler Kelsey Linstrum Edward Litton Elizabeth Lorenzi John Marshall Daniel McAuley Anna McGlothin Shay McGuinness Bryan McVerry Stephanie Montgomery Paul Mouncey Srinivas Murthy Alistair Nichol Rachael Parke Jane Parker Kathryn Rowan Ashish Sanil Marlene Santos Christina Saunders Christopher Seymour Anne Turner Frank van de Veerdonk Balasubramanian Venkatesh Ryan Zarychanski Scott Berry Roger J Lewis Colin McArthur Steven A Webb Anthony C Gordon Farah Al-Beidh Derek Angus Djillali Annane Yaseen Arabi Wilma van Bentum-Puijk Scott Berry Abigail Beane Zahra Bhimani Marc Bonten Charlotte Bradbury Frank Brunkhorst Meredith Buxton Allen Cheng Menno De Jong Lennie Derde Lise Estcourt Herman Goossens Anthony Gordon Cameron Green Rashan Haniffa Francois Lamontagne Patrick Lawler Edward Litton John Marshall Colin McArthur Daniel McAuley Shay McGuinness Bryan McVerry Stephanie Montgomery Paul Mouncey Srinivas Murthy Alistair Nichol Rachael Parke Kathryn Rowan Christopher Seymour Anne Turner Frank van de Veerdonk Steve Webb Ryan Zarychanski Lewis Campbell Andrew Forbes David Gattas Stephane Heritier Lisa Higgins Peter Kruger Sandra Peake Jeffrey Presneill Ian Seppelt Tony Trapani Paul Young Sean Bagshaw Nick Daneman Niall Ferguson Cheryl Misak Marlene Santos Sebastiaan Hullegie Mathias Pletz Gernot Rohde Kathy Rowan Brian Alexander Kim Basile Timothy Girard Christopher Horvat David Huang Kelsey Linstrum Jennifer Vates Richard Beasley Robert Fowler Steve McGloughlin Susan Morpeth David Paterson Bala Venkatesh Tim Uyeki Kenneth Baillie Eamon Duffy Rob Fowler Thomas Hills Katrina Orr Asad Patanwala Steve Tong Mihai Netea Shilesh Bihari Marc Carrier Dean Fergusson Ewan Goligher Ghady Haidar Beverley Hunt Anand Kumar Mike Laffan Patrick Lawless Sylvain Lother Peter McCallum Saskia Middeldopr Zoe McQuilten Matthew Neal John Pasi Roger Schutgens Simon Stanworth Alexis Turgeon Alexandra Weissman Neill Adhikari Matthew Anstey Emily Brant Angelique de Man Francois Lamonagne Marie-Helene Masse Andrew Udy Donald Arnold Phillipe Begin Richard Charlewood Michael Chasse Mark Coyne Jamie Cooper James Daly Iain Gosbell Heli Harvala-Simmonds Tom Hills Sheila MacLennan David Menon John McDyer Nicole Pridee David Roberts Manu Shankar-Hari Helen Thomas Alan Tinmouth Darrell Triulzi Tim Walsh Erica Wood Carolyn Calfee Cecilia O’Kane Murali Shyamsundar Pratik Sinha Taylor Thompson Ian Young Shailesh Bihari Carol Hodgson John Laffey Danny McAuley Neil Orford Ary Neto Michelle Detry Mark Fitzgerald Roger Lewis Anna McGlothlin Ashish Sanil Christina Saunders Lindsay Berry Elizabeth Lorenzi Eliza Miller Vanessa Singh Claire Zammit Wilma van Bentum Puijk Wietske Bouwman Yara Mangindaan Lorraine Parker Svenja Peters Ilse Rietveld Kik Raymakers Radhika Ganpat Nicole Brillinger Rene Markgraf Kate Ainscough Kathy Brickell Aisha Anjum Janis-Best Lane Alvin Richards-Belle Michelle Saull Daisy Wiley Julian Bion Jason Connor Simon Gates Victoria Manax Tom van der Poll John Reynolds Marloes van Beurden Evelien Effelaar Joost Schotsman Craig Boyd Cain Harland Audrey Shearer Jess Wren Giles Clermont William Garrard Kyle Kalchthaler Andrew King Daniel Ricketts Salim Malakoutis Oscar Marroquin Edvin Music Kevin Quinn Heidi Cate Karen Pearson Joanne Collins Jane Hanson Penny Williams Shane Jackson Adeeba Asghar Sarah Dyas Mihaela Sutu Sheenagh Murphy Dawn Williamson Nhlanhla Mguni Alison Potter David Porter Jayne Goodwin Clare Rook Susie Harrison Hannah Williams Hilary Campbell Kaatje Lomme James Williamson Jonathan Sheffield Willian van’t Hoff Phobe McCracken Meredith Young Jasmin Board Emma Mart Cameron Knott Julie Smith Catherine Boschert Julia Affleck Mahesh Ramanan Ramsy D’Souza Kelsey Pateman Arif Shakih Winston Cheung Mark Kol Helen Wong Asim Shah Atul Wagh Joanne Simpson Graeme Duke Peter Chan Brittney Cartner Stephanie Hunter Russell Laver Tapaswi Shrestha Adrian Regli Annamaria Pellicano James McCullough Mandy Tallott Nikhil Kumar Rakshit Panwar Gail Brinkerhoff Cassandra Koppen Federica Cazzola Matthew Brain Sarah Mineall Roy Fischer Vishwanath Biradar Natalie Soar Hayden White Kristen Estensen Lynette Morrison Joanne Smith Melanie Cooper Monash Health Yahya Shehabi Wisam Al-Bassam Amanda Hulley Christina Whitehead Julie Lowrey Rebecca Gresha James Walsham Jason Meyer Meg Harward Ellen Venz Patricia Williams Catherine Kurenda Kirsy Smith Margaret Smith Rebecca Garcia Deborah Barge Deborah Byrne Kathleen Byrne Alana Driscoll Louise Fortune Pierre Janin Elizabeth Yarad Naomi Hammond Frances Bass Angela Ashelford Sharon Waterson Steve Wedd Robert McNamara Heidi Buhr Jennifer Coles Sacha Schweikert Bradley Wibrow Rashmi Rauniyar Erina Myers Ed Fysh Ashlish Dawda Bhaumik Mevavala Ed Litton Janet Ferrier Priya Nair Hergen Buscher Claire Reynolds John Santamaria Leanne Barbazza Jennifer Homes Roger Smith Lauren Murray Jane Brailsford Loretta Forbes Teena Maguire Vasanth Mariappa Judith Smith Scott Simpson Matthew Maiden Allsion Bone Michelle Horton Tania Salerno Martin Sterba Wenli Geng Pieter Depuydt Jan De Waele Liesbet De Bus Jan Fierens Stephanie Bracke Brenda Reeve William Dechert Michaël Chassé François Martin Carrier Dounia Boumahni Fatna Benettaib Ali Ghamraoui David Bellemare Ève Cloutier Charles Francoeur François Lamontagne Frédérick D’Aragon Elaine Carbonneau Julie Leblond Gloria Vazquez-Grande Nicole Marten Maggie Wilson Martin Albert Karim Serri Alexandros Cavayas Mathilde Duplaix Virginie Williams Bram Rochwerg Tim Karachi Simon Oczkowski John Centofanti Tina Millen Erick Duan Jennifer Tsang Lisa Patterson Shane English Irene Watpool Rebecca Porteous Sydney Miezitis Lauralyn McIntyre Laurent Brochard Karen Burns Gyan Sandhu Imrana Khalid Alexandra Binnie Elizabeth Powell Alexandra McMillan Tracy Luk Noah Aref Zdravko Andric Sabina Cviljevic Renata Đimoti Marija Zapalac Gordan Mirković Bruno Baršić Marko Kutleša Viktor Kotarski Ana Vujaklija Brajković Jakša Babel Helena Sever Lidija Dragija Ira Kušan Suvi Vaara Leena Pettilä Jonna Heinonen Anne Kuitunen Sari Karlsson Annukka Vahtera Heikki Kiiski Sanna Ristimäki Amine Azaiz Cyril Charron Mathieu Godement Guillaume Geri Antoine Vieillard-Baron Franck Pourcine Mehran Monchi David Luis Romain Mercier Anne Sagnier Nathalie Verrier Cecile Caplin Shidasp Siami Christelle Aparicio Sarah Vautier Asma Jeblaoui Muriel Fartoukh Laura Courtin Vincent Labbe Cécile Leparco Grégoire Muller Mai-Anh Nay Toufik Kamel Dalila Benzekri Sophie Jacquier Emmanuelle Mercier Delphine Chartier Charlotte Salmon PierreFrançois Dequin Francis Schneider Guillaume Morel Sylvie L’Hotellier Julio Badie Fernando Daniel Berdaguer Sylvain Malfroy Chaouki Mezher Charlotte Bourgoin Bruno Megarbane Sebastian Voicu Nicolas Deye Isabelle Malissin Laetitia Sutterlin Christophe Guitton Cédric Darreau Mickaël Landais Nicolas Chudeau Alain Robert Pierre Moine Nicholas Heming Virginie Maxime Isabelle Bossard Tiphaine Barbarin Nicholier Gwenhael Colin Vanessa Zinzoni Natacham Maquigneau André Finn Gabriele Kreß Uwe Hoff Carl Friedrich Hinrichs Jens Nee Mathias Pletz Stefan Hagel Juliane Ankert Steffi Kolanos Frank Bloos Sirak Petros Bastian Pasieka Kevin Kunz Peter Appelt Bianka Schütze Stefan Kluge Axel Nierhaus Dominik Jarczak Kevin Roedl Dirk Weismann Anna Frey Vivantes Klinikum Neukölln Lorenz Reill Michael Distler Astrid Maselli János Bélteczki István Magyar Ágnes Fazekas Sándor Kovács Viktória Szőke Gábor Szigligeti János Leszkoven Daniel Collins Patrick Breen Stephen Frohlich Ruth Whelan Bairbre McNicholas Michael Scully Siobhan Casey Maeve Kernan Peter Doran Michael O’Dywer Michelle Smyth Leanne Hayes Oscar Hoiting Marco Peters Els Rengers Mirjam Evers Anton Prinssen Jeroen Bosch Ziekenhuis Koen Simons Wim Rozendaal F Polderman P de Jager M Moviat A Paling A Salet Emma Rademaker Anna Linda Peters E de Jonge J Wigbers E Guilder M Butler Keri-Anne Cowdrey Lynette Newby Yan Chen Catherine Simmonds Rachael McConnochie Jay Ritzema Carter Seton Henderson Kym Van Der Heyden Jan Mehrtens Tony Williams Alex Kazemi Rima Song Vivian Lai Dinu Girijadevi Robert Everitt Robert Russell Danielle Hacking Ulrike Buehner Erin Williams Troy Browne Kate Grimwade Jennifer Goodson Owen Keet Owen Callender Robert Martynoga Kara Trask Amelia Butler Livia Schischka Chelsea Young Eden Lesona Shaanti Olatunji Yvonne Robertson Nuno José Teodoro Amaro dos Santos Catorze Tiago Nuno Alfaro de Lima Pereira Lucilia Maria Neves Pessoa Ricardo Manuel Castro Ferreira Joana Margarida Pereira Sousa Bastos Simin Aysel Florescu Delia Stanciu Miahela Florentina Zaharia Alma Gabriela Kosa Daniel Codreanu Yaseen Marabi Eman Al Qasim Mohamned Moneer Hagazy Lolowa Al Swaidan Hatim Arishi Rosana Muñoz-Bermúdez Judith Marin-Corral Anna Salazar Degracia Francisco Parrilla Gómez Maria Isabel Mateo López Jorge Rodriguez Fernandez Sheila Cárcel Fernández Rosario Carmona Flores Rafael León López Carmen de la Fuente Martos Angela Allan Petra Polgarova Neda Farahi Stephen McWilliam Daniel Hawcutt Laura Rad Laura O’Malley Jennifer Whitbread Olivia Kelsall Laura Wild Jessica Thrush Hannah Wood Karen Austin Adrian Donnelly Martin Kelly Sinéad O’Kane Declan McClintock Majella Warnock Paul Johnston Linda Jude Gallagher Clare Mc Goldrick Moyra Mc Master Anna Strzelecka Rajeev Jha Michael Kalogirou Christine Ellis Vinodh Krishnamurthy Vashish Deelchand Jon Silversides Peter McGuigan Kathryn Ward Aisling O’Neill Stephanie Finn Barbara Phillips Dee Mullan Laura Oritz-Ruiz de Gordoa Matthew Thomas Katie Sweet Lisa Grimmer Rebekah Johnson Jez Pinnell Matt Robinson Lisa Gledhill Tracy Wood Matt Morgan Jade Cole Helen Hill Michelle Davies David Antcliffe Maie Templeton Roceld Rojo Phoebe Coghlan Joanna Smee Euan Mackay Jon Cort Amanda Whileman Thomas Spencer Nick Spittle Vidya Kasipandian Amit Patel Suzanne Allibone Roman Mary Genetu Mohamed Ramali Alison Ghosh Peter Bamford Emily London Kathryn Cawley Maria Faulkner Helen Jeffrey Tim Smith Chris Brewer Jane Gregory James Limb Amanda Cowton Julie O’Brien Nikitas Nikitas Colin Wells Liana Lankester Mark Pulletz Patricia Williams Jenny Birch Sophie Wiseman Sarah Horton Ana Alegria Salah Turki Tarek Elsefi Nikki Crisp Louise Allen Iain McCullagh Philip Robinson Carole Hays Maite Babio-Galan Hannah Stevenson Divya Khare Meredith Pinder Selvin Selvamoni Amitha Gopinath Richard Pugh Daniel Menzies Callum Mackay Elizabeth Allan Gwyneth Davies Kathryn Puxty Claire McCue Susanne Cathcart Naomi Hickey Jane Ireland Hakeem Yusuff Graziella Isgro Chris Brightling Michelle Bourne Michelle Craner Malcolm Watters Rachel Prout Louisa Davies Suzannah Pegler Lynsey Kyeremeh Gill Arbane Karen Wilson Linda Gomm Federica Francia Stephen Brett Sonia Sousa Arias Rebecca Elin Hall Joanna Budd Charlotte Small Janine Birch Emma Collins Jeremy Henning Stephen Bonner Keith Hugill Emanuel Cirstea Dean Wilkinson Michal Karlikowski Helen Sutherland Elva Wilhelmsen Jane Woods Julie North Dhinesh Sundaran Laszlo Hollos Susan Coburn Joanne Walsh Margaret Turns Phil Hopkins John Smith Harriet Noble Maria Theresa Depante Emma Clarey Shondipon Laha Mark Verlander Alexandra Williams Abby Huckle Andrew Hall Jill Cooke Caroline Gardiner-Hill Carolyn Maloney Hafiz Qureshi Neil Flint Sarah Nicholson Sara Southin Andrew Nicholson Barbara Borgatta Ian Turner-Bone Amie Reddy Laura Wilding Loku Chamara Warnapura Ronan Agno Sathianathan David Golden Ciaran Hart Jo Jones Jonathan Bannard-Smith Joanne Henry Katie Birchall Fiona Pomeroy Rachael Quayle Arystarch Makowski Beata Misztal Iram Ahmed Thyra 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JAMA 2020 10;324(13):1317-1329

Division of Anaesthetics, Pain Medicine and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London and Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Importance: Evidence regarding corticosteroid use for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited.

Objective: To determine whether hydrocortisone improves outcome for patients with severe COVID-19.

Design, Setting, And Participants: An ongoing adaptive platform trial testing multiple interventions within multiple therapeutic domains, for example, antiviral agents, corticosteroids, or immunoglobulin. Between March 9 and June 17, 2020, 614 adult patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled and randomized within at least 1 domain following admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) for respiratory or cardiovascular organ support at 121 sites in 8 countries. Of these, 403 were randomized to open-label interventions within the corticosteroid domain. The domain was halted after results from another trial were released. Follow-up ended August 12, 2020.

Interventions: The corticosteroid domain randomized participants to a fixed 7-day course of intravenous hydrocortisone (50 mg or 100 mg every 6 hours) (n = 143), a shock-dependent course (50 mg every 6 hours when shock was clinically evident) (n = 152), or no hydrocortisone (n = 108).

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was organ support-free days (days alive and free of ICU-based respiratory or cardiovascular support) within 21 days, where patients who died were assigned -1 day. The primary analysis was a bayesian cumulative logistic model that included all patients enrolled with severe COVID-19, adjusting for age, sex, site, region, time, assignment to interventions within other domains, and domain and intervention eligibility. Superiority was defined as the posterior probability of an odds ratio greater than 1 (threshold for trial conclusion of superiority >99%).

Results: After excluding 19 participants who withdrew consent, there were 384 patients (mean age, 60 years; 29% female) randomized to the fixed-dose (n = 137), shock-dependent (n = 146), and no (n = 101) hydrocortisone groups; 379 (99%) completed the study and were included in the analysis. The mean age for the 3 groups ranged between 59.5 and 60.4 years; most patients were male (range, 70.6%-71.5%); mean body mass index ranged between 29.7 and 30.9; and patients receiving mechanical ventilation ranged between 50.0% and 63.5%. For the fixed-dose, shock-dependent, and no hydrocortisone groups, respectively, the median organ support-free days were 0 (IQR, -1 to 15), 0 (IQR, -1 to 13), and 0 (-1 to 11) days (composed of 30%, 26%, and 33% mortality rates and 11.5, 9.5, and 6 median organ support-free days among survivors). The median adjusted odds ratio and bayesian probability of superiority were 1.43 (95% credible interval, 0.91-2.27) and 93% for fixed-dose hydrocortisone, respectively, and were 1.22 (95% credible interval, 0.76-1.94) and 80% for shock-dependent hydrocortisone compared with no hydrocortisone. Serious adverse events were reported in 4 (3%), 5 (3%), and 1 (1%) patients in the fixed-dose, shock-dependent, and no hydrocortisone groups, respectively.

Conclusions And Relevance: Among patients with severe COVID-19, treatment with a 7-day fixed-dose course of hydrocortisone or shock-dependent dosing of hydrocortisone, compared with no hydrocortisone, resulted in 93% and 80% probabilities of superiority with regard to the odds of improvement in organ support-free days within 21 days. However, the trial was stopped early and no treatment strategy met prespecified criteria for statistical superiority, precluding definitive conclusions.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02735707.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.17022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489418PMC
October 2020

Protecting Youth From Tobacco Around the Globe: Evidence to Practice.

Pediatrics 2020 10 1;146(4). Epub 2020 Sep 1.

American Academy of Pediatrics, Itasca, Illinois

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-1585DOI Listing
October 2020

Metal-Acid Synergy: Hydrodeoxygenation of Anisole over Pt/Al-SBA-15.

ChemSusChem 2020 Sep 1;13(18):4775. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Centre for Advanced Materials & Industrial Chemistry (CAMIC), School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, 3000, Australia.

Invited for this month's cover is the group of Karen Wilson and Adam Lee at RMIT University. The image shows platinum nanoparticles and Brønsted acid sites working cooperatively to catalyse the efficient hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic lignin residues to produce sustainable biofuels. The Full Paper itself is available at 10.1002/cssc.202000764.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202002011DOI Listing
September 2020

COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents.

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 11 17;20(11):e276-e288. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Centre for Global Child Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; Institute for Global Health and Development, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. Electronic address:

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 continues to spread worldwide, there have been increasing reports from Europe, North America, Asia, and Latin America describing children and adolescents with COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory conditions. However, the association between multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and COVID-19 is still unknown. We review the epidemiology, causes, clinical features, and current treatment protocols for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents associated with COVID-19. We also discuss the possible underlying pathophysiological mechanisms for COVID-19-induced inflammatory processes, which can lead to organ damage in paediatric patients who are severely ill. These insights provide evidence for the need to develop a clear case definition and treatment protocol for this new condition and also shed light on future therapeutic interventions and the potential for vaccine development. TRANSLATIONS: For the French, Chinese, Arabic, Spanish and Russian translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30651-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7431129PMC
November 2020

Mapping Systemic Inflammation and Antibody Responses in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C).

medRxiv 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Precision Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, NY, USA.

Initially, the global outbreak of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spared children from severe disease. However, after the initial wave of infections, clusters of a novel hyperinflammatory disease have been reported in regions with ongoing SARS-CoV-2 epidemics. While the characteristic clinical features are becoming clear, the pathophysiology remains unknown. Herein, we report on the immune profiles of eight Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) cases. We document that all MIS-C patients had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure, mounting an antibody response with normal isotype-switching and neutralization capability. We further profiled the secreted immune response by high-dimensional cytokine assays, which identified elevated signatures of inflammation (IL-18 and IL-6), lymphocytic and myeloid chemotaxis and activation (CCL3, CCL4, and CDCP1) and mucosal immune dysregulation (IL-17A, CCL20, CCL28). Mass cytometry immunophenotyping of peripheral blood revealed reductions of mDC1 and non-classical monocytes, as well as both NK- and T- lymphocytes, suggesting extravasation to affected tissues. Markers of activated myeloid function were also evident, including upregulation of ICAM1 and FcR1 in neutrophil and non-classical monocytes, well-documented markers in autoinflammation and autoimmunity that indicate enhanced antigen presentation and Fc-mediated responses. Finally, to assess the role for autoimmunity secondary to infection, we profiled the auto-antigen reactivity of MIS-C plasma, which revealed both known disease-associated autoantibodies (anti-La) and novel candidates that recognize endothelial, gastrointestinal and immune-cell antigens. All patients were treated with anti- IL6R antibody or IVIG, which led to rapid disease resolution tracking with normalization of inflammatory markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.04.20142752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7359537PMC
July 2020

Purification and immobilization of engineered glucose dehydrogenase: a new approach to producing gluconic acid from breadwaste.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2020 3;13:100. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET UK.

Background: Platform chemicals are essential to industrial processes. Used as starting materials for the manufacture of diverse products, their cheap availability and efficient sourcing are an industrial requirement. Increasing concerns about the depletion of natural resources and growing environmental consciousness have led to a focus on the economics and ecological viability of bio-based platform chemical production. Contemporary approaches include the use of immobilized enzymes that can be harnessed to produce high-value chemicals from waste.

Results: In this study, an engineered glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was optimized for gluconic acid (GA) production. was expressed in The and values for recombinant GDH were calculated as 0.87 mM and 5.91 U/mg, respectively. Recombinant GDH was immobilized on a hierarchically porous silica support (MM-SBA-15) and its activity was compared with GDH immobilized on three commercially available supports. MM-SBA-15 showed significantly higher immobilization efficiency (> 98%) than the commercial supports. After 5 cycles, GDH activity was at least 14% greater than the remaining activity on commercial supports. Glucose in bread waste hydrolysate was converted to GA by free-state and immobilized GDH. After the 10th reuse cycle on MM-SBA-15, a 22% conversion yield was observed, generating 25 gGA/gGDH. The highest GA production efficiency was 47 gGA/gGDH using free-state GDH.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of enzymatically converting BWH to GA: immobilizing GDH on MM-SBA-15 renders the enzyme more stable and permits its multiple reuse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-020-01735-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268246PMC
June 2020

Metal-Acid Synergy: Hydrodeoxygenation of Anisole over Pt/Al-SBA-15.

ChemSusChem 2020 Sep 29;13(18):4945-4953. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Centre for Advanced Materials & Industrial Chemistry (CAMIC), School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, 3000, Australia.

Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is a promising technology to upgrade fast pyrolysis bio-oils but it requires active and selective catalysts. Here we explore the synergy between the metal and acid sites in the HDO of anisole, a model pyrolysis bio-oil compound, over mono- and bi-functional Pt/(Al)-SBA-15 catalysts. Ring hydrogenation of anisole to methoxycyclohexane occurs over metal sites and is structure sensitive; it is favored over small (4 nm) Pt nanoparticles, which confer a turnover frequency (TOF) of approximately 2000 h and a methoxycyclohexane selectivity of approximately 90 % at 200 °C and 20 bar H ; in contrast, the formation of benzene and the desired cyclohexane product appears to be structure insensitive. The introduction of acidity to the SBA-15 support promotes the demethyoxylation of the methoxycyclohexane intermediate, which increases the selectivity to cyclohexane from 15 to 92 % and the cyclohexane productivity by two orders of magnitude (from 15 to 6500 mmol g  h ). Optimization of the metal-acid synergy confers an 865-fold increase in the cyclohexane production per gram of Pt and a 28-fold reduction in precious metal loading. These findings demonstrate that tuning the metal-acid synergy provides a strategy to direct complex catalytic reaction networks and minimize precious metal use in the production of bio-fuels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202000764DOI Listing
September 2020

COVID-19 and Kawasaki Disease: Finding the Signal in the Noise.

Hosp Pediatr 2020 10 13;10(10):e1-e3. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2020-000356DOI Listing
October 2020

Secondhand marijuana exposure in a convenience sample of young children in New York City.

Pediatr Res 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Biomarkers of exposure to marijuana smoke can be detected in the urine of children with exposure to secondhand marijuana smoke, but the prevalence is unclear.

Methods: We studied children between the ages of 0 to 3 years who were coming in for well-child visits or hospitalized on the inpatient general pediatric unit between 2017 and 2018 at Kravis Children's Hospital at Mount Sinai. Parents completed an anonymous survey, and urine samples were analyzed for cotinine and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (COOH-THC), a metabolite of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

Results: Fifty-three children had urine samples available for analysis. COOH-THC was detectable in 20.8% of the samples analyzed and urinary cotinine was detectable in 90.2%. High levels of tobacco exposure (defined as cotinine ≥2.0 ng/ml) were significantly associated with COOH-THC detection (p < 0.01). We found that 34.8% of children who lived in attached housing where smoking was allowed within the property had detectable COOH-THC compared to 13.0% of children who lived in housing where smoking was not allowed at all.

Conclusions: This study adds to the growing evidence that children are being exposed to marijuana smoke, even in places where recreational marijuana use is illegal. It is critical that more research be done on the impact of marijuana smoke exposure on children's health and development.

Impact: We found that 20.8% of the 53 children recruited from Mount Sinai Hospital had detectable marijuana metabolites in their urine.Children with household tobacco smoke exposure and children who lived in attached housing where smoking was allowed on the premises were more likely to have detectable marijuana smoke metabolites.This study adds to the growing evidence that children are being exposed to marijuana smoke, even in places where marijuana remains illegal by state law. As states consider marijuana legalization, it is critical that the potential adverse health effects from marijuana exposure in children be taken into account.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-0958-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882144PMC
May 2020

Anti-hyperalgesic properties of ethanolic crude extract from the peels of Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae).

An Acad Bras Cienc 2020 11;92(1):e20180793. Epub 2020 May 11.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina/UNISUL, Palhoça, SC, Brazil.

The therapeutic effects from Citrus reticulata on painful inflammatory ailments are associated to its flavonoids constituent and phytochemical studies with Citrus genus affirm that the peels have important amounts of it. These bioactive compounds have been a considerable therapeutic source and evaluate potential application of the peel extract is significant. This research aims to investigate the influence of ethanolic crude extract from the peels of Citrus reticulata and its possible mechanism of action in different animal models of pain. The extract reduced hyperalgesia in the second phase of formalin test (vehicle: 501.5 ± 40.0 s; C. reticulata extract 300 mg/kg: 161.8 ± 41.1 s), in the carrageenan model (vehicle at 4th h: 82.5 ± 9.6 %; C. reticulata extract 300 mg/kg at 4th h: 47.5 ± 6.5 %) and in Complete Freund's Adjuvant model (vehicle: 501.5 ± 40.0 s; C. reticulata extract 300 mg/kg: 161.8 ± 41.1 s). The possible contribution of opioidergic and adenosinergic systems in the anti-hyperalgesic effect of C. reticulata extract was observed after treatment, with non-selective antagonists for both systems, which produced reversal effects. In conclusion, these properties of C. reticulata extract suggest a potential therapeutic benefit in treating painful conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765202020180793DOI Listing
June 2020

Secondhand smoke exposure and higher blood pressure in children and adolescents participating in NHANES.

Prev Med 2020 05 9;134:106052. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, United States of America.

We assessed the relationship between acute and intermittent secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure with child and adolescent blood pressure (BP). We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3579 children and adolescents aged 8-17 years participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected between 2007 and 2012, with SHS exposure assessed via serum cotinine (a biomarker for acute exposures) and urine NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol, a biomarker for intermittent exposures). BP percentiles and z-scores were calculated according to the 2017 guidelines established by the American Academy of Pediatrics. We used weighted linear regression accounting for the complex sampling weights from NHANES and adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Overall, 56% of the children were non-Hispanic white with a mean age of 12.6 years. There was approximately equal representation of boys and girls. Approximately 15.9% of participants lived in homes where smoking was present. In adjusted models, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in urinary NNAL was associated with 0.099 (95% CI: 0.033, 0.16) higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP) z-score, and with a 0.094 (95% CI: 0.011, 0.18) higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) z-score. The odds of being in the hypertensive range was 1.966 (95% CI: 1.31, 2.951) times greater among children with high NNAL exposures compared to those with undetectable NNAL. For serum cotinine, an IQR increase was associated with 0.097 (95% CI: 0.020, 0.17) higher DBP z-scores, but was not significantly associated with SBP z-scores. The associations of cotinine and NNAL with BP also differed by sex. Our findings provide the first characterization of the relationship between a major tobacco-specific metabolite, NNAL, and BP z-scores in a nationally representative population of US children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2020.106052DOI Listing
May 2020

Strong metal-support interaction promoted scalable production of thermally stable single-atom catalysts.

Nat Commun 2020 Mar 9;11(1):1263. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

CAS Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Applied Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 116023, Dalian, China.

Single-atom catalysts (SACs) have demonstrated superior catalytic performance in numerous heterogeneous reactions. However, producing thermally stable SACs, especially in a simple and scalable way, remains a formidable challenge. Here, we report the synthesis of Ru SACs from commercial RuO powders by physical mixing of sub-micron RuO aggregates with a MgAlFeO spinel. Atomically dispersed Ru is confirmed by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Detailed studies reveal that the dispersion process does not arise from a gas atom trapping mechanism, but rather from anti-Ostwald ripening promoted by a strong covalent metal-support interaction. This synthetic strategy is simple and amenable to the large-scale manufacture of thermally stable SACs for industrial applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14984-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7062790PMC
March 2020

Tobacco Smoke Exposure Reduction Strategies-Do They Work?

Acad Pediatr 2021 Jan-Feb;21(1):124-128. Epub 2020 Feb 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (KM Wilson), New York, NY; Julius B. Richmond Center of Excellence, American Academy of Pediatrics (JP Winickoff, JD Klein, and KM Wilson), Itasca, Ill. Electronic address:

Objective: Many children experience tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) and parents may take preventive measures to reduce TSE. The study goal is to assess if these strategies are associated with lower cotinine values, an objective biological measure of TSE.

Methods: Families admitted to Children's Hospital Colorado from 2014 to 2018 who screened positive for TSE were invited to participate in a tobacco smoking cessation/reduction program. Caregivers were consented and asked about demographics, beliefs around smoking, and strategies to reduce TSE. Child urine samples were collected, tested for cotinine levels, and analyzed using geometric means. Bivariable comparisons and multivariable linear regression were completed using SAS v9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC).

Results: Two hundred thirteen children (81.4%) are included in this analysis. The median ages of children and parents were 4 and 32 years respectively. Fifty-seven percent of children were male, 36% were Hispanic, and 55% were white. Fifty-six percent of parents had at least some college education and 69% had an annual income less than $50K. The median daily cigarettes smoked per day were 10. Eighty-eight percent reported using at least 1 type of protective measure to prevent TSE and 90% believed they protect other household members from TSE. None of the strategies had a significant relationship with lower cotinine levels on bivariable or multivariable analyses.

Conclusions: Parental strategies to decrease TSE did not result in lower cotinine levels. Many measures are not evidence-based and do not protect children. Parent's clothing and homes may create a reservoir for nicotine. Education should focus on exposure elimination and cessation rather than protective measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2020.02.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7442659PMC
February 2020

The Effects of Nicotine on Development.

Pediatrics 2020 03 11;145(3). Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Julius B. Richmond Center of Excellence, American Academy of Pediatrics, Itasca, Illinois.

Recently, there has been a significant increase in the use of noncombustible nicotine-containing products, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Of increasing popularity are e-cigarettes that can deliver high doses of nicotine over short periods of time. These devices have led to a rise in nicotine addiction in adolescent users who were nonsmokers. Use of noncombustible nicotine products by pregnant mothers is also increasing and can expose the developing fetus to nicotine, a known teratogen. In addition, young children are frequently exposed to secondhand and thirdhand nicotine aerosols generated by e-cigarettes, with little understanding of the effects these exposures can have on health. With the advent of these new nicotine-delivery systems, many concerns have arisen regarding the short- and long-term health effects of nicotine on childhood health during all stages of development. Although health studies on nicotine exposure alone are limited, educating policy makers and health care providers on the potential health effects of noncombustible nicotine is needed because public acceptance of these products has become so widespread. Most studies evaluating the effects of nicotine on health have been undertaken in the context of smoke exposure. Nevertheless, in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies strongly indicate that nicotine exposure alone can adversely affect the nervous, respiratory, immune, and cardiovascular systems, particularly when exposure occurs during critical developmental periods. In this review, we have included both preclinical and clinical studies to identify age-related health effects of nicotine exposure alone, examining the mechanisms underlying these effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-1346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7049940PMC
March 2020

Laser ablation of posterior nasal nerves for rhinitis.

Am J Otolaryngol 2020 May - Jun;41(3):102396. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Mount Sinai St. Luke's, 1111 Amsterdam Ave, New York, NY 10025.

Background: Posterior nasal nerve (PNN) surgery, Radiofrequency (RF), and cryoablation have been described as alternative treatments for allergic and vasomotor rhinitis. We hypothesize that endoscopic (diode) laser ablation (ELA) is effective and less invasive than previously described methods.

Methods: An IRB approved prospective study was performed. Thirty-two patients with chronic rhinitis and nasal congestion resistant to medical management were recruited. Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS) measurements were used to assess symptom severity and treatment outcomes. ELA was performed bilaterally in the clinic with a 940 nm diode laser with CW 5 W output, under topical/local anesthesia in 21 patients, while the remaining 11 were treated under sedation in the operating room. The 400-micron uninitiated diode laser fiber tip with a malleable protective shaft was specially designed for PNN ablation. The fiber was pre-shaped according to the intranasal anatomy and endoscopically advanced toward the posterior middle meatus. Patients were followed up for the first 90 days after treatment.

Results: ELA was successfully completed in 97% of patients. No crusting, epistaxis, or other complications were observed. One patient could not be treated in the office due to limited endoscopic access. TNSS was reduced significantly after30 and 90 days (mean ± SD: 6.0 ± 0.7 prior to ablation, 2.3 ± 0.4 at 90 days, p < .001). Rhinitis and congestion scores decreased at 30 and 90 days after treatment compared to the baseline (p < .001).

Conclusion: ELA of the PNN region is safe and well tolerated both in the office and ambulatory settings. Symptom scores were significantly decreased after 30 and 90 days. This new minimally invasive method appears to be a promising treatment method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102396DOI Listing
October 2020

Atomically dispersed nickel as coke-resistant active sites for methane dry reforming.

Nat Commun 2019 11 15;10(1):5181. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

CAS Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Applied Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy Sciences, 116023, Dalian, China.

Dry reforming of methane (DRM) is an attractive route to utilize CO as a chemical feedstock with which to convert CH into valuable syngas and simultaneously mitigate both greenhouse gases. Ni-based DRM catalysts are promising due to their high activity and low cost, but suffer from poor stability due to coke formation which has hindered their commercialization. Herein, we report that atomically dispersed Ni single atoms, stabilized by interaction with Ce-doped hydroxyapatite, are highly active and coke-resistant catalytic sites for DRM. Experimental and computational studies reveal that isolated Ni atoms are intrinsically coke-resistant due to their unique ability to only activate the first C-H bond in CH, thus avoiding methane deep decomposition into carbon. This discovery offers new opportunities to develop large-scale DRM processes using earth abundant catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12843-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6858327PMC
November 2019

The Intersection of Tobacco and Marijuana Use in Adolescents and Young Adults.

Pediatrics 2019 12 11;144(6). Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Kravis Children's Hospital, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-3025DOI Listing
December 2019

Microwave-Assisted Decarbonylation of Biomass-Derived Aldehydes using Pd-Doped Hydrotalcites.

ChemSusChem 2020 Jan 30;13(2):312-320. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Chemistry Department, The George Washington University, 880 22nd St NW, Washington, D.C., 20052, USA.

Catalytic decarbonylation is an underexplored strategy for deoxygenation of biomass-derived aldehydes owing to a lack of low-cost and robust heterogeneous catalysts that can operate in benign solvents. A family of Pd-functionalized hydrotalcites (Pd-HTs) were synthesized, characterized, and applied to the decarbonylation of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes under microwave conditions. This catalytic system delivered enhanced decarbonylation yields and turnover frequencies, even at a low Pd loading (0.5 mol %). Furfural decarbonylation was optimized in a benign solvent (ethanol) compatible with biomass processing; HMF selectively afforded an excellent yield (93 %) of furfuryl alcohol without humin formation; however, a longer reaction favored the formation of furan through tandem alcohol dehydrogenation and decarbonylation. Yields of the substituted benzaldehydes (37-99 %) were proportional to the calculated Mulliken charge of the carbonyl carbon. Activity and selectivity reflected loading-dependent Pd speciation. Continuous-flow testing of the best Pd-HT catalyst delivered good stability over 16 h on stream, with near-quantitative conversion of HMF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.201901934DOI Listing
January 2020

E-Cigarette Use and Future Cigarette Initiation Among Never Smokers and Relapse Among Former Smokers in the PATH Study.

Public Health Rep 2019 Sep/Oct;134(5):528-536. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

1 Julius B Richmond Center of Excellence, American Academy of Pediatrics, Itasca, IL, USA.

Objectives: Any potential harm-reduction benefit of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) could be offset by nonsmokers who initiate e-cigarette use and then smoke combustible cigarettes. We examined correlates of e-cigarette use at baseline with combustible cigarette smoking at 1-year follow-up among adult distant former combustible cigarette smokers (ie, quit smoking ≥5 years ago) and never smokers.

Methods: The Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study, a nationally representative, longitudinal study, surveyed 26 446 US adults during 2 waves: 2013-2014 (baseline) and 2014-2015 (1-year follow-up). Participants completed an audio computer-assisted interview in English or Spanish. We compared combustible cigarette smoking at 1-year follow-up by e-cigarette use at baseline among distant former combustible cigarette smokers and never smokers.

Results: Distant former combustible cigarette smokers who reported e-cigarette past 30-day use (9.3%) and ever use (6.7%) were significantly more likely than those who had never used e-cigarettes (1.3%) to have relapsed to current combustible cigarette smoking at follow-up ( < .001). Never smokers who reported e-cigarette past 30-day use (25.6%) and ever use (13.9%) were significantly more likely than those who had never used e-cigarettes (2.1%) to have initiated combustible cigarette smoking ( < .001). Adults who reported past 30-day e-cigarette use (7.0%) and ever e-cigarette use (1.7%) were more likely than those who had never used e-cigarettes (0.3%) to have transitioned from never smokers to current combustible cigarette smokers ( < .001). E-cigarette use predicted combustible cigarette smoking in multivariable analyses controlling for covariates.

Conclusions: Policies and counseling should consider the increased risk for nonsmokers of future combustible cigarette smoking use as a result of using e-cigarettes and any potential harm-reduction benefits e-cigarettes might bring to current combustible cigarette smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0033354919864369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6852065PMC
January 2020

Pediatric Respiratory Illness Measurement System (PRIMES) Scores and Outcomes.

Pediatrics 2019 08;144(2)

Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, New York.

Background And Objectives: The Pediatric Respiratory Illness Measurement System (PRIMES) generates condition-specific composite quality scores for asthma, bronchiolitis, croup, and pneumonia in hospital-based settings. We sought to determine if higher PRIMES composite scores are associated with improved health-related quality of life, decreased length of stay (LOS), and decreased reuse.

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 2334 children in 5 children's hospitals between July 2014 and June 2016. Surveys administered on admission and 2 to 6 weeks postdischarge assessed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). Using medical records data, 3 PRIMES scores were calculated (0-100 scale; higher scores = improved adherence) for each condition: an overall composite (including all quality indicators for the condition), an overuse composite (including only indicators for care that should not be provided [eg, chest radiographs for bronchiolitis]), and an underuse composite (including only indicators for care that should be provided [eg, dexamethasone for croup]). Multivariable models assessed relationships between PRIMES composite scores and (1) PedsQL improvement, (2) LOS, and (3) 30-day reuse.

Results: For every 10-point increase in PRIMES overuse composite scores, LOS decreased by 8.8 hours (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.6 to -6.1) for bronchiolitis, 3.1 hours (95% CI -5.5 to -1.0) for asthma, and 2.0 hours (95% CI -3.9 to -0.1) for croup. Bronchiolitis overall composite scores were also associated with shorter LOS. PRIMES composites were not associated with PedsQL improvement or reuse.

Conclusions: Better performance on some PRIMES condition-specific composite measures is associated with decreased LOS, with scores on overuse quality indicators being a primary driver of this relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-0242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6855826PMC
August 2019