Publications by authors named "Kanga Rani Selvaduray"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluating Anticancer and Immunomodulatory Effects of (Arthrospira) and Gamma-Tocotrienol Supplementation in a Syngeneic Mouse Model of Breast Cancer.

Nutrients 2021 Jul 6;13(7). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

School of Health Sciences, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia.

Nutrition can modulate host immune responses as well as promote anticancer effects. In this study, two nutritional supplements, namely gamma-tocotrienol (γT3) and were evaluated for their immune-enhancing and anticancer effects in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer (BC). Five-week-old female BALB/c mice were fed , γT3, or a combination of and γT3 ( + γT3) for 56 days. The mice were inoculated with 4T1 cells into their mammary fat pad on day 28 to induce BC. The animals were culled on day 56 for various analyses. A significant reduction ( < 0.05) in tumor volume was only observed on day 37 and 49 in animals fed with the combination of γT3 + . There was a marked increase ( < 0.05) of CD4/CD127 T-cells and decrease ( < 0.05) of T-regulatory cells in peripheral blood from mice fed with either γT3 or The breast tissue of the combined group showed abundant areas of necrosis, but did not prevent metastasis to the liver. Although there was a significant increase ( < 0.05) of MIG-6 and Cadherin 13 expression in tumors from γT3-fed animals, there were no significant ( > 0.05) differences in the expression of MIG-6, Cadherin 13, BIRC5, and Serpine1 upon combined feeding. This showed that combined γT3 + treatment did not show any synergistic anticancer effects in this study model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13072320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8308567PMC
July 2021

Reduced infiltration of regulatory T cells in tumours from mice fed daily with gamma-tocotrienol supplementation.

Clin Exp Immunol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Pathology Division, School of Medicine, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Gamma-tocotrienol (γT3) is an analogue of vitamin E with beneficial effects on the immune system, including immune-modulatory properties. This study reports the immune-modulatory effects of daily supplementation of γT3 on host T helper (Th) and T regulatory cell (T ) populations in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer. Female BALB/c mice were fed with either γT3 or vehicle (soy oil) for 2 weeks via oral gavage before they were inoculated with syngeneic 4T1 mouse mammary cancer cells (4T1 cells). Supplementation continued until the mice were euthanized. Mice (n = 6) were euthanized at specified time-points for various analysis (blood leucocyte, cytokine production and immunohistochemistry). Tumour volume was measured once every 7 days. Gene expression studies were carried out on tumour-specific T lymphocytes isolated from splenic cultures. Supplementation with γT3 increased CD4 (p < 0.05), CD8 (p < 0.05) T-cells and natural killer cells (p < 0.05) but suppressed T cells (p < 0.05) in peripheral blood when compared to animals fed with the vehicle. Higher interferon (IFN)-γ and lower transforming growth factor (TGF)-ꞵ levels were noted in the γT3 fed mice. Immunohistochemistry findings revealed higher infiltration of CD4 cells, increased expression of interleukin-12 receptor-beta-2 (IL-12ꞵ2R), interleukin (IL)-24 and reduced expression of cells that express the forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) in tumours from the γT3-fed animals. Gene expression studies showed the down-regulation of seven prominent genes in splenic CD4 T cells isolated from γT3-fed mice. Supplementation with γT3 from palm oil-induced T cell-dependent cell-mediated immune responses and suppressed T cells in the tumour microenvironment in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cei.13650DOI Listing
July 2021

Bioactive Compounds: Natural Defense Against Cancer?

Biomolecules 2019 11 21;9(12). Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor 47500, Malaysia.

Cancer is a devastating disease that has claimed many lives. Natural bioactive agents from plants are gaining wide attention for their anticancer activities. Several studies have found that natural plant-based bioactive compounds can enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy, and in some cases ameliorate some of the side-effects of drugs used as chemotherapeutic agents. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature on the anticancer effects of four plant-based bioactive compounds namely, curcumin, myricetin, geraniin and tocotrienols (T3) to provide an overview on some of the key findings that are related to this effect. The molecular mechanisms through which the active compounds may exert their anticancer properties in cell and animal-based studies also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom9120758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995630PMC
November 2019

Effect of palm-based tocotrienols and tocopherol mixture supplementation on platelet aggregation in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a randomised controlled trial.

Sci Rep 2017 09 14;7(1):11542. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

Nutrition Unit, Product Development and Advisory Services Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Tocotrienols, the unsaturated form of vitamin E, were reported to modulate platelet aggregation and thrombotic mechanisms in pre-clinical studies. Using a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved cartridge-based measurement system, a randomised, double-blind, crossover and placebo-controlled trial involving 32 metabolic syndrome adults was conducted to investigate the effect of palm-based tocotrienols and tocopherol (PTT) mixture supplementation on platelet aggregation reactivity. The participants were supplemented with 200 mg (69% tocotrienols and 31% α-tocopherol) twice daily of PTT mixture or placebo capsules for 14 days in a random order. After 14 days, each intervention was accompanied by a postprandial study, in which participants consumed 200 mg PTT mixture or placebo capsule after a meal. Blood samples were collected on day 0, day 14 and during postprandial for the measurement of platelet aggregation reactivity. Subjects went through a 15-day washout period before commencement of subsequent intervention. Fasting platelet aggregation reactivity stimulated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) did not show substantial changes after supplementation with PTT mixture compared to placebo (p = 0.393). Concomitantly, changes in postprandial platelet aggregation reactivity remained similar between PTT mixture and placebo interventions (p = 0.408). The results of this study highlight the lack of inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation after short-term supplementation of PTT mixture in participants with metabolic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-11813-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5599564PMC
September 2017

Supplementation with natural forms of vitamin E augments antigen-specific TH1-type immune response to tetanus toxoid.

Biomed Res Int 2013 7;2013:782067. Epub 2013 Jul 7.

Pathology Division, Faculty of Medicine and Health, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan, Malaysia.

This study compared the ability of three forms of vitamin E [tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF), alpha-tocopherol (α-T), and delta-tocotrienol (δ-T3)] to enhance immune response to tetanus toxoid (TT) immunisation in a mouse model. Twenty BALB/c mice were divided into four groups of five mice each. The mice were fed with the different forms of vitamin E (1 mg) or vehicle daily for two weeks before they were given the TT vaccine [4 Lf] intramuscularly (i.m.). Booster vaccinations were given on days 28 and 42. Serum was collected (days 0, 28, and 56) to quantify anti-TT levels. At autopsy, splenocytes harvested were cultured with TT or mitogens. The production of anti-TT antibodies was augmented (P < 0.05) in mice that were fed with δ-T3 or TRF compared to controls. The production of IFN-γ and IL-4 by splenocytes from the vitamin E treated mice was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that from controls. The IFN-γ production was the highest in animals supplemented with δ-T3 followed by TRF and finally α-T. Production of TNF-α was suppressed in the vitamin E treated group compared to vehicle-supplemented controls. Supplementation with δ-T3 or TRF can enhance immune response to TT immunisation and production of cytokines that promote cell-mediated (TH1) immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/782067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3722853PMC
March 2014

Palm tocotrienols decrease levels of pro-angiogenic markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and murine mammary cancer cells.

Genes Nutr 2012 Jan 28;7(1):53-61. Epub 2011 Apr 28.

Malaysian Palm Oil Board, No. 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia,

Anti-angiogenic therapy is widely being used to halt tumour angiogenesis. In this study, the anti-angiogenic activity of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) and its individual components (γ- and δ-tocotrienol) were first investigated in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and 4T1 mouse mammary cancer cells. Results showed reduced levels of Interkeukin (IL)-8 and IL-6, two pro-angiogenic cytokines in HUVEC treated with palm tocotrienols compared with α-tocopherol (α-T) and control cells (P < 0.05). The production of IL-8 and IL-6 was lowest in δ-tocotrienol (δ-T3)-treated cells followed by γ-tocotrienol (γ-T3) and TRF. There was significant (P < 0.05) reduction in IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in 4T1 cells treated with TRF or δ-T3. There was decreased expression of VEGF and its receptors; VEGF-R1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase, Flt-1) and VEGF-R2 (Kinase-insert-domain-containing receptor, KDR/Flk-2) in tumour tissues excised from mice supplemented with TRF were observed. There was also decreased expression of VEGF-R2 in lung tissues of mice supplemented with TRF. These observations correlate with the smaller tumour size recorded in the tocotrienol-treated mice. This study confirms previous observations that palm tocotrienols exhibit anti-angiogenic properties that may inhibit tumour progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12263-011-0223-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3250524PMC
January 2012

Tocotrienols and breast cancer: the evidence to date.

Genes Nutr 2012 Jan 24;7(1):3-9. Epub 2011 Apr 24.

Product Development and Advisory Services Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, No. 6 Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia,

Breast cancer is the second most frequent cancer affecting women worldwide after lung cancer. The toxicity factor associated with synthetic drugs has turned the attention toward natural compounds as the primary focus of interest as anticancer agents. Vitamin E derivatives consisting of the well-established tocopherols and their analogs namely tocotrienols have been extensively studied due to their remarkable biological properties. While tocopherols have failed to offer protection, tocotrienols, in particular, α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols alone and in combination have demonstrated anticancer properties. The discovery of the antiangiogenic, antiproliferative, and apoptotic effects of tocotrienols, as well as their role as an inducer of immunological functions, not only reveals a new horizon as a potent antitumor agent but also reinforces the notion that tocotrienols are indeed more than antioxidants. On the basis of a transcriptomic platform, we have recently demonstrated a novel mechanism for tocotrienol activity that involves estrogen receptor (ER) signaling. In silico simulations and in vitro binding analyses indicate a high affinity of specific forms of tocotrienols for ERβ, but not for ERα. Moreover, we have demonstrated that specific tocotrienols increase ERβ translocation into the nucleus which, in turn, activates the expression of estrogen-responsive genes (MIC-1, EGR-1 and Cathepsin D) in breast cancer cells only expressing ERβ cells (MDA-MB-231) and in cells expressing both ER isoforms (MCF-7). The binding of specific tocotrienol forms to ERβ is associated with the alteration of cell morphology, caspase-3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and apoptosis. Furthermore, a recently concluded clinical trial seems to suggest that tocotrienols in combination with tamoxifen may have the potential to extend breast cancer-specific survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12263-011-0224-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3250526PMC
January 2012

Tocotrienol-treated MCF-7 human breast cancer cells show down-regulation of API5 and up-regulation of MIG6 genes.

Cancer Genomics Proteomics 2011 Jan-Feb;8(1):19-31

Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Tocotrienols belong to the vitamin E family and have multiple anticancer effects, such as antiproliferative, antioxidant, pro-apoptosis and antimetastatic. This study aimed to identify the genes that are regulated in human breast cancer cells following exposure to various isomers of vitamin E as these may be potential targets for the treatment of breast cancer.

Materials And Methods: Gene expression profiling was performed with MCF-7 cells at inhibitory conditions of IC(50) using Illumina's Sentrix Array Human-6 BeadChips. The expression levels of selected differentially expressed genes were verified by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR).

Results: The treatment with tocotrienol-rich palm oil fraction (TRF), α-tocopherol and isomers of tocotrienols (α, γ, and δ) altered the expression of several genes that code for proteins involved in the regulation of immune response, tumour growth and metastatic suppression, apoptotic signalling, transcription, protein biosynthesis regulation and many others.

Conclusion: Treatment of human MCF-7 cells with tocotrienol isomers causes the down-regulation of the API5 gene and up-regulation of the MIG6 gene and the differential expression of other genes reported to play a key role in breast cancer biology.
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April 2011

Palm tocotrienols inhibit proliferation of murine mammary cancer cells and induce expression of interleukin-24 mRNA.

J Interferon Cytokine Res 2010 Dec;30(12):909-16

Product Development and Advisory Services, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Several mechanisms have been postulated for the anticancer effects of tocotrienols. In this study, for the first time, the anticancer effect of tocotrienols is linked to increased expression of interleukin-24 (IL-24) mRNA, a cytokine reported to have antitumor effects in many cancer models. Tocotrienol isomers (α-T3, γ-T3, and δ-T3) and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) inhibited the growth of the 4T1 murine mammary cancer cells (P < 0.05), with IC₅₀ values 8.99, 4.79, 3.73, and 8.63 μg/mL, respectively. Tumor incidence and tumor load in TRF-supplemented BALB/c mice was decreased by 57.1% and 93.6% (P < 0.05), respectively. The induction of the IL-24 mRNA in the 4T1 cells by vitamin E decreased in the following order: δ-T3 > γ-T3 > TRF > α-T3 > α-T, which was similar to their antiproliferative effects. The IL-24 mRNA levels in tumor tissues of BALB/c mice supplemented with TRF increased 2-fold when compared with control mice. Increased levels of IL-24 have been associated with inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis. Treatment of 4T1 cells with TRF and δ-T3 significantly decreased IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels. Hence, we report that tocotrienols have potent antiangiogenic and antitumor effects that is associated with increased levels of IL-24 mRNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jir.2010.0021DOI Listing
December 2010

Effectiveness of tocotrienol-rich fraction combined with tamoxifen in the management of women with early breast cancer: a pilot clinical trial.

Breast Cancer Res 2010 8;12(5):R81. Epub 2010 Oct 8.

Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

Introduction: Basic research has indicated that tocotrienols have potent antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects that would be expected to reduce the effect of breast cancer.

Methods: We conducted a double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot trial to test the effectiveness of adjuvant tocotrienol therapy in combination with tamoxifen for five years in women with early breast cancer. Two-hundred-forty women, aged between 40-60 years, with either tumor node metastases (TNM) Stage I or II breast cancer and estrogen receptor (ER) positive tumors were non-randomly assigned to two groups. The intervention group received tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) plus tamoxifen whilst the control group received placebo plus tamoxifen, for five years.

Results: During the five years of study, 8 patients died due to breast cancer while 36 patients developed local or systemic recurrence. Five-year breast cancer specific survival was 98.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 95.9% to 100%) in the intervention group and 95%, (95% CI: 91.1% to 98.9%) in the control group, while 5-years disease free survival was 86.7% (95% CI: 80.6% to 92.8%) and 83.3% (95% CI: 76.6% to 90.0%), respectively. Risk of mortality due to breast cancer was 60% (HR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.08 to 2.05) lower in the intervention group versus the controls following adjustment for age, ethnicity, stage and lymph node status but this was not statistically significant. Adjuvant TRF therapy was not associated with breast cancer recurrence (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.43-1.65).

Conclusions: From the current study, there seems to be no association between adjuvant tocotrienol therapy and breast cancer specific survival in women with early breast cancer.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01157026.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/bcr2726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096974PMC
February 2013

Suppression of tumor growth by palm tocotrienols via the attenuation of angiogenesis.

Nutr Cancer 2009 ;61(3):367-73

Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Previous studies have revealed that tocotrienol-rich fractions (TRF) from palm oil inhibit the proliferation and the growth of solid tumors. The anticancer activity of TRF is said to be caused by several mechanisms, one of which is antiangiogenesis. In this study, we looked at the antiangiogenic effects of TRF. In vitro investigations of the antiangiogenic activities of TRF, delta-tocotrienol (deltaT3), and alpha-tocopherol (alphaToc) were carried out in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). TRF and deltaT3 significantly inhibited cell proliferation from 4 microg/ml onward (P < 0.05). Cell migration was inhibited the most by deltaT3 at 12 microg/ml. Anti-angiogenic properties of TRF were carried out further in vivo using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and BALB/c mice model. TRF at 200 microg/ml reduced the vascular network on CAM. TRF treatment of 1 mg/mouse significantly reduced 4T1 tumor volume in BALB/c mice. TRF significantly reduced serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level in BALB/c mice. In conclusion, this study showed that palm tocotrienols exhibit anti-angiogenic properties that may assist in tumor regression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635580802582736DOI Listing
June 2009

Tocotrienol levels in adipose tissue of benign and malignant breast lumps in patients in Malaysia.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2007 ;16(3):498-504

Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6 Persiaran Insitusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Malaysia.

Data on dietary exposure to vitamin E by plasma or adipose tissue concentrations of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) in observational studies have failed to provide consistent support for the idea that alpha-T provides women with any protection from breast cancer. In contrast, studies indicate that alpha, gamma, and delta-tocotrienols but not alpha-T have potent anti-proliferative effects in human breast cancer cells. Our aim was to investigate whether there was a difference in tocopherol and tocotrienol concentrations in malignant and benign adipose tissue, in a Malaysian population consuming predominantly a palm oil diet. The study was undertaken using fatty acid levels in breast adipose tissue as a biomarker of qualitative dietary intake of fatty acids. The major fatty acids in breast adipose tissue of patients (benign and malignant) were oleic acid (45-46%), palmitic (28-29%) and linoleic (11-12%). No differences were evident in the fatty acid composition of the two groups. There was a significant difference (p=0.006) in the total tocotrienol levels between malignant (13.7 +/- 6.0 microg/g) and benign (20+/-6.0 microg/g) adipose tissue samples. However, no significant differences were seen in the total tocopherol levels (p=0.42) in the two groups. The study reveals that dietary intake influences adipose tissue fatty acid levels and that adipose tissue is a dynamic reservoir of fat soluble nutrients. The higher adipose tissue concentrations of tocotrienols in benign patients provide support for the idea that tocotrienols may provide protection against breast cancer.
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December 2007

Tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil and gene expression in human breast cancer cells.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004 Dec;1031:143-57

Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6 Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 4300 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Vitamin E is important not only for its cellular antioxidant and lipid-lowering properties, but also as an antiproliferating agent. It has also been shown to contribute to immunoregulation, antibody production, and resistance to implanted tumors. It has recently been shown that tocotrienols are the components of vitamin E responsible for growth inhibition in human breast cancer cells in vitro as well as in vivo through estrogen-independent mechanisms. Although tocotrienols act on cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and can induce programmed cell death, no specific gene regulation has yet been identified. In order to investigate the molecular basis of the effect of a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) from palm oil, we performed a cDNA array analysis of cancer-related gene expression in estrogen-dependent (MCF-7) and estrogen-independent (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cells. The human breast cancer cells were incubated with or without 8 mug/mL of tocotrienols for 72 h. RNA was subsequently extracted and subjected to reverse transcription before being hybridized onto cancer arrays. Tocotrienol supplementation modulated significantly 46 out of 1200 genes in MDA-MB-231 cells. In MCF-7 cells, tocotrienol administration was associated with a lower number of affected genes. Interestingly, only three were affected in a similar fashion in both cell lines: c-myc binding protein MM-1, 23-kDa highly basic protein, and interferon-inducible protein 9-27 (IFITM-1). These proteins are most likely involved in the cell cycle and can exert inhibitory effects on cell growth and differentiation of the tumor cell lines. These data suggest that tocotrienols are able to affect cell homeostasis, possibly independent of their antioxidant activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1331.014DOI Listing
December 2004

Tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil affects gene expression in tumors resulting from MCF-7 cell inoculation in athymic mice.

Lipids 2004 May;39(5):459-67

Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Bandar Baru Bangi, 4300 Selangor, Malaysia.

It has recently been shown that tocotrienols are the components of vitamin E responsible for inhibiting the growth of human breast cancer cells in vitro, through an estrogen-independent mechanism. Although tocotrienols act on cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and can induce programmed cell death, no specific gene regulation has yet been identified. To investigate the molecular basis of the effect of tocotrienols, we injected MCF-7 breast cancer cells into athymic nude mice. Mice were fed orally with 1 mg/d of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) for 20 wk. At end of the 20 wk, there was a significant delay in the onset, incidence, and size of the tumors in nude mice supplemented with TRF compared with the controls. At autopsy, the tumor tissue was excised and analyzed for gene expression by means of a cDNA array technique. Thirty out of 1176 genes were significantly affected. Ten genes were downregulated and 20 genes up-regulated with respect to untreated animals, and some genes in particular were involved in regulating the immune system and its function. The expression of the interferon-inducible transmembrane protein-1 gene was significantly up-regulated in tumors excised from TRF-treated animals compared with control mice. Within the group of genes related to the immune system, we also found that the CD59 glycoprotein precursor gene was up-regulated. Among the functional class of intracellular transducers/effectors/modulators, the c-myc gene was significantly down-regulated in tumors by TRF treatment. Our observations indicate that TRF supplementation significantly and specifically affects MCF-7 cell response after tumor formation in vivo and therefore the host immune function. The observed effect on gene expression is possibly exerted independently from the antioxidant activity typical of this family of molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-004-1251-1DOI Listing
May 2004

Effect of palm oil carotene on breast cancer tumorigenicity in nude mice.

Lipids 2002 Jun;37(6):557-60

Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor.

Biological therapies are new additions to breast cancer treatment. Among biological compounds, beta-carotene has been reported to have immune modulatory effects, in particular, enhancement of natural killer cell activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by macrophages. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of palm carotene supplementation on the tumorigenicity of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells injected into athymic nude mice and to explore the mechanism by which palm carotenes suppress tumorigenesis. Forty-eight 4-wk-old mice were injected with 1 x 10(6) MCF-7 cells into their mammary fat pad. The experimental group was supplemented with palm carotene whereas the control group was not. Significant differences were observed in tumor incidence (P< 0.001) and tumor surface area and metastasis to lung (P< 0.005) between the two groups. Natural killer (NK) cells and B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of carotene-supplemented mice were significantly increased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) compared with controls. These results suggest that palm oil carotene is able to modulate the immune system by increasing peripheral blood NK cells and B-lymphocytes and suppress the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-002-0932-0DOI Listing
June 2002
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