Publications by authors named "Kang-Sup Shim"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Crosstalk between PKCα and PI3K/AKT Signaling Is Tumor Suppressive in the Endometrium.

Cell Rep 2018 07;24(3):655-669

Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA. Electronic address:

Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes are commonly recognized as oncoproteins based on their activation by tumor-promoting phorbol esters. However, accumulating evidence indicates that PKCs can be inhibitory in some cancers, with recent findings propelling a shift in focus to understanding tumor suppressive functions of these enzymes. Here, we report that PKCα acts as a tumor suppressor in PI3K/AKT-driven endometrial cancer. Transcriptional suppression of PKCα is observed in human endometrial tumors in association with aggressive disease and poor prognosis. In murine models, loss of PKCα is rate limiting for endometrial tumor initiation. PKCα tumor suppression involves PP2A-family-dependent inactivation of AKT, which can occur even in the context of genetic hyperactivation of PI3K/AKT signaling by coincident mutations in PTEN, PIK3CA, and/or PIK3R1. Together, our data point to PKCα as a crucial tumor suppressor in the endometrium, with deregulation of a PKCα→PP2A/PP2A-like phosphatase signaling axis contributing to robust AKT activation and enhanced endometrial tumorigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.06.067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6118133PMC
July 2018

Noncatalytic PTEN missense mutation predisposes to organ-selective cancer development in vivo.

Genes Dev 2015 Aug;29(16):1707-20

Solid Tumor Biology Program, James Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA; Department of Molecular Genetics, College of Arts and Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA; Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Medical Genetics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA;

Inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is linked to increased PI3K-AKT signaling, enhanced organismal growth, and cancer development. Here we generated and analyzed Pten knock-in mice harboring a C2 domain missense mutation at phenylalanine 341 (Pten(FV)), found in human cancer. Despite having reduced levels of PTEN protein, homozygous Pten(FV/FV) embryos have intact AKT signaling, develop normally, and are carried to term. Heterozygous Pten(FV/+) mice develop carcinoma in the thymus, stomach, adrenal medulla, and mammary gland but not in other organs typically sensitive to Pten deficiency, including the thyroid, prostate, and uterus. Progression to carcinoma in sensitive organs ensues in the absence of overt AKT activation. Carcinoma in the uterus, a cancer-resistant organ, requires a second clonal event associated with the spontaneous activation of AKT and downstream signaling. In summary, this PTEN noncatalytic missense mutation exposes a core tumor suppressor function distinct from inhibition of canonical AKT signaling that predisposes to organ-selective cancer development in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.262568.115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4561480PMC
August 2015

Long-range interaction and correlation between MYC enhancer and oncogenic long noncoding RNA CARLo-5.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014 Mar 4;111(11):4173-8. Epub 2014 Mar 4.

Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics and Department of Anesthesiology, Wexner Medical Center, and Department of Neurological Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

The mechanism by which the 8q24 MYC enhancer region, including cancer-associated variant rs6983267, increases cancer risk is unknown due to the lack of protein-coding genes at 8q24.21. Here we report the identification of long noncoding RNAs named cancer-associated region long noncoding RNAs (CARLos) in the 8q24 region. The expression of one of the long noncoding RNAs, CARLo-5, is significantly correlated with the rs6983267 allele associated with increased cancer susceptibility. We also found the MYC enhancer region physically interacts with the active regulatory region of the CARLo-5 promoter, suggesting long-range interaction of MYC enhancer with the CARLo-5 promoter regulates CARLo-5 expression. Finally, we demonstrate that CARLo-5 has a function in cell-cycle regulation and tumor development. Overall, our data provide a key of the mystery of the 8q24 gene desert.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1400350111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3964128PMC
March 2014

RAD51 protein ATP cap regulates nucleoprotein filament stability.

J Biol Chem 2012 Mar 24;287(12):8724-36. Epub 2012 Jan 24.

Biophysics Graduate Program, Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Medical Genetics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

RAD51 mediates homologous recombination by forming an active DNA nucleoprotein filament (NPF). A conserved aspartate that forms a salt bridge with the ATP γ-phosphate is found at the nucleotide-binding interface between RAD51 subunits of the NPF known as the ATP cap. The salt bridge accounts for the nonphysiological cation(s) required to fully activate the RAD51 NPF. In contrast, RecA homologs and most RAD51 paralogs contain a conserved lysine at the analogous structural position. We demonstrate that substitution of human RAD51(Asp-316) with lysine (HsRAD51(D316K)) decreases NPF turnover and facilitates considerably improved recombinase functions. Structural analysis shows that archaebacterial Methanococcus voltae RadA(D302K) (MvRAD51(D302K)) and HsRAD51(D316K) form extended active NPFs without salt. These studies suggest that the HsRAD51(Asp-316) salt bridge may function as a conformational sensor that enhances turnover at the expense of recombinase activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.239426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3308741PMC
March 2012

hMSH4-hMSH5 adenosine nucleotide processing and interactions with homologous recombination machinery.

J Biol Chem 2008 Jan 30;283(1):145-54. Epub 2007 Oct 30.

Genetics and Molecular Biology Program, Kimmel Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

We have previously demonstrated that the human heterodimeric meiosis-specific MutS homologs, hMSH4-hMSH5, bind uniquely to a Holliday Junction and its developmental progenitor (Snowden, T., Acharya, S., Butz, C., Berardini, M., and Fishel, R. (2004) Mol. Cell 15, 437-451). ATP binding by hMSH4-hMSH5 resulted in the formation of a sliding clamp that dissociated from the Holliday Junction crossover region embracing two duplex DNA arms. The loading of multiple hMSH4-hMSH5 sliding clamps was anticipated to stabilize the interaction between parental chromosomes during meiosis double-stranded break repair. Here we have identified the interaction region between the individual subunits of hMSH4-hMSH5 that are likely involved in clamp formation and show that each subunit of the heterodimer binds ATP. We have determined that ADP-->ATP exchange is uniquely provoked by Holliday Junction recognition. Moreover, the hydrolysis of ATP by hMSH4-hMSH5 appears to occur after the complex transits the open ends of model Holliday Junction oligonucleotides. Finally, we have identified several components of the double-stranded break repair machinery that strongly interact with hMSH4-hMSH5. These results further underline the function(s) and interactors of hMSH4-hMSH5 that ensure accurate chromosomal repair and segregation during meiosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M704060200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2841433PMC
January 2008

Defining the salt effect on human RAD51 activities.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2006 Jun 27;5(6):718-30. Epub 2006 Apr 27.

Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Medical Genetics, Human Cancer Genetics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43102, USA.

Previous work by Sung and colleagues identified unusual salt requirements for hRAD51 strand exchange compared to RecA [S. Sigurdsson, K. Trujillo, B. Song, S. Stratton, P. Sung, Basis for avid homologous DNA strand exchange by human Rad51 and RPA, J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 8798-8806]. Later studies showed that this salt [(NH4)2SO4] appeared to enhance the ability of hRAD51 to distinguish ssDNA from dsDNA [Y. Liu, A.Z. Stasiak, J.Y. Masson, M.J. McIlwraith, A. Stasiak, S.C. West, Conformational changes modulate the activity of human RAD51 protein, J. Mol. Biol. 337 (2004) 817-827]. The mechanism of this salt effect remains enigmatic. Here, we detail the properties of several neutral salts on hRAD51 activities. We found that the cation identity correlated with the stimulatory effect of these neutral salts on hRAD51 ATPase and strand exchange activities. The salt effect appears to be related to the size of the cation, which may be largely mimicked with the cesium ion. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that stimulating cations induce an important conformation and/or transition state in hRAD51. In the presence of an optimal ammonium-based salt (NaNH4HPO4), hRAD51 mediated strand exchange was successfully performed using a simplified protocol. We confirmed and extend the observation that efficient strand exchange correlated with preferential binding of ssDNA over dsDNA. In addition we observed an induced stability of the hRAD51-DNA complex in the presence of ATP that becomes unstable following ATP hydrolysis (the ADP form or nucleotide free form). These salt-induced characteristics of hRAD51 increasingly resemble RecA-mediated recombinase activities, which should help in dissecting the mechanism of these proteins in homologous recombination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dnarep.2006.03.006DOI Listing
June 2006

Magnesium influences the discrimination and release of ADP by human RAD51.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2006 Jun 19;5(6):704-17. Epub 2006 Apr 19.

Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Medical Genetics, Human Cancer, Genetics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH 43102, USA.

hRAD51 lacks cooperative DNA-dependent ATPase activity and appears to function with 5-10-fold less Mg2+ compared to RecA. We have further explored the effect of Mg2+ on adenosine nucleotide binding, ATPase, and DNA strand exchange activities. hRAD51 was saturated with the poorly hydrolyzable analog of ATP, ATPgammaS, at approximately 0.08 mM Mg2+. In contrast, > 0.5 mM Mg2+ was required to saturate hRAD51 with ADP. We found ADP to be a significantly less effective competitive inhibitor of the hRAD51 ATPase at low Mg2+ concentrations (0.08 mM). Mg2+ did not appear to affect the ability of ATPgammaS to competitively inhibit the hRAD51 ATPase. Low Mg2+ (0.08-0.12 mM) enhanced the steady-state ATPase of hRAD51 while higher Mg2+ concentration (> 0.3 mM) was inhibitory. At low Mg2+, hRAD51 appeared capable of nearly complete hydrolysis of available ATP, suggesting a lack of ADP product inhibition. There was a strong correlation between the amount of Mg2+ required for stable ADP binding and the inhibition of hRad51 strand exchange activity. Simultaneous inclusion of exogenous ATP and chelation of Mg2+ with EDTA significantly enhanced ADP-->ATP exchange by hRAD51. These studies are consistent with the hypothesis that Mg2+ influences the discrimination and release of ADP, which may sequentially impose an important regulatory step in the hRAD51 ATPase cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dnarep.2006.03.004DOI Listing
June 2006

hXRCC2 enhances ADP/ATP processing and strand exchange by hRAD51.

J Biol Chem 2004 Jul 3;279(29):30385-94. Epub 2004 May 3.

Genetics and Molecular Biology Program, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.

The assembly of bacterial RecA, and its human homolog hRAD51, into an operational ADP/ATP-regulated DNA-protein (nucleoprotein) filament is essential for homologous recombination repair (HRR). Yet hRAD51 lacks the coordinated ADP/ATP processing exhibited by RecA and is less efficient in HRR reactions in vitro. In this study, we demonstrate that hXRCC2, one of five other poorly understood non-redundant human mitotic RecA homologs (hRAD51B, hRAD51C, hRAD51D, hXRCC2, and hXRCC3), stimulates hRAD51 ATP processing. hXRCC2 also increases hRAD51-mediated DNA unwinding and strand exchange activities that are integral for HRR. Although there does not seem to be a long-lived interaction between hXRCC2 and hRAD51, we detail a strong adenosine nucleotide-regulated interaction between the hXRCC2-hRAD51D heterodimer and hRAD51. These observations begin to elucidate the separate and specialized functions of the human mitotic RecA homologs that enable an efficient nucleoprotein filament required for HRR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M306066200DOI Listing
July 2004

Biochemical characterization of the human RAD51 protein. III. Modulation of DNA binding by adenosine nucleotides.

J Biol Chem 2002 Apr 11;277(17):14434-42. Epub 2002 Feb 11.

Genetics and Molecular Biology Program, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.

Adenosine nucleotides affect the ability of RecA small middle dotsingle-stranded DNA (ssDNA) nucleoprotein filaments to cooperatively assume and maintain an extended structure that facilitates DNA pairing during recombination. Here we have determined that ADP and ATP/ATPgammaS affect the DNA binding and aggregation properties of the human RecA homolog human RAD51 protein (hRAD51). These studies have revealed significant differences between hRAD51 and RecA. In the presence of ATPgammaS, RecA forms a stable complex with ssDNA, while the hRAD51 ssDNA complex is destabilized. Conversely, in the presence of ADP and ATP, the RecA ssDNA complex is unstable, while the hRAD51 ssDNA complex is stabilized. We identified two hRAD51 small middle dotssDNA binding forms by gel shift analysis, which were distinct from a well defined RecA small middle dotssDNA binding form. The available evidence suggests that a low molecular weight hRAD51 small middle dotssDNA binding form (hRAD51 small middle dotssDNA(low)) correlates with active ADP and ATP processing. A high molecular weight hRAD51 small middle dotssDNA aggregate (hRAD51 small middle dotssDNA(high)) appears to correlate with a form that fails to process ADP and ATP. Our data are consistent with the notion that hRAD51 is unable to appropriately coordinate ssDNA binding with adenosine nucleotide processing. These observations suggest that other factors may assist hRAD51 in order to mirror RecA recombinational function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M109917200DOI Listing
April 2002

Biochemical characterization of the human RAD51 protein. II. Adenosine nucleotide binding and competition.

J Biol Chem 2002 Apr 11;277(17):14426-33. Epub 2002 Feb 11.

Genetics and Molecular Biology Program, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.

RecA mediated homologous recombination requires cooperative ATP binding and hydrolysis to assume and maintain an active, extended DNA-protein (nucleoprotein) filament. Human RAD51 protein (hRAD51) lacks the magnitude of ATP-induced cooperativity and catalytic efficiency displayed by RecA. Here, we examined hRAD51 binding and ATPase inhibition pattern by ADP and ATP/adenosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) (ATPgammaS). hRAD51 fully saturates with ATP/ATPgammaS regardless of DNA cofactor (K(D) approximately 5 microm; 1 ATP/1 hRAD51). The binding of ADP to hRAD51 appeared bimodal. The first mode was identical to ATP/ATPgammaS binding (K(app1) approximately 3 microm; 1 ADP/1 hRAD51), while a second mode occurred at elevated ADP concentrations (K(app2) > or = 125 microm; >1 ADP/1 hRAD51). We could detect ADP --> ATP exchange in the high affinity ADP binding mode (K(app1)) but not the low affinity binding mode (K(app2)). At low ATP concentrations (<0.3 mm), ADP and ATPgammaS competitively inhibit the hRAD51 ATPase (K(m)((app)) > K(m)). However, at high ATP (>0.3 mm), the hRAD51 ATPase was stimulated by concentrations of ATPgammaS that were 20-fold above the K(D). Ammonium sulfate plus spermidine decreased the affinity of hRAD51 for ADP substantially ( approximately 10-fold) and ATP modestly ( approximately 3-fold). Our results suggest that ATP binding is not rate-limiting but that the inability to sustain an active nucleoprotein filament probably restricts the hRAD51 ATPase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M109916200DOI Listing
April 2002