Publications by authors named "Karen Chiswell"

108 Publications

Evolving Cost-Quality Relationship in Pediatric Heart Surgery.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Background: For the >40,000 US children undergoing congenital heart surgery annually, the relationship between hospital quality and costs remains unclear. Prior studies report conflicting results and clinical outcomes have continued to improve over time. We examined a large contemporary cohort, aiming to better inform ongoing initiatives seeking to optimize healthcare value in this population.

Methods: Clinical information (Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Database) was merged with standardized cost data (Pediatric Health Information Systems) for children undergoing heart surgery from 2010-2015. In-hospital cost variability was analyzed using Bayesian hierarchical models adjusted for case-mix. Quality metrics examined included in-hospital mortality, post-operative complications, length of stay (PLOS), and a composite.

Results: Overall 32 hospitals (n=45,315 patients) were included. Median adjusted cost/case varied across hospitals from $67,700 to $51,200 in the high vs. low cost tertile (ratio 1.32, 95% credible interval 1.29-1.35), and all quality metrics also varied across hospitals. Across cost tertiles there were no significant differences in the quality metrics examined, with the exception of PLOS. The PLOS findings were driven by high-risk STAT 4-5 cases [adjusted median LOS 16.8 vs. 14.9 days in high vs. low cost tertile (ratio 1.13, 1.05-1.24)], and ICU PLOS.

Conclusions: Contemporary congenital heart surgery costs vary across hospitals but were not associated with most quality metrics examined, highlighting that performance in one area does not necessarily convey to others. Cost variability was associated with PLOS, particularly related to ICU PLOS and high-risk cases. Care processes influencing PLOS may provide targets for value-based initiatives in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.05.050DOI Listing
June 2021

Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Variability in Patients With Heart Failure and Chronic Kidney Disease.

J Card Fail 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina; Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Background: Greater variability in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is associated with higher mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Heart failure (HF) is common in CKD and may increase variability through changes in hemodynamic and volume regulation. We sought to determine if patients with vs without HF have higher kidney function variability in CKD, and to define the association with mortality.

Methods And Results: Patients undergoing coronary angiography from 2003 to 2013 with an eGFR of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m were evaluated from the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease. Variability in the eGFR, measured as the coefficient of variation (CV) of residuals from the regression of eGFR vs time, was calculated spanning 3 months to 2 years after catheterization. Mortality was assessed 2 to 7 years after catheterization. Patients were grouped into 3 HF phenotypes: HF with reduced ejection fraction, HF with preserved ejection, and no HF. Regression was used to evaluate associations between HF phenotypes and variability in the eGFR and between variability in the eGFR and mortality rate with stratification by HF phenotype. Among 3767 participants, the median eGFR at baseline was 45 mL/min/1.73 m (interquartile range 33-53 mL/min/1.73 m), and longitudinal measures of eGFR over 21 months had within-patient residual variability (CV) of 14% (9%-20%). In adjusted analyses, variability in the eGFR was greater in those with HF with preserved ejection (n = 695, CV difference 0.98%, 95% confidence interval 0.14%-1.81%) or HF with reduced ejection fraction (n = 800, CV difference 2.51%, 95% confidence interval 1.66%-3.37%) relative to no HF (n = 2272). In 3068 participants eligible for mortality analysis, the presence of HF and greater variability in the eGFR were each associated independently with higher mortality, but there was no evidence of interaction between variability in the eGFR and any HF phenotype (all P for interaction ≥.49).

Conclusions: Variability in the eGFR is greater in patients with HF and associated with mortality. Prediction algorithms and classification schemes should consider not only static, but also dynamic eGFR variability in HF and CKD prognostication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2021.04.016DOI Listing
May 2021

Causes of Death in Infants and Children with Congenital Heart Disease.

Pediatr Cardiol 2021 Aug 22;42(6):1308-1315. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3090, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.

With improved surgical outcomes, infants and children with congenital heart disease (CHD) may die from other causes of death (COD) other than CHD. We sought to describe the COD in youth with CHD in North Carolina (NC). Patients from birth to 20 years of age with a healthcare encounter between 2008 and 2013 in NC were identified by ICD-9 code. Patients who could be linked to a NC death certificate between 2008 and 2016 were included. Patients were divided by CHD subtypes (severe, shunt, valve, other). COD was compared between groups. Records of 35,542 patients < 20 years old were evaluated. There were 15,277 infants with an annual mortality rate of 3.5 deaths per 100 live births. The most frequent COD in infants (age < 1 year) were CHD (31.7%), lung disease (16.1%), and infection (11.4%). In 20,265 children (age 1 to < 20 years), there was annual mortality rate of 9.7 deaths per 1000 at risk. The most frequent COD in children were CHD (34.2%), neurologic disease (10.2%), and infection (9.5%). In the severe subtype, CHD was the most common COD. In infants with shunt-type CHD disease, lung disease (19.5%) was the most common COD. The mortality rate in infants was three times higher when compared to children. CHD is the most common underlying COD, but in those with shunt-type lesions, extra-cardiac COD is more common. A multidisciplinary approach in CHD patients, where development of best practice models regarding comorbid conditions such as lung disease and neurologic disease could improve outcomes in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00246-021-02612-2DOI Listing
August 2021

Postoperative Hematocrit and Adverse Outcomes in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study From the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Society Database Collaboration.

Anesth Analg 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Bloomberg Children's Hospital, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: We sought to examine potential associations between pediatric postcardiac surgical hematocrit values and postoperative complications or mortality.

Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (STS-CHSD) and Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Society Database Module (2014-2019) was completed. Multivariable logistic regression models, adjusting for covariates in the STS-CHSD mortality risk model, were used to assess the relationship between postoperative hematocrit and the primary outcomes of operative mortality or any major complication. Hematocrit was assessed as a continuous variable using linear splines to account for nonlinear relationships with outcomes. Operations after which the oxygen saturation is typically observed to be <92% were classified as cyanotic and ≥92% as acyanotic.

Results: In total, 27,462 index operations were included, with 4909 (17.9%) being cyanotic and 22,553 (82.1%) acyanotic. For cyanotic patients, each 5% incremental increase in hematocrit over 42% was associated with a 1.31-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.55; P = .003) increase in the odds of operative mortality and a 1.22-fold (95% CI, 1.10-1.36; P < .001) increase in the odds of a major complication. For acyanotic patients, each 5% incremental increase in hematocrit >38% was associated with a 1.45-fold (95% CI, 1.28-1.65; P < .001) increase in the odds of operative mortality and a 1.21-fold (95% CI, 1.14-1.29; P < .001) increase in the odds of a major complication.

Conclusions: High hematocrit on arrival to the intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with increased operative mortality and major complications in pediatric patients following cardiac surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000005416DOI Listing
March 2021

The incremental value of angiographic features for predicting recurrent cardiovascular events: Insights from the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease.

Atherosclerosis 2021 03 8;321:1-7. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Background And Aims: Identifying patient subgroups with cardiovascular disease (CVD) at highest risk for recurrent events remains challenging. Angiographic features may provide incremental value in risk prediction beyond clinical characteristics.

Methods: We included all cardiac catheterization patients from the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease with significant coronary artery disease (CAD; 07/01/2007-12/31/2012) and an outpatient follow-up visit with a primary care physician or cardiologist in the same health system within 3 months post-catheterization. Follow-up occurred for 3 years for the primary major adverse cardiovascular event endpoint (time to all-cause death, myocardial infarction [MI], or stroke). A multivariable model to predict recurrent events was developed based on clinical variables only, then adding angiographic variables from the catheterization. Next, we compared discrimination of clinical vs. clinical plus angiographic risk prediction models.

Results: Among 3366 patients with angiographically-defined CAD, 633 (19.2%) experienced cardiovascular events (death, MI, or stroke) within 3 years. A multivariable model including 18 baseline clinical factors and initial revascularization had modest ability to predict future atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events (c-statistic = 0.716). Among angiographic predictors, number of diseased vessels, left main stenosis, left anterior descending stenosis, and the Duke CAD Index had the highest value for secondary risk prediction; however, the clinical plus angiographic model only slightly improved discrimination (c-statistic = 0.724; delta 0.008). The net benefit for angiographic features was also small, with a relative integrated discrimination improvement of 0.05 (95% confidence interval: 0.03-0.08).

Conclusions: The inclusion of coronary angiographic features added little incremental value in secondary risk prediction beyond clinical characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2021.02.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8221430PMC
March 2021

OptiVol for Volume Assessment in Patients With Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device.

ASAIO J 2021 02;67(2):192-195

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina.

OptiVol (Medtronic PLC, Minneapolis, MN) is a diagnostic feature of some cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) based on changes in thoracic impedance (TI) over time. Changes in TI can predict heart failure (HF) hospitalizations and mortality in HF populations. However, the utility of this feature is unknown in patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). To determine if OptiVol and TI correlate with clinical HF events in a population of LVAD patients, hospitalization outcomes were collected retrospectively from the electronic health records at a single academic medical center in 80 LVAD patients with an OptiVol-capable CIED. Demographics, medical history, and available clinical data were reviewed and reported. The primary outcomes of interest were TI and OptiVol trends before and after hospitalization, and association of trends before and after these events was evaluated. Most patients had a HeartMate II LVAD and most CIEDs were defibrillators, and 23 (29%) had at least one HF hospitalization during the study period. HF hospitalizations were preceded by signs of volume overload in Optivol (60%) and TI (78%) with recovery of these measures post hospitalization in 33% and 25% of patients, respectively. Monitoring of TI and OptiVol may be one effective component of HF management in LVAD patients as part of a comprehensive program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAT.0000000000001244DOI Listing
February 2021

African American-Caucasian American differences in aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis.

Am Heart J 2021 04 13;234:111-121. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC; Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC. Electronic address:

Background: Among patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS), there are limited data on aortic valve replacement (AVR), reasons for nonreceipt and mortality by race.

Methods: Utilizing the Duke Echocardiography Laboratory Database, we analyzed data from 110,711 patients who underwent echocardiography at Duke University Medical Center between 1999 and 2013. We identified 1,111 patients with severe AS who met ≥1 of 3 criteria for AVR: ejection fraction ≤50%, diagnosis of heart failure, or need for coronary artery bypass surgery. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between race, AVR and 1-year mortality. χ2 testing was used to assess potential racial differences in reasons for AVR nonreceipt.

Results: Among the 1,111 patients (143 AA and 968 CA) eligible for AVR, AA were more often women, had more diabetes, renal insufficiency, aortic regurgitation and left ventricular hypertrophy. CA were more often smokers, had more ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidemia and higher median income levels. There were no racial differences in surgical risk utilizing logistic euroSCORES. Relative to CA, AA had lower rates of AVR (adjusted odds ratio 0.46, 95% CI 0.3-0.71, P < .001) yet similar 1-year mortality (aHR 0.81, 95% CI 0.57-1.17, P = .262). There were no significant differences in reasons for AVR nonreceipt.

Conclusions: We identified 143 African Americans (AA) and 968 Caucasian Americans(CA) with severe AS who met prespecified criteria for AVR.. AA relative to CA were more often women, had more diabetes, renal insufficiency, and left ventricular hypertrophy, however had less tobacco use, ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidemia and lower median income levels. Among patients with severe AS, AA relative to CA had lower rates of AVR (adjusted odds ratio 0.46, 95% CI 0.3-0.71, P < .001) without significant differences in reasons for AVR nonreceipt and similar 1-year mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2021.01.005DOI Listing
April 2021

Racial Differences in AKI Incidence Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Mar 18;32(3):654-662. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: Undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a risk factor for AKI development, but few studies have quantified racial differences in AKI incidence after this procedure.

Methods: We examined the association of self-reported race (Black, White, or other) and baseline eGFR with AKI incidence among patients who underwent PCI at Duke University Medical Center between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2013. We defined AKI as a 0.3 mg/dl absolute increase in serum creatinine within 48 hours, or ≥1.5-fold relative elevation within 7 days post-PCI from the reference value ascertained within 30 days before PCI.

Results: Of 9422 patients in the analytic cohort (median age 63 years; 33% female; 75% White, 20% Black, 5% other race), 9% developed AKI overall (14% of Black, 8% of White, 10% of others). After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic status, comorbidities, predisposing medications, PCI indication, periprocedural AKI prophylaxis, and PCI procedural characteristics, Black race was associated with increased odds for incident AKI compared with White race (odds ratio [OR], 1.79; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.48 to 2.15). Compared with Whites, odds for incident AKI were not significantly higher in other patients (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.83). Low baseline eGFR was associated with graded, higher odds of AKI incidence ( value for trend <0.001); however, there was no interaction between race and baseline eGFR on odds for incident AKI ( value for interaction = 0.75).

Conclusions: Black patients had greater odds of developing AKI after PCI compared with White patients. Future investigations should identify factors, including multiple domains of social determinants, that predispose Black individuals to disparate AKI risk after PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020040502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920184PMC
March 2021

Tracheal surgery for airway anomalies associated with increased mortality in pediatric patients undergoing heart surgery: Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database analysis.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Mar 27;161(3):1112-1121.e7. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Objectives: Airway anomalies are common in children with cardiac disease but with an unquantified impact on outcomes. We sought to define the association between airway anomalies and tracheal surgery with cardiac surgery outcomes using the Society of Thoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery Database.

Methods: Index cardiac operations in children aged less than 18 years (January 2010 to September 2018) were identified from the Society of Thoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery Database. Patients were divided on the basis of reported diagnosis of an airway anomaly and subdivided on the basis of tracheal lesion and tracheal surgery. Multivariable analysis evaluated associations between airway disease and outcomes controlling for covariates from the Society of Thoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery Database Mortality Risk Model.

Results: Of 198,674 index cardiovascular operations, 6861 (3.4%) were performed in patients with airway anomalies, including 428 patients (0.2%) who also underwent tracheal operations during the same hospitalization. Patients with airway anomalies underwent more complex cardiac operations (45% vs 36% Society of Thoracic Surgeons/European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery Mortality category ≥3 procedures) and had a higher prevalence of preoperative risk factors (73% vs 39%; both P < .001). In multivariable analysis, patients with airway anomalies had increased odds of major morbidity and tracheostomy (P < .001). Operative mortality was also increased in patients with airway anomalies, except those with malacia. Tracheal surgery within the same hospitalization increased the odds of operative mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 3.9; P < .0001), major morbidity (adjusted odds ratio, 3.7; P < .0001), and tracheostomy (adjusted odds ratio, 16.7; P < .0001).

Conclusions: Patients undergoing cardiac surgery and tracheal surgery are at significantly higher risk of morbidity and mortality than patients receiving cardiac surgery alone. Most of those with unoperated airway anomalies have higher morbidity and mortality, which makes it an important preoperative consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2020.10.149DOI Listing
March 2021

Risk Factor Burden and Long-Term Prognosis of Patients With Premature Coronary Artery Disease.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 12 8;9(24):e017712. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Duke Clinical Research Institute Duke University School of Medicine Durham NC.

Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is increasing among young adults. We aimed to describe the cardiovascular risk factors and long-term prognosis of premature CAD. Methods and Results Using the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease, we evaluated 3655 patients admitted between 1995 and 2013 with a first diagnosis of obstructive CAD before the age of 50 years. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), defined as the composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or revascularization, were ascertained for up to 10 years. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess associations with the rate of first recurrent event, and negative binomial log-linear regression was used for rate of multiple event recurrences. Past or current smoking was the most frequent cardiovascular factor (60.8%), followed by hypertension (52.8%) and family history of CAD (39.8%). Within a 10-year follow-up, 52.9% of patients had at least 1 MACE, 18.6% had at least 2 recurrent MACEs, and 7.9% had at least 3 recurrent MACEs, with death occurring in 20.9% of patients. Across follow-up, 31.7% to 37.2% of patients continued smoking, 81.7% to 89.3% had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels beyond the goal of 70 mg/dL, and 16% had new-onset diabetes mellitus. Female sex, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, multivessel disease, and chronic inflammatory disease were factors associated with recurrent MACEs. Conclusions Premature CAD is an aggressive disease with frequent ischemic recurrences and premature death. Individuals with premature CAD have a high proportion of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, but failure to control them is frequently observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955368PMC
December 2020

Tobacco smoking in patients with heart failure and coronary artery disease: A 20-year experience at Duke University Medical Center.

Am Heart J 2020 12 25;230:25-34. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC; Division of Cardiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC.

Smoking is associated with incident heart failure (HF), yet limited data are available exploring the association between smoking status and long-term outcomes in HF with reduced vs. preserved ejection fraction (i.e., HFrEF vs. HFpEF).

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of HF patients undergoing coronary angiography from 1990-2010. Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and HF were stratified by EF (< 50% vs. ≥50%), smoking status (prior/current vs. never smoker), and level of smoking (light/moderate vs. heavy). Time-from-catheterization-to-event was examined using Cox proportional hazard modeling for all-cause mortality (ACM), ACM/myocardial infarction/stroke (MACE), and ACM/HF hospitalization with testing for interaction by HF-type (HFrEF vs. HFpEF).

Results: Of 14,406 patients with CAD and HF, 85% (n = 12,326) had HFrEF and 15% (n = 2080) had HFpEF. At catheterization, 61% of HFrEF and 57% of HFpEF patients had a smoking history. After adjustment, there was a significant interaction between HF-type and the association between smoking status and MACE (interaction P = .009). Smoking history was associated with increased risk for MACE in patients with HFrEF (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.18 [1.12-1.24]), but not HFpEF (HR 1.01 [0.90-1.12]). Active smokers had increased mortality following adjustment compared to former smokers regardless of HF-type (HFrEF HR 1.19 [1.06-1.32], HFpEF HR 1.30 [1.02-1.64], interaction P = .50). Heavy smokers trended towards increased risk of adverse outcomes versus light/moderate smokers; these findings were consistent across HF-type (interaction P > .12).

Conclusion: Smoking history was independently associated with worse outcomes in HFrEF but not HFpEF. Regardless of HF-type, current smokers had higher risk than former smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.09.011DOI Listing
December 2020

Diaphragm Paralysis After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: An STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database Study.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 07 5;112(1):139-146. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Division of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: Previous single-center studies of diaphragm paralysis (DP) after pediatric cardiac surgery report incidence of 0.3% to 12.8% and associate DP with respiratory complications, prolonged ventilation and length of stay, and mortality. To better define incidence and associations between DP and various procedures and outcomes, we performed a multicenter study.

Methods: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database was queried to identify children who experienced DP after cardiac surgery (2010-2018; 126 centers). Baseline characteristics and postoperative outcomes were compared between patients with and without DP as well as between patients who underwent plication and those who did not. Associations between center volume and center rates of DP and use of plication were also explored.

Results: A total of 2214 of 191,463 (1.2%) patients experienced DP. Postoperative DP portended worse outcomes, including mortality (5.6% vs 3.5%; P < .001), major morbidity (37.2% vs 10.7%; P < .001), tracheostomy (7.1% vs 0.9%; P < .001), prolonged mechanical ventilation (38.0% vs 7.8%; P < .001), and 30-day readmission (22.0% vs 10.6%; P < .001). A total of 1105 of 2214 (49.9%) patients with DP underwent plication. Patients who underwent plication were younger, were smaller, had more risk factors, and underwent more complex surgeries. Plication rates varied widely across centers. There was no correlation between center volume and center risk-adjusted rates of DP (r = .05, P = .5), nor frequency of plication (r = .08, P = .4).

Conclusions: DP complicating pediatric heart surgery is rare but portends significantly worse outcomes. One-half of patients underwent plication. Center-level risk-adjusted rates of DP and plication are not associated with case volume. Significant variability in plication practices suggests a target for quality improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.05.175DOI Listing
July 2021

The Evolving Surgical Burden of Fontan Failure: An Analysis of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 07 5;112(1):179-187. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: Fontan failure often requires surgical therapy in the form of Fontan revision or heart transplantation. We sought to characterize national trends in the surgical burden of Fontan failure and identify risk factors for adverse outcomes.

Methods: Fontan patients undergoing Fontan revision or transplantation from January 2010 to June 2018 were included. We evaluated baseline characteristics and outcomes and used multivariable logistic regression to identify risk factors for operative mortality and composite mortality and major morbidity.

Results: A total of 1135 patients underwent Fontan revision (n = 598) or transplantation (n = 537) at 100 centers. Transplantations increased from 34 in 2010 to 76 in 2017, largely owing to an increase in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) (18 in 2010 to 49 in 2017), while Fontan revision decreased (75 in 2010 to 49 in 2017). Transplantation patients were younger (median 14 years of age vs 18 years of age; P < .001), more often had preoperative risk factors (66% vs 40%; P < .001), and more often had HLHS (51% vs 15%; P < .001). Operative mortality and composite major morbidity and mortality were 7.6% and 35% for transplantation and 7.1% and 22% for Fontan revision, respectively. Multivariable risk factors for mortality included older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.08/y; P = .007), presence of preoperative risk factors (OR, 3.33; P = .002), and concomitant pulmonary artery reconstruction (OR, 2.7; P = .029) for Fontan revision but only older age (OR, 1.06/y; P = .020) for transplantation.

Conclusions: Both transplantation and Fontan revision are associated with high morbidity and mortality. There has been evolution of practices in surgical therapy for Fontan failure, perhaps related to rising prevalence of HLHS staged palliation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.05.174DOI Listing
July 2021

Performance of Guideline Recommendations for Prevention of Myocardial Infarction in Young Adults.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 08;76(6):653-664

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Background: The 2018 cholesterol guidelines of the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) changed 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) eligibility criteria for primary prevention to include multiple risk enhancers and novel intensive lipid-lowering therapies for secondary prevention.

Objectives: This study sought to determine how guideline changes affected identification for preventive therapy in young adults with premature myocardial infarction (MI).

Methods: The study identified adults presenting with first MI at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina. Statin therapy eligibility was determined using the 2013 ACC/AHA and 2018 AHA/ACC guidelines criteria. The study also determined potential eligibility for intensive lipid-lowering therapies (very high risk) under the 2018 AHA/ACC guidelines, by assessing the composite of all-cause death, recurrent MI, or stroke rates in adults considered "very high risk" versus not.

Results: Among 6,639 patients with MI, 41% were <55 years of age ("younger"), 35% were 55 to 65 years of age ("middle-aged"), and 24% were 66 to 75 years of age ("older"). Younger adults were more frequently smokers (52% vs. 38% vs. 22%, respectively) and obese (42% vs. 34% vs. 31%, respectively), with metabolic syndrome (21% vs. 19% vs. 17%, respectively) and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (117 vs. 107 vs. 103 mg/dl, respectively) (p trend <0.01 for all). Pre-MI, fewer younger adults met guideline indications for 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) therapy than middle-aged and older adults. The 2018 guideline identified fewer younger adults eligible for statin therapy at the time of their MI than the 2013 guideline (46.4% vs. 56.7%; p < 0.01). Younger patients less frequently met very high-risk criteria for intensive secondary prevention lipid-lowering therapy (28.3% vs. 40.0% vs. 81.4%, respectively; p < 0.01). Over a median 8 years of follow-up, very high-risk criteria were associated with increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in individuals <55 years of age (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.82 to 2.41; p < 0.001), as was the case in older age groups (p interaction = 0.54).

Conclusions: Most younger patients with premature MI are not identified as statin candidates before their event on the basis of the 2018 guidelines, and most patients with premature MI are not recommended for intensive post-MI lipid management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.06.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444655PMC
August 2020

Causes of Death and Cardiovascular Comorbidities in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 07 11;9(14):e016400. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Duke University Medical Center Durham NC.

Background Little is known about the contemporary mortality experience among adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). The objectives of this study were to assess the age at death, presence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and most common causes of death among adults with CHD in a contemporary cohort within the United States. Methods and Results Patients with CHD who had a healthcare encounter between 2008 and 2013 at 1 of 5 comprehensive CHD centers in North Carolina were identified by (), code. Only patients who could be linked to a North Carolina death certificate between 2008 and 2016 and with age at death ≥20 years were included. Median age at death and underlying cause of death based on death certificate data were analyzed. The prevalence of acquired cardiovascular risk factors was determined from electronic medical record data. Among the 629 included patients, the median age at death was 64.2 years. Those with severe CHD (n=157, 25%), shunts (n=202, 32%), and valvular lesions (n=174, 28%) had a median age at death of 46.0, 65.0, and 73.3 years, respectively. Cardiovascular death was most common in adults with severe CHD (60%), with 40% of those deaths caused by CHD. Malignancy and ischemic heart disease were the most common causes of death in adults with nonsevere CHD. Hypertension and hyperlipidemia were common comorbidities among all CHD severity groups. Conclusions The most common underlying causes of death differed by lesion severity. Those with severe lesions most commonly died from underlying CHD, whereas those with nonsevere disease more commonly died from non-CHD causes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.016400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7660712PMC
July 2020

PROPHETIC: Prospective Identification of Pneumonia in Hospitalized Patients in the ICU.

Chest 2020 12 29;158(6):2370-2380. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Duke University, Durham, NC; Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC.

Background: Pneumonia is the leading infection-related cause of death. The use of simple clinical criteria and contemporary epidemiology to identify patients at high risk of nosocomial pneumonia should enhance prevention efforts and facilitate development of new treatments in clinical trials.

Research Question: What are the clinical criteria and contemporary epidemiology trends that are helpful in the identification of patients at high risk of nosocomial pneumonia?

Study Design And Methods: Within the ICUs of 28 US hospitals, we conducted a prospective cohort study among adults who had been hospitalized >48 hours and were considered high risk for pneumonia (defined as treatment with invasive or noninvasive ventilatory support or high levels of supplemental oxygen). We estimated the proportion of high-risk patients who experienced the development of nosocomial pneumonia. Using multivariable logistic regression, we identified patient characteristics and treatment exposures that are associated with increased risk of pneumonia development during the ICU admission.

Results: Between February 6, 2016, and October 7, 2016, 4,613 high-risk patients were enrolled. Among 1,464 high-risk patients (32%) who were treated for possible nosocomial pneumonia, 537 (37%) met the study pneumonia definition. Among high-risk patients, a multivariable logistic model was developed to identify key patient characteristics and treatment exposures that are associated with increased risk of nosocomial pneumonia development (c-statistic, 0.709; 95% CI, 0.686-0.731). Key factors associated with increased odds of nosocomial pneumonia included an admission diagnosis of trauma or cerebrovascular accident, receipt of enteral nutrition, documented aspiration risk, and receipt of systemic antibacterials within the preceding 90 days.

Interpretation: Treatment for nosocomial pneumonia is common among patients in the ICU who are receiving high levels of respiratory support, yet more than one-half of patients who are treated do not fulfill standard diagnostic criteria for pneumonia. Application of simple clinical criteria may improve the feasibility of clinical trials of pneumonia prevention and treatment by facilitating prospective identification of patients at highest risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.06.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722207PMC
December 2020

Prevalence and Management of Adult Obesity in a Large U.S. Academic Health System.

Am J Prev Med 2020 06;58(6):817-824

Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina.

Introduction: Both medication and surgical interventions can be used to treat obesity, yet their use and effectiveness in routine clinical practice are not clear. This study sought to characterize the prevalence and management of patients with obesity within a large U.S. academic medical center.

Methods: All patients aged ≥18 years who were seen in a primary care clinic within the Duke Health System between 2013 and 2016 were included. Patients were categorized according to baseline BMI as underweight or normal weight (<25 kg/m), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m), Class I obesity (30-34.9 kg/m), Class II obesity (35-39.9 kg/m), and Class III obesity (≥40 kg/m). Baseline characteristics and use of weight loss medication were assessed by BMI category. Predicted change in BMI was modeled over 3 years. All data were analyzed between 2017 and 2018.

Results: Of the 173,462 included patients, most were overweight (32%) or obese (40%). Overall, <1% (n=295) of obese patients were prescribed medication for weight loss or underwent bariatric surgery within the 3-year study period. Most patients had no change in BMI class (70%) at 3 years.

Conclusions: Despite a high prevalence of obesity within primary care clinics of a large, U.S. academic health center, the use of pharmacologic and surgical therapies was low, and most patients had no weight change over 3 years. This highlights the significant need for improvement in obesity care at a health system level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2020.01.018DOI Listing
June 2020

Comparison of Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients With Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction With Versus Without Hyperuricemia or Gout.

Am J Cardiol 2020 07 22;127:64-72. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Hospital, Durham, North Carolina; Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina.

Hyperuricemia and gout are common in patients with heart failure (HF) and are associated with poor outcomes. Data describing hyperuricemia and gout in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are limited. We used data from the Duke University Health System to describe characteristics of patients with HFpEF and hyperuricemia (serum uric acid >6 mg/dl) or gout (gout diagnosis or gout medication within the previous year) and to explore associations with 5-year outcomes (death and hospitalization). We identified 7,004 patients in the Duke University Health System with a known diagnosis of HFpEF who underwent transthoracic echocardiography between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2017. A total of 1,136 (16.2%) patients with HFpEF also had hyperuricemia or gout. Patients with HFpEF and hyperuricemia or gout had a greater co-morbidity burden, more echocardiographic findings of cardiac remodeling, and higher unadjusted rates of all-cause death, all-cause hospitalization, and HF hospitalization compared with those with HFpEF without hyperuricemia or gout. After multivariable adjustment, patients with HFpEF and hyperuricemia or gout had a significantly higher rates of first all-cause hospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio 1.10 [95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.19]; p = 0.020) and recurrent all-cause hospitalization (associated rate ratio 1.13 [95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.25]; p = 0.026). After adjustment, no significant differences in death or HF hospitalization were observed. In conclusion, patients with HFpEF and hyperuricemia or gout were found to have a higher burden of co-morbidities and a higher rate of all-cause hospitalization, even after multivariable adjustment, compared to patients with HFpEF without hyperuricemia or gout.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.04.026DOI Listing
July 2020

Associations between anthropometric indices and outcomes of congenital heart operations in infants and young children: An analysis of data from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database.

Am Heart J 2020 06 19;224:85-97. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seattle Children's Hospital, University of Washington, 4800 Sandpoint Way NE, Seattle, WA.

Background: Children with congenital heart disease are at risk for growth failure due to inadequate nutrient intake and increased metabolic demands. We examined the relationship between anthropometric indices of nutrition (height-for-age z-score [HAZ], weight-for-age z-score [WAZ], weight-for-height z-score [WHZ]) and outcomes in a large sample of children undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease.

Methods: Patients in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database having index cardiac surgery at age 1 month to 10 years were included. Indices were calculated by comparing patients' weight and height to population norms from the World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outcomes included operative mortality, composite mortality or major complication, major postoperative infection, and postoperative length of stay. For each outcome and index, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) (for mortality, composite outcome, and infection) and adjusted relative change in median (for postoperative length of stay) for a 1-unit decrease in index were estimated using mixed-effects logistic and log-linear regression models.

Results: Every unit decrease in HAZ was associated with 1.40 aOR of mortality (95% CI 1.32-1.48), and every unit decrease in WAZ was associated with 1.33 aOR for mortality (95% CI 1.25-1.41). The relationship between WHZ and outcome was nonlinear, with aOR of mortality of 0.84 (95% CI 0.76-0.93) for 1-unit decrease when WHZ ≥ 0 and a nonsignificant association for WHZ < 0. Trends for other outcomes were similar. Overall, the incidence of low nutritional indices was similar for 1-ventricle and 2-ventricle patients. Children between the age of 1 month and 1 year and those with lesions associated with pulmonary overcirculation had the highest incidence of low nutritional indices.

Conclusions: Lower HAZ and WAZ, suggestive of malnutrition, are associated with increased mortality and other adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery in infants and young children. Higher WHZ over zero, suggestive of obesity, is also associated with adverse outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.03.012DOI Listing
June 2020

Estimating Resource Utilization in Congenital Heart Surgery.

Ann Thorac Surg 2020 09 24;110(3):962-968. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Saint Petersburg, Florida.

Background: Optimal methods to assess resource utilization in congenital heart surgery remain unclear. We compared traditional cost-to-charge ratio methods with newer standardized cost methods that aim to more directly assess resources consumed.

Methods: Clinical data from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database were linked with resource use data from the Pediatric Health Information Systems Database (2010 to 2015). Standardized cost methods specific to the congenital heart surgery population were developed and compared with cost-to-charge ratio methods. Resource use in the overall population and variability across hospitals were described using hierarchical mixed effect models adjusting for case-mix.

Results: Overall, 43 hospitals (65,331 patients) were included. There were minimal population-level differences in the distribution of resource use as estimated by the two methods. At the hospital level, there was less apparent variability in resource use across centers with the standardized cost vs cost-to-charge ratio method, overall (coefficient of variation 20% vs 25%) and across complexity (The Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery [STAT]) categories. When hospitals were categorized into tertiles by resource use, 33% changed classification depending on which resource use method was used (26% by one tertile and 7% by two tertiles).

Conclusions: In this first evaluation of standardized cost methodology in the congenital heart population, we found minimal differences vs traditional methods at the population level. At the hospital level, the magnitude of variation in resource use was less with standardized cost methods, and approximately one third of centers changed resource use categories depending on the methodology used. Because of these differences, care should be taken in future studies and in benchmarking and reporting efforts in selecting optimal methodology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.01.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237745PMC
September 2020

Feasibility of Cancer Clinical Trial Enrollment Goals Based on Cancer Incidence.

JCO Clin Cancer Inform 2020 01;4:35-49

Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC.

Purpose: More than 20% of US clinical trials fail to accrue sufficiently. Our purpose was to provide a benchmark for better understanding clinical trial enrollment feasibility and to assess relative levels of competition for patients by cancer diagnosis.

Methods: The Database for Aggregate Analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov, up to date as of September 3, 2017, was used to identify actively recruiting, interventional oncology trials with US sites. Observational studies were excluded because not all are registered. Trials were categorized through Medical Subject Headings or free-text condition terms and sorted by cancer diagnosis. Trials that included more than one cancer diagnosis were included in the overall cohort but excluded when evaluating enrollment by cancer type. Trial enrollment slot availability was estimated between September 1, 2017, and August 31, 2018. Availability was estimated from total anticipated enrollment and duration, assuming a constant recruitment rate. Estimates for studies with both foreign and domestic sites were then prorated to calculate available enrollment in the United States alone. Ratios of the number of newly diagnosed patients in the United States available per trial slot were estimated using the American Cancer Society cancer incidence estimates for 2017.

Results: A total of 4,598 interventional oncology trials were identified. Overall, the estimated ratio of newly diagnosed patients available per trial slot was 12.6. Estimated ratios of patients per trial slot for six cancer diagnoses with the highest potential of 12-month US enrollment were as follows: colorectal, 24.7; lung and bronchus, 20.1; prostate, 17.6; breast (female), 13.8; leukemia, 11.6; and brain and other nervous system, 6.0.

Conclusion: For all cancers, successfully accruing trials currently open would require that more than one in every 13 recently diagnosed patients (7.9%) enroll. This ratio and relative difficulty of accrual varies among cancers examined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/CCI.19.00088DOI Listing
January 2020

Association between systolic ejection time and outcomes in heart failure by ejection fraction.

Eur J Heart Fail 2020 07 21;22(7):1174-1182. Epub 2019 Dec 21.

Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Aims: Worsening heart failure (HF) is associated with shorter left ventricular systolic ejection time (SET), but there are limited data describing the relationship between SET and clinical outcomes. Thus, the objective was to describe the association between SET and clinical outcomes in an ambulatory HF population irrespective of ejection fraction (EF).

Methods And Results: We identified ambulatory patients with HF with reduced EF (HFrEF) and HF with preserved EF (HFpEF) who had an outpatient transthoracic echocardiogram performed between August 2008 and July 2010 at a tertiary referral centre. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between SET and 1-year outcomes. A total of 545 HF patients (171 HFrEF, 374 HFpEF) met eligibility criteria. Compared with HFpEF, HFrEF patients were younger [median age 60 years (25th-75th percentiles 50-69) vs. 64 years (25th-75th percentiles 53-74], with fewer females (30% vs. 56%) and a similar percentage of African Americans (36% vs. 35%). Median (25th-75th percentiles) EF with HFrEF was 30% (25-35%) and with HFpEF was 54% (48-58%). Median SET was shorter (280 ms vs. 315 ms, P < 0.001), median pre-ejection period was longer (114 ms vs. 89 ms, P < 0.001), and median relaxation time was shorter (78.7 ms vs. 93.3 ms, P < 0.001) among patients with HFrEF vs. HFpEF. Death or HF hospitalization occurred in 26.9% (n = 46) HFrEF and 11.8% (n = 44) HFpEF patients. After adjustment, longer SET was associated with lower odds of the composite of death or HF hospitalization at 1 year among HFrEF but not HFpEF patients.

Conclusion: Longer SET is independently associated with improved outcomes among HFrEF patients but not HFpEF patients, supporting a potential role for normalizing SET as a therapeutic strategy with systolic dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7493053PMC
July 2020

Percutaneous coronary intervention outcomes in patients with stable coronary disease and left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

ESC Heart Fail 2019 12 27;6(6):1233-1242. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Aims: We sought to better understand the role of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and moderate or severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

Methods And Results: Using data from the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease, we analysed patients who underwent coronary angiography at Duke University Medical Center (1995-2012) that had stable CAD amenable to PCI and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%. Patients with acute coronary syndrome or Canadian Cardiovascular Society class III or IV angina were excluded. We used propensity-matched Cox proportional hazards to evaluate the association of PCI with mortality and hospitalizations. Of 901 patients, 259 were treated with PCI and 642 with medical therapy. PCI propensity scores created from 24 variables were used to assemble a matched cohort of 444 patients (222 pairs) receiving PCI or medical therapy alone. Over a median follow-up of 7 years, 128 (58%) PCI and 125 (56%) medical therapy alone patients died [hazard ratio 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.68, 1.10)]; there was also no difference in the rate of a composite endpoint of all-cause mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization [hazard ratio 1.18 (95% confidence interval 0.96, 1.44)] between the two groups.

Conclusions: In this well-profiled, propensity-matched cohort of patients with stable CAD amenable to PCI and moderate or severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction, the addition of PCI to medical therapy did not improve long-term mortality, or the composite of mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization. The impact of PCI on other outcomes in these high-risk patients requires further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6989282PMC
December 2019

Echocardiographic Assessment of Right Ventricular Function and Response to Therapy in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

Am J Cardiol 2019 10 29;124(8):1298-1304. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Echocardiography is a key tool in the management of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but many potential parameters could be used to assess response to therapy. In this retrospective study of 48 patients with severe PAH at baseline, we examined echocardiographic variables before and after initiation of PAH-specific therapy to evaluate which measures of right ventricular (RV) function best correlated with clinical response to therapy as assessed by 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and 3-year all-cause mortality. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), mid-RV and basal-RV diameters, RV systolic pressure, and RV global longitudinal strain were all found to significantly improve after initiation of a PAH therapy. Decreases in right atrial area (r = -0.50, p = 0.002) and mid-RV diameter (r = -0.36, p = 0.03) were most strongly correlated with improvement in 6MWD. Pretreatment values of RA area (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 SD: 2.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.58, 4.69), mid-RV diameter (HR 2.03; 1.20, 3.45), basal-RV diameter (HR 2.27; 1.40, 3.70), and RV global longitudinal strain (HR 2.36; 1.22, 4.56) were all associated with mortality risk. 6MWD and TAPSE were the 2 variables for which pretreatment measures (6MWD - HR 0.35; 0.17, 0.72; TAPSE - HR 0.41; 0.21, 0.82) and change with treatment (6MWD - HR 0.26; 0.10, 0.64; TAPSE - HR 0.40; 0.21, 0.77) were both significantly associated with 3-year mortality. Change in RV systolic pressure with treatment was significantly associated with mortality (HR 2.55; 1.23, 5.28,) but pretreatment baseline had no association (HR 1.48; 0.72, 3.06). Although many echocardiographic parameters change with initiation of PAH treatment, the strong association of both baseline TAPSE and change in TAPSE with mortality supports the ongoing use of TAPSE as an important measure in the assessment of disease severity and treatment response in PAH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.07.026DOI Listing
October 2019

The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database: 2019 Update on Research.

Ann Thorac Surg 2019 09 20;108(3):671-679. Epub 2019 Jul 20.

Department of Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

As the largest congenital and pediatric cardiac surgical clinical data registry in the world, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (STS CHSD) serves as a platform for reporting of outcomes and for quality improvement. In addition, it is an important source of data for clinical research and for innovations related to quality measurement. Each year, several teams of investigators undertake analyses of data in the STS CHSD pertaining to the surgical management of specific diagnostic and procedural groups, or to specific processes of care, and their associations with patient characteristics and outcomes across centers participating in the STS CHSD. Additional ongoing projects involve the development of new or refined metrics for quality measurement and reporting of outcomes and center-level performance. The STS, through its Workforce for National Databases and the STS Research Center and Workforce on Research Development provides multiple pathways through which investigators may propose and perform outcomes research projects based on STS CHSD data. This report reviews research published within the past year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2019.07.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104073PMC
September 2019

Congenital Heart Surgery Outcomes in Turner Syndrome: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database Analysis.

Ann Thorac Surg 2019 11 9;108(5):1430-1437. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Background: Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by monosomy X (45,XO) in phenotypic females and is commonly associated with congenital heart disease. We sought to describe the distribution, mortality, and morbidity of congenital heart surgery in TS and compare outcomes to individuals without genetic syndromes.

Methods: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database was used to evaluate index cardiovascular operations performed from 2000 to 2017 in pediatric patients (aged 0-18 years) with and without TS. Analyses were stratified by the most common operations, including coarctation repair, aortic arch repair, partial anomalous pulmonary venous return repair, Norwood, superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (Glenn), and Fontan.

Results: Included were 780 operations in TS and 62,659 operations in controls. The most common TS operations were coarctation repair in 274 (35%), aortic arch repair in 116 (15%), and Norwood in 59 (8%). Compared with controls, TS patients had lower weight-for-age Z-scores across all operations (P < .01 for all); however, operative mortality rates did not differ significantly. The chylothorax rate was higher in TS after coarctation repair (8.8% vs 2.8%, P < .001) and Norwood (22% vs 8.1%, P < .001). The median (interquartile range) postoperative length of stay was longer in TS for coarctation repair (6.5 [5.0-15.5] days vs 5.0 [4.0-9.0] days, P < .001), aortic arch repair (15.0 [8.0-27.5] days vs 11.0 [7.0-21.0] days, P = .004), and Glenn (9.0 [6.0-16.0] days vs 6.0 [5.0-11.0] days, P = .013).

Conclusions: Turner syndrome patients most commonly underwent operations for left-sided obstructive lesions. Despite increased morbidity for select operations, TS was not associated with increased operative mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2019.05.047DOI Listing
November 2019

A Decade On: Systematic Review of ClinicalTrials.gov Infectious Disease Trials, 2007-2017.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Jun 15;6(6):ofz189. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine.

Background: Registration of interventional trials of Food and Drug Administration-regulated drug and biological products and devices became a legal requirement in 2007; the vast majority of these trials are registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. An analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov offers an opportunity to define the clinical research landscape; here we analyze 10 years of infectious disease (ID) clinical trial research.

Methods: Beginning with 166 415 interventional trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov from 2007-2017, ID trials were selected by study conditions and interventions. Relevance to ID was confirmed through manual review, resulting in 13 707 ID trials and 152 708 non-ID trials.

Results: ID-related trials represented 6.9%-9.9% of all trials with no significant trend over time. ID trials tended to be more focused on treatment and prevention, with a focus on testing drugs, biologics, and vaccines. ID trials tended to be large, randomized, and nonblinded with a greater degree of international enrollment. Industry was the primary funding source for 45.2% of ID trials. Compared with the global burden of disease, human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS and hepatitis C trials were overrepresented, and lower respiratory tract infection trials were underrepresented. Hepatitis C trials fluctuated, keeping with a wave of new drug development. Influenza vaccine trials peaked during the 2009 H1N1 swine influenza outbreak.

Conclusions: This study presents the most comprehensive characterization of ID clinical trials over the past decade. These results help define how clinical research aligns with clinical need. Temporal trends reflect changes in disease epidemiology and the impact of scientific discovery and market forces. Periodic review of ID clinical trials can help identify gaps and serve as a mechanism to realign resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6598302PMC
June 2019

Racial differences in long-term outcomes among black and white patients with drug-eluting stents.

Am Heart J 2019 08 15;214:46-53. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC; Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC. Electronic address:

Background: Some studies suggest that black patients may have worse outcomes after drug-eluting stent (DES) placement. There are limited data characterizing long-term outcomes by race. The objective was to compare long-term outcomes between black and white patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with DES implantation.

Methods: We analyzed 915 black and 3,559 white (n = 4,474) consecutive patients who underwent DES placement at Duke University Medical Center from 2005 through 2013. Over 6-year follow up, we compared rates of myocardial infarction (MI), all-cause mortality, revascularization, and major bleeding between black and white patients. A multivariable Cox regression model was fit to adjust for potentially confounding variables. Dual-antiplatelet therapy use over time was determined by patient follow-up surveys and compared by race.

Results: Black patients were younger; were more often female; had higher body mass indexes; had more diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and renal disease; and had lower median household incomes than white patients (P < .001). At 6 years after DES placement, black relative to white patients had higher unadjusted rates of MI (12.1% vs 10.1%, hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.00-1.57, P = .05) and major bleeding (17.8% vs 14.3%, hazard ratio 1.28, 95% CI 1.07-1.54, P = .01), but there were no significant differences in other outcomes. After multivariable adjustment, there were no statistically significant racial differences in any of these outcomes at 6 years. Similarly, dual-antiplatelet therapy use was comparable between racial groups.

Conclusions: Unadjusted rates of MI and major bleeding over long-term follow up were higher among black patients compared to white patients, but these differences may be explained by racial differences in comorbid disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2019.04.005DOI Listing
August 2019

Cardiovascular and Lifestyle Risk Factors and Cognitive Function in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 04;8(7):e010641

1 Green Lane Cardiovascular Service Auckland City Hospital Auckland New Zealand.

Background Vascular risk factors have been associated with differences in cognitive performance in epidemiological studies, but evidence in patients with coronary heart disease is more limited. Methods and Results The Montreal Cognitive Assessment score obtained 3.2±0.37 years after randomization to darapladib, a reversible inhibitor of lipoprotein phospholipase A or placebo was evaluated for 10 634 patients with coronary heart disease from 38 countries in the STABILITY (Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy) trial. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores for darapladib and placebo groups were similar (mean± SD , 25.3±3.84 versus 25.4±3.73, respectively; P=0.27) and the adjusted odds ratio ( OR ) for mild cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment score <26) was 1.00 (95% CI , 0.93-1.09). Mild cognitive impairment was more likely with increasing age ( OR , 1.33 [1.27-1.41], +5 years after 65). For other baseline clinical characteristics, the strongest independent predictors of cognitive impairment were education (≤8 years versus college/university, OR , 2.95 [2.60-3.35]; >8 years/trade school versus college/university, OR , 1.38 [1.25-1.52] and geographic grouping). Cardiovascular risk factors independently associated with cognitive impairment were history of stroke ( OR , 1.43 [1.20-1.71]); <2.5 hours of moderate or vigorous intensity exercise/week ( OR , 1.19 [1.04-1.37]); high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <1.16 mmol/L ( OR , 1.19 [1.04-1.37]); diabetes mellitus requiring treatment ( OR , yes versus no: 1.15 [1.05-1.26]); and history of hypertension ( OR , 1.12 [1.02-1.23]). Conclusions In patients with stable coronary heart disease, cognitive performance was associated with modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, educational level, and global region, but was not influenced by darapladib. Clinical Trial Registration URL : http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 00799903.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.010641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6509727PMC
April 2019

Readmission After Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery: An Analysis of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database.

Ann Thorac Surg 2019 06 8;107(6):1816-1823. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: Hospital readmission after pediatric cardiac surgery is incompletely understood. This study analyzed data from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database to determine prevalence, to describe patient characteristics, and to evaluate risk factors for readmission.

Methods: Readmission was defined by the "readmission within 30 days after discharge" field. Routine variables were summarized. Regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with readmission.

Results: The study cohort included 56,429 patient records from 100 centers. Overall, 6,208 (11%) patients were readmitted. The most common reasons for readmission were respiratory or airway complications (14.2%), septic or infectious complications (11.4%), and reasons not related to the preceding surgical procedure (20.2%). Primary reason for readmission varied across benchmark operation groups. In multivariable analysis, factors associated with increased odds of readmission included the presence of noncardiac abnormalities (odds ratio [OR], 1.24), chromosomal abnormalities or genetic syndromes (OR, 1.24), preoperative mechanical circulatory support (OR, 1.36), other preoperative factors (OR, 1.21), prior cardiac surgery (OR, 1.31), Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 1.13), higher STAT procedural complexity (Society of Thoracic Surgeons/European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery) (STAT level 3 vs 1, OR, 1.22; STAT 4 vs 1, OR, 1.48; STAT 5 vs 1, OR, 2.62), prolonged postoperative length of stay (OR, 1.07 per day from 0 to 14 days; OR, 1.01 per week >14 days), any major complication (OR, 1.27), any other postoperative complications (OR, 2.00), and discharge on a weekday (OR, 1.07).

Conclusions: Readmission is common after congenital heart surgery, mostly for noncardiovascular reasons. Process improvement initiatives targeted at high-risk patients could minimize its impact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2019.01.009DOI Listing
June 2019
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