Publications by authors named "Kannappan Panchamoorthy Gopinath"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Artificial intelligence (AI) applications in adsorption of heavy metals using modified biochar.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 18;801:149623. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The process of removal of heavy metals is important due to their toxic effects on living organisms and undesirable anthropogenic effects. Conventional methods possess many irreconcilable disadvantages pertaining to cost and efficiency. As a result, the usage of biochar, which is produced as a by-product of biomass pyrolysis, has gained sizable traction in recent times for the removal of heavy metals. This review elucidates some widely recognized harmful heavy metals and their removal using biochar. It also highlights and compares the variety of feedstock available for preparation of biochar, pyrolysis variables involved and efficiency of biochar. Various adsorption kinetics and isotherms are also discussed along with the process of desorption to recycle biochar for reuse as adsorbent. Furthermore, this review elucidates the advancements in remediation of heavy metals using biochar by emphasizing the importance and advantages in the usage of machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) for the optimization of adsorption variables and biochar feedstock properties. The usage of AI and ML is cost and time-effective and allows an interdisciplinary approach to remove heavy metals by biochar.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149623DOI Listing
August 2021

Enhanced production of hydrocarbons from lignin isolated from sugarcane bagasse using formic acid induced supercritical ethanol liquefaction followed by hydrodeoxygenation.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 13;285:131491. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

This study involves the production of hydrocarbons from lignin extracted from sugarcane bagasse using Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) followed by Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). HTL of the lignin was studied under different solvents-methanol, ethanol and isopropanol in the presence of formic acid as an effective H-donor under varying lignin to solvent ratios (L:S = 1:15,1:30,1:40 g/mL), reaction temperatures (200 °C - 320 °C), reaction times (15, 30, 45,60 min) and ZnCl catalyst concentrations (30, 40, 50, 60 wt%). A maximum of 86% lignin derived phenolics was obtained when ethanol was used as solvent at 250 °C under L:S = 1:30 at 30 min reaction time with 60 wt% ZnCl. The lignin-oil was upgraded by HDO process in the presence of Ni/AlO catalyst and a maximum hydrocarbon yield of 73.5% was obtained with a HHV value of 48 MJ/kg. The hydrocarbons had excellent properties with a carbon range of C-C with a purity of 51.2%.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131491DOI Listing
July 2021

Biomass as source for hydrochar and biochar production to recover phosphates from wastewater: A review on challenges, commercialization, and future perspectives.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 15;286(Pt 1):131490. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, United States. Electronic address:

Excessive phosphate run-off with total phosphorus concentration greater than 20 μg P L triggers the growth of harmful algal species in waterbodies and potentially leads to eutrophication. This has severe negative implications on aquatic environment and impacts human health. The annual economic impact of harmful algal blooms is reported to be as high as $25 million for public health and commercial fishery sector, $29 million for recreation/tourism sector and $2 million for monitoring and management. Adsorption is widely considered as an effective and economic strategy to achieve extremely low concentration of phosphorus. The char produced by valorizing various waste biomasses have been gaining attention in phosphorus remediation owing to their availability, their ability to regenerate and reuse. This review paper exclusively focuses on utilizing hydrochar and biochar synthesized from waste biomass, respectively, through hydrothermal carbonization and slow pyrolysis to mitigate phosphorus concentration and potential strategies for handling the spent char. The key mechanisms involved in phosphate adsorption are electrostatic interaction, ion exchange and complexation. The maximum adsorption capacity of hydrochar and biochar ranges from 14-386 mg g and 3-887 mg g, respectively. Hydrochar and biochar are cost-effective alternative to commercial activated carbon and spent char can be used for multiple adsorption cycles. Furthermore, extensive research studies on optimizing the feedstock, reaction and activation conditions coupled with technoeconomic analysis and life cycle assessment could pave way for commercialization of char-based adsorption technology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131490DOI Listing
July 2021

Review on hydrothermal liquefaction aqueous phase as a valuable resource for biofuels, bio-hydrogen and valuable bio-chemicals recovery.

Chemosphere 2021 Nov 21;283:131248. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Center for Waste Management - 'International Research Centre', Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Jeppiaar Nagar (OMR), Chennai, 603119, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass results in the formation of bio-oil, aqueous phase (HTL-AP), bio-char, and gaseous products. Safer disposal of HTL-AP is difficult on an industrial scale since it comprises low molecular acid compounds. This review provides a comprehensive note on the recent articles published on the effective usage of HTL-AP for the recovery of valuable compounds. Thermo-chemical and biological processes are the preferred techniques for the recovery of biofuel, platform chemicals from HTL-AP. From this review, it was evident that the composition of HTL-AP and product recovery are the integrated pathways, which depend on each other. Substitute as reaction medium in HTL process, growth medium for algae and microbes are the most common mode of reuse and recycle of HTL-AP. Future research is needed to depict the mechanism of HTL process when HTL-AP is used as a reaction medium on an industrial scale. Need to find a solution for the hindrance in commercializing HTL process and recovery of value-added compounds from HTL-AP from lab scale to industry level. Integrated pathways on reuse and HTL-AP recycle helps in reduced environmental concerns and sustainable production of bio-products.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131248DOI Listing
November 2021

A critical review on the formation, fate and degradation of the persistent organic pollutant hexachlorocyclohexane in water systems and waste streams.

Chemosphere 2021 May 8;271:129866. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea. Electronic address:

The environmental impacts of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is an increasingly prominent topic in the scientific community. POPs are stable chemicals that are accumulated in living beings and can act as endocrine disruptors or carcinogens on prolonged exposure. Although efforts have been taken to minimize or ban the use of certain POPs, their use is still widespread due to their importance in several industries. As a result, it is imperative that POPs in the ecosystem are degraded efficiently and safely in order to avoid long-lasting environmental damage. This review focuses on the degradation techniques of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), a pollutant that has strong adverse effects on a variety of organisms. Different technologies such as adsorption, bioremediation and advanced oxidation process have been critically analyzed in this study. All 3 techniques have exhibited near complete removal of HCH under ideal conditions, and the median removal efficiency values for adsorption, bioremediation and advanced oxidation process were found to be 80%, 93% and 82% respectively. However, it must be noted that there is no ideal HCH removal technique and the selection of removal method depends on several factors. Furthermore, the fates of HCH in the environment and challenges faced by HCH degradation have also been explained in this study. The future scope for research in this field has also received attention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129866DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) biomass pre-treatment on bio-oil production in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL): Biochar and aqueous phase utilization studies.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 8;778:146262. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

School of Renewable Energy, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290, Thailand; College of Medical and Health Science, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Environmental concerns due to fossil fuel usage has turned the research interest towards biomass and bioenergy field. Renewable biomass such as microalgae provides numerous advantages as they can grow in wastewater; sequester carbon dioxide, economical and eco-friendly. In this study, effect of pretreatment of microalgae (Scenedesmus obliquus) biomass using post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (PHWW) for bio-oil production through hydrothermal liquefaction at a temperature of 300 °C was studied. Results showed liquefaction of pre-treated biomass yielded 48.53% bio-oil whereas 28.35% was resulted from biomass without pretreatment. The analysis of higher heating value of bio-oil showed that pretreated biomass oil has 36.19 MJ.Kg against non-pretreated biomass oil, which has 28.88 MJ.Kg. Bio-oil (pretreated biomass) analysis revealed that 60% of compounds are in diesel and gasoline range with 58.09% of energy recovery. Bio-oil was rich in hydrocarbons of C-C range with less oxygenated compounds. Carbon balance showed that an increase of 13% of carbon was sequestered in solid residue obtained from pretreated biomass and about 146% of increase also obtained in bio-oil.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146262DOI Listing
July 2021

A critical review on production of biopolymers from algae biomass and their applications.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jun 17;329:124868. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

School of Renewable Energy, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290, Thailand. Electronic address:

Algae is abundantly present in our ecosystems and can be easily extracted and used for production of biopolymers. Algae does not produce any anthropogenic, harmful effects, has a good growth rate, and cultivable in wastewater. This literature elucidates the potential of algae biomass by comparing various seaweed and microalgae strains. The routes for biopolymer production were portrayed and their novel methods of isolation such as microwave assisted, ultrasound assisted, and subcritical water assisted extraction are discussed in detail. These novel methods are observed to be highly efficient compared to conventional solvent extraction, with the microwave assisted and ultrasound assisted processes yielding 33% and 5% more biopolymer respectively than the conventional method. Biopolymers are used in variety of applications such as environmental remediation, adsorbent and antioxidant. Biopolymer is shown to be highly effective in the removal of potentially toxic elements and is seen to extract more than 40 mg PTE/g biopolymer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124868DOI Listing
June 2021

Nano-adsorbents an effective candidate for removal of toxic pharmaceutical compounds from aqueous environment: A critical review on emerging trends.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 4;272:129852. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Centre for Waste Management, International Research Centre, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Jeppiaar Nagar (OMR), Chennai, 600119, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Advancements in medical research has resulted in the modernization of healthcare facilities, subsequently leading to a higher level of production and usage of pharmaceuticals to sustain better quality of life. Pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) possess high genotoxicity and eco-toxicity thus presenting numerous side effects to living beings on long-term exposure. The fate and toxicity of PhACs were explored in detail, aiming to elucidate their occurrence and transmission in wastewater treatment systems (WWTPs). Adsorption of pharmaceutical compounds using Nano-adsorbents has gained momentum in recent years owing to their low-cost, high surface area and effectiveness. This review has been conducted in order to widen the utilization of Nano adsorbents in the adsorption of pharmaceutical compounds with a focus on the aqueous environment. The synthesis routes and properties of Nano-adsorbents for removal of PhACs were assessed in a comprehensive way. The recovery and reuse ability of nano-adsorbents also forms an integral part of its application in the removal of PhACs and has hence been delineated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129852DOI Listing
June 2021

Recent advancements in the synthesis of novel thermostable biocatalysts and their applications in commercially important chemoenzymatic conversion processes.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Mar 17;323:124558. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Separation Science, LUT School of Engineering Science, LUT University, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli, Finland. Electronic address:

Thermostable enzymes are a field of growing interest in bioremediation, pharmaceuticals, food industry etc., due to their ability to catalyze bio reactions at high temperatures. This review aims to provide an overview on extremophiles with a special focus on thermophiles and enzymes produced from extremophilic bacteria. Novel thermostable catalysts, used in producing commercially important chemicals, are discussed in this review. Various classes of enzymes produced by microbes, synthesis of thermozymes and comparison with enzymes produced at optimal conditions are critically discussed. A detailed discussion on immobilized enzymes in comparisons with free enzymes, produced by extremozymes, is included. Different parameters which affect enzyme production are also discussed. The current industrial trends along with the future of biocatalysts in the production of chemicals using efficient methods are also discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124558DOI Listing
March 2021

Photocatalytic reforming of aqueous phase obtained from liquefaction of household mixed waste biomass for renewable bio-hydrogen production.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Feb 10;321:124529. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Centre for Waste Management, International Research Centre, Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, Jeppiaar Nagar (OMR), Chennai 600119, Tamil Nadu, India.

In this study, hydrothermal liquefaction of household waste was performed to produce valuable liquid hydrocarbons with aqueous phase as by-product. Photocatalytic reforming of aqueous phase was carried out for hydrogen production. Liquefaction of 15 g waste at temperature of 320 °C and solvent to biomass ratio of 13.33 mL/g produced bio-oil of 32.4 wt% and hydrogen 21 wt% in gas product. Hydrogen production from aqueous phase was studied in presence of various concentrations of activated carbon doped Fe/TiO catalyst (0.2-1 wt%). Hydrogen yield was 32 wt% when 0.6 wt% of catalyst was used to reform aqueous phase. To ease of operation in economical manner the reusability study of the catalyst was evaluated and it was found to be active for three consecutive cycles. As outcome of this study, household waste can serve for a whooping amount of hydrogen (53 wt%) production via liquefaction and photocatalytic reforming process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124529DOI Listing
February 2021

Anaerobic digestate water for Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultivation and employed as co-substrate with cow dung and chicken manure for methane and hydrogen production: A closed loop approach.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 12;266:128963. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea. Electronic address:

In rural India, unpleasant atmosphere, anthropogenic gas emission, air and soil pollution are caused due to disposal of livestock's wastes (cow dung and chicken waste) in open environment. This study provides zero emission concept for waste disposal and value addition of these wastes for renewable green energy production. In this study, biogas production was carried out with varying proportion of cow dung to chicken waste (1:0, 0:1, 1:1, 2:1, 1:2, 3:1 and 1:3) for duration of 40 days. Chlorella pyrenoidosa was cultivated from digestate water and used as co-substrate in digester in varying proportions (2:1:1, 2:1:2 and 2:1:3) to study its role on biogas distribution. The effect of pH, feedstock ratio, time and C/N ratio for biogas production were evaluated. The maximum methane and hydrogen yield was 68% (30th day) and 29% (10th day) for 2:1:2 ratio respectively. The slurry possessed nitrogen (1.7%), phosphate (0.8%) and potassium (0.4%) respectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128963DOI Listing
March 2021

Technical insights into the production of green fuel from CO sequestered algal biomass: A conceptual review on green energy.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 2;755(Pt 2):142636. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Innovative Green Product Synthesis and Renewable Environment Development Research Group, Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Algae a promising energy reserve due to its adaptability, cheap source, sustainability and it's growth ability in wastewater with efficient sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide. This review summarizes the pathways available for biofuel production from carbon sequestered algae biomass. In this regard, this review focuses on microalgae and its cultivation in wastewater with CO sequestration. Conversion of carbon sequestered biomass into bio-fuels via thermo-chemical routes and its engine emission properties. Energy perspective of green gaseous biofuels in near future. This review revealed that algae was the pre-dominant CO sequester than terrestrial plants in an eco-friendly and economical way with simultaneous wastewater remediation. Hydrothermal liquefaction of algae biomass was the most preferred mode for biofuel generation than pyrolysis due to high moisture content. The algae based fuels exhibit less greenhouse gases emission and higher energy value. This review helps the researchers, environmentalists and industrialists to evaluate the impact of algae based bio-energy towards green energy and environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142636DOI Listing
February 2021

Hydrothermal liquefaction of Prosopis juliflora biomass for the production of ferulic acid and bio-oil.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jan 14;319:124116. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Innovative Green Product Synthesis and Renewable Environment Development Research Group, Faculty of Environment and Labour Safety, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

The objective of this work was to study the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of Prosopis juliflora biomass for the production of ferulic acid and bio-oil. Biomass was processed with various solvents (NaOH, KOH, HCl and HSO) to produce ferulic acid (FA). FA oxidation was carried out using the Nano ZnO catalyst to produce an optimum vanillin yield of 0.3 g at 70 °C with 0.4% catalyst loading for a time of 60 min. The spent solid residue was then processed using HTL at 5 MPa pressure and a temperature range of 240-340 °C. Various biomass loading (2.5 g to 12.5 g) was taken for a fixed water content of 200 mL. Bio-oil optimum yield was 22.5 wt% for 10 g/200 mL of biomass loading ratio. The optimum temperature was 300 °C for a processing time of 1 h. The catalyst showed the reusable capability of two three consecutive cycles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124116DOI Listing
January 2021

Present applications of titanium dioxide for the photocatalytic removal of pollutants from water: A review.

J Environ Manage 2020 Sep 10;270:110906. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Ontario, M5S 3E5, Canada.

The evolution of modern technology and industrial processes has been accompanied by an increase in the utilization of chemicals to derive new products. Water bodies are frequently contaminated by the presence of conventional pollutants such as dyes and heavy metals, as well as microorganisms that are responsible for various diseases. A sharp rise has also been observed in the presence of new compounds heretofore excluded from the design and evaluation of wastewater treatment processes, categorized as "emerging pollutants". While some are harmless, certain emerging pollutants possess the ability to cause debilitating effects on a wide spectrum of living organisms. Photocatalytic degradation has emerged as an increasingly popular solution to the problem of water pollution due to its effectiveness and versatility. The primary objective of this study is to thoroughly scrutinize recent applications of titanium dioxide and its modified forms as photocatalytic materials in the removal and control of several classes of water pollutants as reported in literature. Different structural modifications are used to enhance the performance of the photocatalyst such as doping and formation of composites. The principles of these modifications have been scrutinized and evaluated in this review in order to present their advantages and drawbacks. The mechanisms involved in the removal of different pollutants through photocatalysis performed by TiO2 have been highlighted. The factors affecting the mechanism of photocatalysis and those affecting the performance of different TiO2-based photocatalysts have also been thoroughly discussed, thereby presenting a comprehensive view of all aspects involved in the application of TiO to remediate and control water pollution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110906DOI Listing
September 2020

Hydrothermal liquefaction of Scenedesmus obliquus using a novel catalyst derived from clam shells: Solid residue as catalyst for hydrogen production.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Aug 24;310:123443. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Chemical Engineering, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603110, Tamil Nadu, India.

This study explores the catalytic application of waste clam shell in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae (Scenedesmus obliquus) for liquid hydrocarbons production. Novel catalyst (calcium hydroxide) was derived from clam shells. Catalytic HTL was performed at varying temperature of 240-320 °C for catalyst load (0.2-1 wt%) at a reaction time of 60 min. Bio-oil yield was maximum (39.6 wt%) at a temperature of 300 °C for catalyst load of 0.6 wt% at a reaction time of 60 min with calorific value of 35.01 MJ/kg. Compounds like phenols, aromatic hydrocarbons, acids and aldehydes were detected in bio-oil through Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). Gasification of microalgae with waste solid residue obtained from HTL was carried out for hydrogen production. Valuable hydrogen gas production was maximum (37 wt%) at a temperature of 400 °C for 3 wt% of solid residue. Water-gas shift, methanation and steam reforming reactions favoured the hydrogen gas production.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123443DOI Listing
August 2020

Hydrothermal liquefaction of Scenedesmus abundans biomass spent for sorption of petroleum residues from wastewater and studies on recycling of post hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater.

Bioresour Technol 2019 Jul 16;283:36-44. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Chemical Engineering, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam - 603110, Tamil Nadu, India.

In this study Scenedesmus abundans was used as a biosorbent material for removing hydrocarbons from simulated petroleum wastewater. Batch experiments resulted in the removal of 92.16% of hydrocarbons from simulated wastewater within 60 min. The spent biosorbent was converted to bio-oil through hydrothermal liquefaction process (HTL) at temperature range from 220 to 320 °C with 1 h holding time. Liquid hydrocarbons (bio-oil) yield was 43.4 wt% at 300 °C with 15 g of spent sorbent loading and possessed HHV of 39.10 MJ/Kg. Additionally the HTL wastewater (aqueous phase) was recycled as reaction medium and studied for its effects on bio-oil yield which increased till second cycle (47.91 wt%). HTL bio-char was employed as adsorbent to remove heavy metals from wastewater. It showed greater removal efficiency of 86.5% to Ni(II) ions. From the results it was concluded that the petroleum residues can be effectively recycled back into liquid hydrocarbons with simple waste management pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.03.077DOI Listing
July 2019

Co-liquefaction of Prosopis juliflora with polyolefin waste for production of high grade liquid hydrocarbons.

Bioresour Technol 2019 Feb 30;274:296-301. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Chemical Engineering, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam -603110, Tamil Nadu, India.

In this study, co-liquefaction (HTL) of Prosopis juliflora (PJ) biomass with polyolefin waste (PO) was performed to produce bio-oil. HTL on bio-oil yield was studied at varying PJ to PO ratios (0:1, 1:0, 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1 and 5:1) and temperatures from 340 to 440 °C. Bio-oil and HTL by-products were characterized by Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Bio-oil yield was around 61.23%wt at 420 °C for 3:1 blends with 3 wt% of HCl activated bentonite catalyst at 60 min holding time. HHV value was 46 MJ/Kg with 88.23% purity (petro-diesel). Additionally gas possessed 26.28% of Hydrogen gas, 45.59% of Carbon dioxide gas, 7.1% of Carbon monoxide gas, 8.12% of Methane gas and other elements. The energy recovery (78%) and carbon recovery (94%) was higher for 3:1 blends bio-oil than PO and PJ processed bio-oils. HTL wastewater possessed higher degree of reusability nature as HTL medium.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.11.102DOI Listing
February 2019

Synthesis of itaconic acid from agricultural waste using novel .

Prep Biochem Biotechnol 2018 11;48(7):605-609. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

a Department of Biotechnology , Vel Tech High Tech Dr Rangarajan Dr Sakunthala Engineering College , Chennai , India.

Filamentous fungi from the genus are of high importance for the production of organic acids. Itaconic acid (IA) is considered as an important component for the production of synthetic fibers, resin, plastics, rubber, paints, coatings, adhesives, thickeners and binders. MG183809 was isolated from the soil sample (wastewater unit) which was collected from Avadi, Chennai, India. In the present study, itaconic acid was successfully produced by isolated by submerged batch fermentation. In the fermentation process, various low-cost substrates like corn starch, wheat flour and sweet potato were used for itaconic acid production. Further, the factor influencing parameters such as substrate concentration and incubation period were optimized. Maximum yield of itaconic acid (15.65 ± 1.75 g/L) was achieved by using from corn starch at a concentration of 120 g/L after 168 hr (pH 3.0). And also extraction of itaconic acid from the fermentation was performed with 91.96 ± 1.57 degree of extraction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826068.2018.1476884DOI Listing
June 2018

Enrichment of bio-oil after hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae C. vulgaris grown in wastewater: Bio-char and post HTL wastewater utilization studies.

Bioresour Technol 2018 Aug 11;261:182-187. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Department of Chemical Engineering, SSN College OF Engineering, Kalavakkam 603110, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

In this study, bio-oil was produced through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of C. vulgaris biomass cultivated in wastewater and was enriched into transportation fuels. Bio-oil yield was 29.37% wt at 300 °C, 60 min, at 15 g/200 mL biomass loading rate with 3% wt nano ZnO catalyst loading. Applying catalyst reduced oxygen and nitrogen content in bio-oil and increased its calorific value (19.6 ± 0.8 MJ/Kg). Bio-oil was enriched through liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and higher yield was obtained at 30 °C for dichloromethane solvent (18.2% wt). Compounds of enriched oil were within the petro-diesel range (C-C). Bio-char after HTL process was activated and used as adsorbent in wastewater treatment process to remove organic pollutants (COD, NO, NH and PO). Treated wastewater can be supplied as growth medium for microalgae cultivation in further experiments. Nearly 3-4 times the nanocatalyst can be reused in the HTL process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.04.029DOI Listing
August 2018

Studies on influence of process parameters on hydrothermal catalytic liquefaction of microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) biomass grown in wastewater.

Bioresour Technol 2017 Nov 12;244(Pt 1):963-968. Epub 2017 Aug 12.

Department of Chemical Engineering, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam 603110, Tamil Nadu, India.

In this study, liquefaction of Chlorella vulgaris biomass grown in photo-bioreactor using wastewater as source of nutrition was studied and influence of process parameters on the yield of bio-oil was analysed. Different biomass to water ratio (5g/200ml, 10g/200ml, 15g/200ml, and 20g/200ml) was taken and bio-oil yield at various temperatures ranging from 220 to 340°C was studied. Catalyst loading of the range 2.5-8%wt of NaOH was also studied to analyse the influence of catalyst concentration on bio-oil yield. Obtained bio-oil was characterized using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Results showed that maximum bio-oil yield of 26.67%wt was observed at operating conditions of 300°C, 15g/200ml biomass load and 2.5%wt of NaOH at 60min holding time. Fatty acids and other high carbon compounds were detected in the bio-oil obtained through liquefaction process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.08.048DOI Listing
November 2017

Evaluation and elimination of inhibitory effects of salts and heavy metal ions on biodegradation of Congo red by Pseudomonas sp. mutant.

Bioresour Technol 2011 Feb 21;102(4):3687-93. Epub 2010 Nov 21.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Adhiparasakthi Engineering College, Melmaruvathur 603 319, India.

In this study, it was attempted to evaluate the influences and also recommended some elimination methods for inhibitory effects offered by salts and heavy metal ions. Congo red dye solution treated with mutant Pseudomonas sp. was taken as a model system for study. The salts used in this study are NaCl, CaCl(2) and MgSO(4)· 7H(2)O. Though the growth was inhibited at concentrations above 4 g/l, toleration was achieved by acclimatization process. In case of heavy metal ions, Cr (VI) showed low inhibition up to 500 mg/l of concentration, compared to Zn (II) and Cu (II). It was due to the presence of chromium reductase enzyme which was confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Zn (II) and Cu (II) ion inhibitions were eliminated by chelation with EDTA. The critical ion concentrations obtained as per Han-Levenspiel model for Cr (VI), Zn (II) and Cu (II) were 0.8958, 0.3028 and 0.204 g/l respectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.11.072DOI Listing
February 2011

Degradation of Tectilon Yellow 2G by hybrid technique: combination of sonolysis and biodegradation using mutant Pseudomonas putida.

Bioresour Technol 2011 Feb 12;102(3):2242-7. Epub 2010 Oct 12.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Anna University Chennai, Chennai, India.

Degradation of Tectilon Yellow 2G (TY2G), an azo dye has been studied by hybrid technique involving pretreatment by sonochemical method and further biological treatment by Pseudomonas putida mutant. Pretreatment experiments were carried out by sonolysis of the dye solution at different concentrations (100-1000 mg/L). Wild type Gram-negative P. putida species isolated from the textile effluent contaminated soil, which was found to be effective towards dye degradation, has been acclimatized so as to consume TY2G as the sole source of nutrition. Mutant strain was obtained from the acclimatized species by random mutagenesis using the chemical mutagen ethidium bromide for various time intervals (6-30 min). The optimum mutagenesis exposure time for obtaining the most efficient species for dye degradation was found to be 18 min. An efficient mutant strain P. putida ACT 1 has been isolated and was used for growth experiments. The mutant strain showed a better growth compared to the wild strain. The substrate utilization kinetics has been modeled using Monod and Haldane model equations of which the Haldane model provided a better fit. The enzyme kinetics of the mutant and wild species was obtained using Michaelis-Menten equation. The mutated species showed better enzyme kinetics towards the degradation of TY2G.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.10.022DOI Listing
February 2011

Bacillus sp. mutant for improved biodegradation of Congo red: random mutagenesis approach.

Bioresour Technol 2009 Dec 18;100(24):6295-300. Epub 2009 Aug 18.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology Campus, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025, India.

This study presents the improved biodegradation of Congo red, a toxic azo dye, using mutant Bacillus sp. obtained by random mutagenesis of wild Bacillus sp. using UV and ethidium bromide. The mutants obtained were screened based on their decolorization performance and best mutants were selected for further studies. Better decolorization was observed in the initial Congo red concentration range 100-1000 mg/l for wild species whereas mutant strain was found to offer better decolorization up to 3000 mg/l. Mutant strain offered 12-30% reduction in time required for the complete decolorization by wild strain. The optimum pH and temperature were found to be 7.0 and 37 degrees C, respectively. Two efficient strains such as Bacillus sp. ACT 1 and Bacillus sp. ACT 2 were isolated from the various mutants obtained. Bacillus sp. ACT 2 showed improved enzymatic production and Bacillus sp. ACT 1 showed improved growth compared to wild strain. The enzyme responsible for the degradation was found to be azoreductase by SDS-PAGE and about 53% increased production of enzyme was achieved with mutant species. The experimental data were modeled using growth and substrate inhibition models.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.07.043DOI Listing
December 2009

Improved biodegradation of Congored by using Bacillus sp.

Bioresour Technol 2009 Jan 7;100(2):670-5. Epub 2008 Sep 7.

Department of Chemical Engineering, A.C. College of Technology, Anna University, Sardar Patel Road, Chennai 600 025, India.

The biodegradation of Congored, a toxic azo dye, was studied by using a hybrid technique involving sonolysis as pretreatment followed by biological treatment. The experiments were carried out with and without pretreatment using dye solution as a sole source of nutrition with an isolated and acclimatized strain of Bacillus sp. obtained from tannery industry effluent. The pretreatment time was varied as 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min and then the pretreated dye solution was subjected to biological treatment. The effectiveness of pretreatment was compared with the results of biological degradation of non pretreated Congored and the results showed that the pretreatment improved the efficiency of the biodegradation of Congored. During the biological degradation, the increase in initial dye concentration decreased the decolorization rate and at high concentrations (1500 and 2000 mg/l), the inhibition was observed. The optimum pH and temperature were determined to be 7.0 and 37 degrees C, respectively. The data obtained through biodegradation experiments were fitted with five different kinetic models and the results were analyzed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.07.048DOI Listing
January 2009
-->