Publications by authors named "Kare Liimatainen"

16 Publications

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section in South American Nothofagaceae forests.

Mycologia 2020 Mar-Apr;112(2):329-341. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110680, Gainesville, Florida 32611.

We studied the South American species of section based on morphological and molecular data. Members of this group can easily be identified in the field because the basidiomata are small and -like with a bulbous stipe and the universal veil in most species forms a distinct volva at the base of the stipe. The phylogenetic delimitation of the clade was mostly in concordance with the earlier, morphology-based grouping of the South American taxa except that was resolved outside of the clade. Altogether nine species were recognized in the section. Four species, , and , were previously described by other authors, whereas three species, , and , are described here as new. We were able to identify two remaining taxa, but we do not have sufficient morphological data to allow for a formal description. All of the species in . section form ectomycorrhizal associations with Nothofagaceae. They have been documented from South America and New Zealand. The Patagonian species are considered endemic to the region. A key to the described species is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2019.1689763DOI Listing
March 2021

Megaphylogeny resolves global patterns of mushroom evolution.

Nat Ecol Evol 2019 04 18;3(4):668-678. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Synthetic and Systems Biology Unit, Biological Research Centre, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged, Hungary.

Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfil diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree and infer ages and broad patterns of speciation/extinction and morphological innovation in mushroom-forming fungi. Agaricomycetes started a rapid class-wide radiation in the Jurassic, coinciding with the spread of (sub)tropical coniferous forests and a warming climate. A possible mass extinction, several clade-specific adaptive radiations and morphological diversification of fruiting bodies followed during the Cretaceous and the Paleogene, convergently giving rise to the classic toadstool morphology, with a cap, stalk and gills (pileate-stipitate morphology). This morphology is associated with increased rates of lineage diversification, suggesting it represents a key innovation in the evolution of mushroom-forming fungi. The increase in mushroom diversity started during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic radiation event, an era of humid climate when terrestrial communities dominated by gymnosperms and reptiles were also expanding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0834-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443077PMC
April 2019

Diversity of (, ) in Europe, and typification of .

IMA Fungus 2018 Jul 5;9:271-290. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK.

In this study, eight species of are recognized from Europe: , aff. 1, , cf, , . cf. , , and . Different candidates for the application of the name are evaluated and the best fit to the description is selected; lecto- and epitypes are chosen to fix the name. and are also epitypified and a new species, , is described. The infrageneric classification is revised and a new subgenus and three new sections, , and are introduced. The former sections and are elevated to subgeneric level. Comparison of the ITS regions (nuc rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of all species studied shows that there is a minimum interspecific difference of 1.5 %, with the exception of the two species belonging to sect. which differ by a minimum of 0.9 %. Ecological specimen data indicate that species of form basidiomes under members of , with a general preference for species of . Five European species have been recorded under , while and have also been recorded as tree associates, although the detailed nutritional relationships of the genus, involving other suilloid fungi in particular, have yet to be fully clarified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.02.04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6317585PMC
July 2018

New species of Cortinarius sect. Austroamericani, sect. nov., from South American Nothofagaceae forests.

Mycologia 2018 Nov-Dec;110(6):1127-1144. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

c Department of Plant Pathology , University of Florida , PO Box 110680 , Gainesville , Florida 32611.

In this study, we document and describe the new Cortinarius section Austroamericani. Our results reveal high species diversity within this clade, with a total of 12 recognized species. Of these, only C. rufus was previously documented. Seven species are described as new based on basidiomata collections. The four remaining species are only known from environmental sequences. All examined species form ectomycorrhizal associations with species of Nothofagaceae and are currently only known from Argentinean and Chilean Patagonia. The phylogenetic analysis based on the nuc rDNA internal transcriber spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) and partial 28S gene (28S) sequences shows that this section is related to other taxa from the Southern Hemisphere. Species in this group do not belong to subg. Telamonia, where C. rufus was initially placed. Cortinarius rufus and the newly described C. subrufus form a basal clade within sect. Austroamericani that has a weakly supported relationship with the core clade. Because the two species are morphologically similar to species from the core clade and share their distribution and Nothofagaceae associations, we include them here as part of sect. Austroamericani sensu lato (s.l.) until more material is available to refine the delimitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2018.1515449DOI Listing
April 2019

Identifying and naming the currently known diversity of the genus Hydnum, with an emphasis on European and North American taxa.

Mycologia 2018 Sep-Oct;110(5):890-918. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

j Natural History Museum , University of Tartu , 14A Ravila, 50411 Tartu , Estonia.

In this study, 49 species of Hydnum are recognized worldwide. Twenty-two of them are described here as new species. Epitypes are proposed for H. repandum and H. rufescens. The majority of the species are currently known only from a single continent. The barcodes produced in this study are deposited in the RefSeq database and used as a basis to name species hypotheses in UNITE. Eleven infrageneric clades recovered in a phylogenetic analysis are supported by morphological characteristics and formally recognized: subgenera Alba, Hydnum, Pallida, and Rufescentia; sections Hydnum, Olympica, Magnorufescentia, and Rufescentia; and subsections Mulsicoloria, Rufescentia, and Tenuiformia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2018.1477004DOI Listing
March 2019

Spring and early summer species of Cortinarius, subgenus Telamonia, section Colymbadini and /Flavobasilis, in the mountains of western North America.

Mycologia 2017 May-Jun;109(3):443-458. Epub 2017 Jul 11.

f Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology , Montana State University , 119 Plant Biosciences Building, Bozeman , Montana 59717-3150.

Seven species of Cortinarius, subgenus Telamonia, section Colymbadini and /Flavobasilis, are reported from conifer forests in the mountains of western North America. They typically produce basidiomes in the spring and summer. Only one species, C. colymbadinus, is widespread, occurring in Europe and western North America, but to date not reported from California. Cortinarius bridgei, C. flavobasilis, C. rumoribrunsi, C. vernalishastensis, and C. vernalisierraensis are new species. The first two are found throughout the western mountains, whereas the latter three thus far are known only from California. Cortinarius ahsii, a common species in the Rocky Mountains and Pacific Northwest, also has not been recorded from California.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2017.1349468DOI Listing
May 2018

Cortinarius subgenus Callistei in North America and Europe-type studies, diversity, and distribution of species.

Mycologia 2016 09 22;108(5):1018-1027. Epub 2016 Aug 22.

Department of Biology, Box 351800, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1800.

Five species of Cortinarius subgenus Callistei, are recognized in Europe and North America. Cortinarius callisteus, C. infucatus, and C. neocallisteus sp. nov. have a broad distribution, extending from western North America to Europe. Cortinarius tofaceus is known from eastern North America and Europe, while C. callistei sp. is known only from one locality in Sweden. All five species are primarily associated with coniferous trees. Previously the species were included either in subgenus Leprocybe or subgenus Cortinarius, but recently they have been separated into subgenus Callistei based on molecular data. Type specimens of the names associated with this subgenus were studied and a neotype proposed for C. tofaceus and an epitype for C. infucatus Barcodes for the species are deposited in RefSeq and UNITE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/16-033DOI Listing
September 2016

Determining threshold values for barcoding fungi: lessons from Cortinarius (Basidiomycota), a highly diverse and widespread ectomycorrhizal genus.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2016 Apr 28;92(4):fiw045. Epub 2016 Feb 28.

Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

Different distance-based threshold selection approaches were used to assess and compare use of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region to distinguish among 901 Cortinarius species represented by >3000 collections. Sources of error associated with genetic markers and selection approaches were explored and evaluated using MOTUs from genus and lineage based-alignments. Our study indicates that 1%-2% more species can be distinguished by using the full-length ITS barcode as compared to either the ITS1 or ITS2 regions alone. Optimal threshold values for different picking approaches and genetic marker lengths inferred from a subset of species containing major lineages ranged from 97.0% to 99.5% sequence similarity using clustering optimization and UNITE SH, and from 1% to 2% sequence dissimilarity with CROP. Errors for the optimal cutoff ranged from 0% to 70%, and these can be reduced to a maximum of 22% when excluding species lacking a barcode gap. A threshold value of 99% is suitable for distinguishing species in the majority of lineages in the genus using the entire ITS region but only 90% of the species could be identified using just the ITS1 or ITS2 region. Prior identification of species, lacking barcode gaps and their subsequent separate analyses, maximized the accuracy of threshold approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiw045DOI Listing
April 2016

Finding needles in haystacks: linking scientific names, reference specimens and molecular data for Fungi.

Authors:
Conrad L Schoch Barbara Robbertse Vincent Robert Duong Vu Gianluigi Cardinali Laszlo Irinyi Wieland Meyer R Henrik Nilsson Karen Hughes Andrew N Miller Paul M Kirk Kessy Abarenkov M Catherine Aime Hiran A Ariyawansa Martin Bidartondo Teun Boekhout Bart Buyck Qing Cai Jie Chen Ana Crespo Pedro W Crous Ulrike Damm Z Wilhelm De Beer Bryn T M Dentinger Pradeep K Divakar Margarita Dueñas Nicolas Feau Katerina Fliegerova Miguel A García Zai-Wei Ge Gareth W Griffith Johannes Z Groenewald Marizeth Groenewald Martin Grube Marieka Gryzenhout Cécile Gueidan Liangdong Guo Sarah Hambleton Richard Hamelin Karen Hansen Valérie Hofstetter Seung-Beom Hong Jos Houbraken Kevin D Hyde Patrik Inderbitzin Peter R Johnston Samantha C Karunarathna Urmas Kõljalg Gábor M Kovács Ekaphan Kraichak Krisztina Krizsan Cletus P Kurtzman Karl-Henrik Larsson Steven Leavitt Peter M Letcher Kare Liimatainen Jian-Kui Liu D Jean Lodge Janet Jennifer Luangsa-ard H Thorsten Lumbsch Sajeewa S N Maharachchikumbura Dimuthu Manamgoda María P Martín Andrew M Minnis Jean-Marc Moncalvo Giuseppina Mulè Karen K Nakasone Tuula Niskanen Ibai Olariaga Tamás Papp Tamás Petkovits Raquel Pino-Bodas Martha J Powell Huzefa A Raja Dirk Redecker J M Sarmiento-Ramirez Keith A Seifert Bhushan Shrestha Soili Stenroos Benjamin Stielow Sung-Oui Suh Kazuaki Tanaka Leho Tedersoo M Teresa Telleria Dhanushka Udayanga Wendy A Untereiner Javier Diéguez Uribeondo Krishna V Subbarao Csaba Vágvölgyi Cobus Visagie Kerstin Voigt Donald M Walker Bevan S Weir Michael Weiß Nalin N Wijayawardene Michael J Wingfield J P Xu Zhu L Yang Ning Zhang Wen-Ying Zhuang Scott Federhen

Database (Oxford) 2014 30;2014. Epub 2014 Jun 30.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, P.O. Box 85167, 3508 AD Utrecht, The Netherlands, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences - Microbiology, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia, Italy, Molecular Mycology Research Laboratory, Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Sydney Medical School-Westmead Hospital, The University of Sydney, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead, Australia, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 461, 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37920, USA, Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois, 1816 South Oak Street, Champaign, IL 61820, USA, Mycology Section, Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3DS, UK, Natural History Museum, University of Tartu, 46 Vanemuise, 51014 Tartu, Estonia, Purdue University, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, 915 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA, Institute of Excellence in Fungal Research, and School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand, Imperial College London, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew TW9 3DS, England, UK, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Dépt. Systématique et Evolution CP39, UMR7205, 12 Rue Buffon, F-75005 Paris, France, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, P. R. China, Departamento de Biología Vegetal II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040, Spain, Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz, PF 300 154, 02806 Görlitz, Germany, Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0001, South Africa, Real Jardín Botánico, RJB-CSIC,

DNA phylogenetic comparisons have shown that morphology-based species recognition often underestimates fungal diversity. Therefore, the need for accurate DNA sequence data, tied to both correct taxonomic names and clearly annotated specimen data, has never been greater. Furthermore, the growing number of molecular ecology and microbiome projects using high-throughput sequencing require fast and effective methods for en masse species assignments. In this article, we focus on selecting and re-annotating a set of marker reference sequences that represent each currently accepted order of Fungi. The particular focus is on sequences from the internal transcribed spacer region in the nuclear ribosomal cistron, derived from type specimens and/or ex-type cultures. Re-annotated and verified sequences were deposited in a curated public database at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), namely the RefSeq Targeted Loci (RTL) database, and will be visible during routine sequence similarity searches with NR_prefixed accession numbers. A set of standards and protocols is proposed to improve the data quality of new sequences, and we suggest how type and other reference sequences can be used to improve identification of Fungi. Database URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/PRJNA177353.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/database/bau061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4075928PMC
February 2015

The species of Cortinarius, section Bovini, associated with conifers in northern Europe.

Mycologia 2013 Jul-Aug;105(4):977-93. Epub 2013 May 24.

Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Finland.

Cortinarius bovinus and morphologically similar conifer-associated species were studied using material mainly from northern Europe. To stabilize the nomenclature, relevant types were examined. Phylogenetic relationships and species limits were investigated with rDNA ITS and nuclear rpb2 sequences as well as morphological data. We recognize seven species: C. bovinus (neotypified) and six new species, C. anisochrous, C. bovinaster, C. bovinatus, C. fuscobovinus, C. fuscobovinaster and C. oulankaënsis. Their taxonomy, ecology, distribution and relationships are discussed, and a key to species is provided. Based on our phylogeny and morphological data the species were placed in section Bovini.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/12-320DOI Listing
September 2013

Cortinarius section Sanguinei in North America.

Mycologia 2013 Mar-Apr;105(2):344-56. Epub 2012 Sep 6.

Department of Biosciences, Plant Biology, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland.

The North American species of Cortinarius section Sanguinei were studied using morphological characters and ITS and RPB2 sequence data. Several type collections also were examined. Four species were identified: C. harrisonii sp. nov, C. neosanguineus sp. nov., C. sanguineus and C. sierraensis comb. nov. Of these, C. sanguineus also occurs in Europe together with C. puniceus, a fifth member of the section. Typical features of these species include ± red, fairly small basidiomata, stipe basal mycelium often with yellow to reddish yellow tints, amygdaloid to ellipsoid spores, and aniline-red lamellar trama and pileipellis hyphae when mounted in KOH. Two other species with red lamellae C. marylandensis comb. nov. and C. smithii stat. nov. & nom. nov. also are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/12-086DOI Listing
June 2014

Cortinarius sanguineus and equally red species in Europe with an emphasis on northern European material.

Mycologia 2012 Jan-Feb;104(1):242-53. Epub 2011 Sep 13.

Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Finland.

The red species of Cortinarius subgenus Dermocybe in Europe were studied based on morphological and molecular data. Three completely red species were recognized: C. sanguineus (syn. C. sanguineus var. aurantiovaginatus), C. puniceus (syn. C. cruentus, C. rubrosanguineus) and C. vitiosus comb. nov. Cortinarius sanguineus has dusky red to red pileus, reddish yellow mycelium and lacking or with only slightly encrusted hyphae in pileipellis. It occurs in mesic to damp forests with Picea, often on rich soil in the boreal and montane areas of Europe, presumably also in eastern Canada. Cortinarius puniceus differs from C. sanguineus by its stronger purplish red, narrower spores and spot-like encrusted hyphae in pileipellis. It grows with deciduous trees in the temperate zone of Europe. Cortinarius vitiosus is known only from Fennoscandia and occurs in dry to mesic coniferous forests. It has fairly thin, often zonate, dark red to dark reddish brown pileus, pale red mycelium, small spores and encrusted lamellar trama and pileipellis hyphae. In addition to these three species C. fervidus and C. phoeniceus occasionally have red basidiomes. The relationships of the species were inferred by analysis of ITS sequences. Our study suggests that the section Sanguinei, as earlier defined, is polyphyletic. Here the section is limited to include C. sanguineus, C. puniceus and North American D. sierraensis. The relationships with other red species were not determined. Section Dermocybe, including C. cinnamomeus, C. croceus and C. uliginosus, formed a monophyletic group, and the section Malicoriae had some support. A total of 34 new sequences are published including nine from type specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/11-137DOI Listing
May 2012

Cortinarius sect. Armillati in northern Europe.

Mycologia 2011 Sep-Oct;103(5):1080-101. Epub 2011 Apr 15.

Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Finland.

Cortinarius sect. Armillati (subgenus Telamonia) was studied extensively based on morphology and molecular data. A total of about 1000 specimens, mostly from Fennoscandia, were revised. The nomenclature of the species was confirmed by sequencing the type material. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred by analyses of ITS, and the results were compared with the morphological and ecological data. Based on macro- and micromorphological characters, as well as molecular data, section Armillati contains only the medium to large species with slightly hygrophanous pileus and ± reddish or in some species yellowish brown to rose brown universal veils. The other red-brown-veiled species, previously included in Armillati, seem to belong to at least seven different sections or clades: sect. Anthracini, sect. Boulderenses, sect. Brunneotincti p.p., sect. Cinnabarini, sect. Fulvescentes, /Fuscoperonatus, and /Praestigiosus. Our study recognized six Armillati species from northern Europe: C. armillatus, C. luteo-ornatus, C. paragaudis, and three species described as new, C. pinigaudis, C. roseoarmillatus, and C. suboenochelis. The former three also occur in North America. Two additional species, C. subarmillatus (Japan) and C. quercoarmillatus (Costa Rica), are known outside the area. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the species associated with deciduous trees, C. armillatus, C. quercoarmillatus, and C. roseoarmillatus, all with dextrinoid, thick-walled spores, formed a separate group from the mainly conifer-associated species, C. luteo-ornatus, C. paragaudis, C. pinigaudis and C. suboenochelis, all with fairly thin to moderately thick-walled, indextrinoid to moderately dextrinoid spores. Descriptions of the northern European species are provided, the distribution is mapped and their taxonomy, ecology, distribution, and relationships are discussed. A total of 64 new sequences of 12 species are reported including 17 sequences from type material. Our study also suggests that ITS sequences are not always sufficiently variable for species-rank recognition (barcoding) in Cortinarius.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/10-350DOI Listing
January 2012

EcM fungal community structure, but not diversity, altered in a Pb-contaminated shooting range in a boreal coniferous forest site in Southern Finland.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2011 Apr 20;76(1):121-32. Epub 2011 Jan 20.

Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Lahti, Finland.

Boreal forests contain diverse fungal communities that form essential ectomycorrhizal symbioses with trees. To determine the effects of lead (Pb) contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with the dominant pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), we surveyed sporocarps for 3 years, analyzed morphotyped ectomycorrhizal root tips by direct sequencing, and 454-sequenced fungal communities that grew into in-growth bags during a 2-year incubation at a shooting range where sectors vary in the Pb load. We recorded a total of 32 ectomycorrhizal fungi that formed conspicuous sporocarps, 27 ectomycorrhizal fungal phylotypes from 294 root tips, and 116 ectomycorrhizal fungal operation taxonomic unit (OTUs) from a total of 8194 internal transcribed spacer-2 454 sequences. Our ordination analyses by nonparametric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated that the Pb enrichment induced a shift in the ectomycorrhizal community composition. This was visible as indicative trends in the sporocarp and root tip data sets, but was explicitly clear in the communities observed in the in-growth bags. The compositional shift in the ectomycorrhizal community was mainly attributable to an increase in the frequencies of OTUs assigned to genus Thelephora and to a decrease in the OTUs assigned to Pseudotomentella, Suillus, and Tylospora in Pb-contaminated areas when compared with the control. While the compositional shifts are clear, their functional consequences for the dominant trees or soil ecosystem function remain undetermined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2010.01038.xDOI Listing
April 2011

Cortinarius sect. Brunnei (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) in North Europe.

Mycol Res 2009 Feb 5;113(Pt 2):182-206. Epub 2008 Nov 5.

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Plant Biology, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland.

The section Brunnei was extensively studied based on material from North Europe. To stabilise the nomenclature we studied the relevant types of taxa included in this section. Phylogenetic relationships and species limits were investigated using rDNA ITS sequences and the results were compared with the morphological data. We recognised 11 species: Cortinarius brunneus, C. clarobrunneus comb. nov., C. coleoptera, C. ectypus, C. gentilis, C. glandicolor (neotypified), C. pseudorubricosus, and four species described as new C. caesiobrunneus, C. albogaudis, C. carabus, and C. cicindela. They are described here and their taxonomy, ecology, distribution, and relationships are discussed. In addition, a key to species of the section Brunnei is provided. A total of 77 new sequences of 11 species are published including nine type sequences. Also the taxonomic assignments of sequences in the public databases belonging to the section Brunnei are revised.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mycres.2008.10.006DOI Listing
February 2009