Publications by authors named "Kang Chen"

654 Publications

Prevention of muscle atrophy in ICU patients without nerve injury by neuromuscular electrical stimulation: a randomized controlled study.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2022 Aug 16;23(1):780. Epub 2022 Aug 16.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Background: Extensive muscle atrophy is a common occurrence in orthopaedics patients who are bedridden or immobilized. The incidence is higher in intensive care unit (ICU) inpatients. There is still controversy about how to use neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in ICU patients. We aim to compare the effectiveness and safety of NMES to prevent muscle atrophy in intensive care unit (ICU) patients without nerve injury.

Methods: ICU patients without central and peripheral nerve injury were randomized into experimental group I (Exp I: active and passive activity training (APAT) + NMES treatment on the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscle), experimental group II (Exp II: APAT + NMES treatment on gastrocnemius alone), and control group (Ctl: APAT alone). Changes in the strength of gastrocnemius, the ankle range of motion, and the muscle cross-section area of the lower leg were evaluated before and after the intervention. Also, changes in prothrombin time, lactic acid, and C-reactive protein were monitored during the treatment.

Results: The gastrocnemius muscle strength, ankle joint range of motion, and cross-sectional muscle area of the lower leg in the three groups showed a downward trend, indicating that the overall trend of muscle atrophy in ICU patients was irreversible. The decrease in gastrocnemius muscle strength in Exp I and Exp II was smaller than that in the control group (P < 0.05), but there was no difference between Exp I and Exp II. The decrease in active ankle range of motion and cross-sectional area of the lower leg Exp I and Exp II was smaller than that in the control group (P < 0.05), and the decrease in Exp I was smaller than that of Exp II (all P < 0.05). The curative effect in Exp I was better than in Exp II. There were no significant differences in the dynamic changes of prothrombin time, lactic acid, and C-reactive protein during the three groups (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: In addition to early exercise training, NMES should be applied to prevent muscle atrophy for patients without nerve injury in ICU. Also, simultaneous NMES treatment on agonist/antagonist muscle can enhance the effect of preventing muscle atrophy.

Trial Registration: This study was prospectively registered in China Clinical Trial Registry ( www.chictr.org.cn ) on 16/05/2020 as ChiCTR2000032950.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-022-05739-2DOI Listing
August 2022

The association between a body shape index and elevated urinary albumin-creatinine ratio in Chinese community adults.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 28;13:955241. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Department of Endocrinology, The First Clinical Medical Center of Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Obesity, especially visceral obesity, seems to be one of the most decisive risk factors for chronic kidney disease. A Body Shape Index (ABSI) is an emerging body size measurement marker of visceral obesity. This study aimed to explore whether ABSI is associated with albuminuria in Chinese community adults.

Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 40,726 participants aged 40 or older from seven provinces across China through a cluster random sampling method. ABSI was calculated by body mass index, waist circumference, and height. Increased albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥ 30 mg/g, indicating kidney injury. For ABSI, we divided it by quartile cutoff points and tried to determine the association between ABSI levels and UACR by multiple regression analysis. DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph) was plotted using literature and expert consensus to identify potential confounding factors.

Results: The average age of subjects with elevated UACR was 61.43 ± 10.07, and 26% were men. The average age of subjects with normal UACR was 57.70 ± 9.02, and 30.5% were men. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted and demonstrated that the ABSI quartiles were related to elevated UACR positively (OR [95% CI] Q2 vs. Q1: 1.094 [1.004, 1.197]; OR [95% CI] Q3 vs. Q1: 1.126 [1.030, 1.231]; OR [95% CI] Q4 vs. Q1: 1.183 [1.080, 1.295], for trend < 0.001) after adjustments for confounding factors. The stratified analysis further showed that with the mounting for ABSI levels, elevated UACR more easily occurred in the people characterized by the elderly, men, and hypertension.

Conclusions: In Chinese community adults, people with higher ABSI levels can be deemed as high-risk individuals with UACR elevation, and it will be beneficial for them to lose weight and significantly reduce visceral fat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.955241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9365939PMC
August 2022

Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase 2 and 5 commonly, but differently, promote seed oil accumulation in Brassica napus.

Biotechnol Biofuels Bioprod 2022 Aug 12;15(1):83. Epub 2022 Aug 12.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, China.

Background: Increasing seed oil content (SOC) of Brassica napus has become one of the main plant breeding goals over the past decades. Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT) performs an important molecular function by regulating the production of phosphatidic acid (PA), a key intermediate in the synthesis of membrane and storage lipids. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of LPAT on the SOC of B. napus remains unclear.

Results: In the present study, significant elevation of SOC was achieved by overexpressing BnLPAT2 and BnLPAT5 in B. napus. RNAi and CRISPR-Cas9 were also successfully used to knock down and knock out these two genes in B. napus where SOC significantly decreased. Meanwhile, we found an accumulation of lipid droplets and oil bodies in seeds of BnLPAT2 and BnLPAT5 overexpression lines, whereas an increase of sugar and protein in Bnlpat2 and Bnlpat5 mutant seeds. Sequential transcriptome analysis was further performed on the developing seeds of the BnLPAT2 and BnLPAT5 overexpression, knockdown, and knockout rapeseed lines. Most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were expressed in the middle and late stages of seed development were enriched in photosynthesis and lipid metabolism, respectively. The DEGs involved in fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis were active in the overexpression lines but were relatively inactive in the knockdown and knockout lines. Further analysis revealed that the biological pathways related to fatty acid/lipid anabolism and carbohydrate metabolism were specifically enriched in the BnLPAT2 overexpression lines.

Conclusions: BnLPAT2 and BnLPAT5 are essential for seed oil accumulation. BnLPAT2 preferentially promoted diacylglycerol synthesis to increase SOC, whereas BnLPAT5 tended to boost PA synthesis for membrane lipid generation. Taken together, BnLPAT2 and BnLPAT5 can jointly but differently promote seed oil accumulation in B. napus. This study provides new insights into the potential mechanisms governing the promotion of SOC by BnLPAT2 and BnLPAT5 in the seeds of B. napus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-022-02182-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9375321PMC
August 2022

Mettl14-driven senescence-associated secretory phenotype facilitates somatic cell reprogramming.

Stem Cell Reports 2022 Aug;17(8):1799-1809

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Clinical and Translational Research Center of Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China; Frontier Science Center for Stem Cell Research, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:

The METTL3-METTL14 complex, the "writer" of N-methyladenosine (mA), plays an important role in many biological processes. Previous studies have shown that Mettl3 overexpression can increase the level of mA and promote somatic cell reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate that Mettl14, another component of the methyltransferase complex, can significantly enhance the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in an mA-independent manner. In cooperation with Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, overexpressed Mettl14 transiently promoted senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) gene expression in non-reprogrammed cells in the late stage of reprogramming. Subsequently, we demonstrated that interleukin-6 (IL-6), a component of the SASP, significantly enhanced somatic cell reprogramming. In contrast, blocking the SASP using a senolytic agent or a nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor impaired the effect of Mettl14 on reprogramming. Our results highlight the mA-independent function of Mettl14 in reprogramming and provide new insight into the interplay between senescence and reprogramming in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2022.06.012DOI Listing
August 2022

Case report: coexistence of primary hyperparathyroidism with giant toxic nodular goiter.

BMC Endocr Disord 2022 Aug 9;22(1):200. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Department of Endocrinology, The First Medical Center of PLA General Hospital, 100853, Beijing, China.

Background: The coexistence of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and giant toxic nodular goiter is very rare. Moreover, PHPT could be easily overlooked because hyperthyroidism may also lead to hypercalcemia. A 99mTc-MIBI scan of the parathyroid glands is often negative when they are concomitant.

Case Presentation: Here, we report a rare case of the coexistence of giant toxic nodular goiter and PHPT that had been ignored for many years but was successfully treated with an ultrasound-guided parathyroid adenoma microwave ablation (MWA).

Conclusion: Reoperation for PHPT carries an increased risk of cure failure and complications. Thermal ablation has been proven effective in inactivating hyperfunctioning parathyroid lesions and in normalizing both serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-022-01117-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9361506PMC
August 2022

Optimization of the Thin Waveguide for Double-Parabolic-Reflectors Ultrasonic Transducers (DPLUS) for Thermal Ablation.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2022 Aug 8;PP. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Objective: Interstitial and intracavitary ultrasound applicators had been developed and studied for minimally invasive treatments (MIT). However, the acoustic outputs are limited by the small-size PZT. We therefore studied the acoustic waveguide (AW) applicator which enables the use of a large-size PZT, and we aimed to advance AW applicators towards thermal ablation applications.

Methods: Double parabolic reflectors wave-guided ultrasonic transducer (DPLUS) was introduced which has two parabolic reflectors for enhancing the acoustic output. Theoretical modeling was conducted for optimizing the DPLUS thin waveguide.

Results: Modeling results showed that optimal [Formula: see text] (thin waveguide radius/wavelength) can be found and the optimal [Formula: see text] depends on the excitable vibration amplitude in the thin waveguide. A local optimal [Formula: see text]=0.2392 was considered the best choice, which results in the optimal frequency of 2.2 MHz at the radius [Formula: see text] of 0.6 mm. To verify this optimal frequency, experiments under two working frequencies of 1.0282 MHz and 2.2579 MHz were conducted. Temperature rise curves in the chicken breast tissue showed good agreements between experiments and modeling results, which proved the effectiveness of the modeling. In addition, experiments showed an ablated area with a diameter of 1.03±0.12 mm under continuous excitation of 2.2579 MHz and 5 s.

Conclusion: The developed DPLUS advanced the AW applicators towards thermal ablation applications.

Significance: This study provides the evidence for recognizing AW applicators as a technique for thermal ablation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2022.3197213DOI Listing
August 2022

Instability Mechanism of Osimertinib in Plasma and a Solving Strategy in the Pharmacokinetics Study.

Front Pharmacol 2022 22;13:928983. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

The Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing Hospital/National Center of Gerontology of National Health Commission, Beijing, China.

Osimertinib is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) and a star medication used to treat non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs). It has caused broad public concern that osimertinib has relatively low stability in plasma. We explored why osimertinib and its primary metabolites AZ-5104 and AZ-7550 are unstable in rat plasma. Our results suggested that it is the main reason inducing their unstable phenomenon that the Michael addition reaction was putatively produced between the Michael acceptor of osimertinib and the cysteine in the plasma matrix. Consequently, we identified a method to stabilize osimertinib and its metabolite contents in plasma. The assay was observed to enhance the stability of osimertinib, AZ-5104, and AZ-7550 significantly. The validated method was subsequently applied to perform the pharmacokinetic study for osimertinib in rats with the newly established, elegant, and optimized ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS) strategy. The assay was assessed for accuracy, precision, matrix effects, recovery, and stability. This study can help understand the pharmacological effects of osimertinib and promote a solution for the similar problem of other Michael acceptor-contained third-generation EGFR-TKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.928983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354582PMC
July 2022

In situ signal amplification improves the capture efficiency of circulating tumor cells with low expression of EpCAM.

Anal Chim Acta 2022 Aug 4;1221:340133. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as non-invasive biomarkers have great potential in evaluating tumor progression and prognosis. However, effective enrichment of CTCs and minimizing phenotypic bias remain a serious challenge. Herein, a DNA tetrahedron-aptamer complex-mediated rolling circle amplification (TDN-RCA) strategy is developed for cell surface protein signal amplification and CTC enrichment, employing DNA tetrahedron-EpCAM aptamer complex as a scaffold and initiating rolling circle amplification (RCA) reaction on the surface of CTCs in situ. The DNA tetrahedron-aptamer complex enables the cell-specific recognition and enhances cell membrane anchoring ability, generating a large number of magnetic beads binding sites through the RCA reaction in situ. Thus, the signals of cell surface markers with low expression levels are amplified in situ and then efficient CTC enrichment is achieved. This method improves the capture efficiency of CTCs with low expression of EpCAM, which has great potential in clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2022.340133DOI Listing
August 2022

Clinical data analysis of 22 cases with hypoparathyroidism misdiagnosed as epilepsy.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2022 Jun 7;43(2):113-118. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Department of Endocrinology, First Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.

Objective: Patients with hypoparathyroidism always present with recurrent tetany caused by hypocalcemia. These patients are usually misdiagnosed with epilepsy and incorrectly treated with anti-epileptic drugs. This research analyzed clinical data about 22 patients with hypoparathyroidism misdiagnosed as epilepsy and summarized the clinical experience for reducing misdiagnosis and incorrect therapy about hypoparathyroidism.

Method: Totally 160 patients with hypoparathyroidism, administrated to the First Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital from January 1st, 2008, to July 1st, 2021, were enrolled in this report. Clinical data about 22 patients initially misdiagnosed with epilepsy were analyzed.

Results: Of the 160 cases with hypoparathyroidism, 22 patients (12 males and 10 females) were misdiagnosed with epilepsy in local hospitals. The misdiagnosis rate was 13.75% and the median duration of misdiagnosis was 8.0 (2.0, 14.8) years. The clinical manifestations of the 22 patients misdiagnosed as epilepsy included tetany 81.8% (18/22), disturbance of consciousness 27.3% (6/22), limb numbness 13.6% (3/22), limb weakness 27.3% (6/22), mental and behavioral abnormality 9.1% (2/22), and memory impairment 13.6% (3/22), etc. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was performed in 9 cases, which presented as slow wave and spike-slow complex wave in 3 cases, slowing down of θ and δ band background in 2 cases and normal EEG in 4 cases. Out of the 15 cases that underwent head computed tomography (CT) scan, in which 13 cases had intracranial calcification. Anti-epileptic drugs were used to treat 22 patients, of which 17 patients were treated with two kinds of drugs. With calcium and calcitriol supplement in all these 22 patients, the anti-epileptic drugs were gradually reduced and withdrawn in 17 cases. In the other 5 cases with secondary epilepsy, the type of anti-epileptic drugs was reduced to one and the clinical condition improved obviously.

Conclusion: The clinical manifestations of hypoparathyroidism are complex and usually be misdiagnosed as primary epilepsy. Detection of serum calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone is very important to avoid misdiagnosis and incorrect therapy about hypoparathyroidism.
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June 2022

Switchable photocatalysis for the chemodivergent benzylation of 4-cyanopyridines.

Chem Sci 2022 Jul 7;13(27):8060-8064. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

ICIQ - Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology Avenida Països Catalans 16 - 43007 Tarragona Spain https://www.iciq.org/research/research_group/prof-paolo-melchiorre.

We report a photocatalytic strategy for the chemodivergent radical benzylation of 4-cyanopyridines. The chemistry uses a single photoredox catalyst to generate benzyl radicals upon N-F bond activation of 2-alkyl -fluorobenzamides. The judicious choice of different photocatalyst quenchers allowed us to select at will between mechanistically divergent processes. The two reaction manifolds, an -substitution path proceeding radical coupling and a Minisci-type addition, enabled selective access to regioisomeric C4 or C2 benzylated pyridines, respectively. Mechanistic investigations shed light on the origin of the chemoselectivity switch.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2sc02698hDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9278488PMC
July 2022

Infection Maybe a Risk Factor for Cardiac Syndrome X.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 15;9:823885. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Emergency, Shanghai Fengxian District Central Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital South Campus, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: Cardiac syndrome X (CSX) is a condition with normal coronary angiography but angina pectoris. Chronic inflammation caused by () infection may play a pathogenic role in CSX. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to explore the relationship between infection and risk of CSX.

Methods: A systematic search in the Web of Science, Medline, Embase and Chinese databases (CNKI and Wanfang) was conducted up to October 2021. Articles on the association between infection and the risk of CSX were included and were analyzed by R software (version 4.1.0).

Results: Ten case-control studies involving 703 CSX patients and 731 healthy controls were included. infection was associated with an increased risk of CSX (OR: 8.29, 95% CI: 4.64-14.82). We also found a significant association in those 25-40 years of age (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.04-1.72), those 40-50 years of age (OR: 11.27, 95% CI: 4.29-29.61), those over 50 years of age (OR: 7.18, 95% CI: 3.59-14.36), those in developing countries [Iran (OR: 12.99, 95% CI: 8.61-19.60) and China (OR: 5.14, 95% CI: 3.09-8.56)]. However, this association was not apparent in a developed country [Italy (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.37-2.33)].

Conclusions: Our study suggested a possible association between infection and the risk of CSX. Its pathogenicity is stronger in middle-aged individuals and some developing countries. However, more studies are needed to further investigate whether early eradication of can reduce the incidence rate of CSX, especially in middle-aged individuals and some developing countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.823885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9336507PMC
July 2022

Integrated Physiochemical, Hormonal, and Transcriptomic Analysis Revealed the Underlying Mechanisms for Granulation in Huyou () Fruit.

Front Plant Sci 2022 14;13:923443. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Laboratory of Fruit Quality Biology, The State Agriculture Ministry Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, Horticultural Products Cold Chain Logistics Technology and Equipment National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Integrative Biology of Horticultural Plants, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Juice sac granulation is a common internal physiological disorder of citrus fruit. In the present study, we compared the physiochemical characteristics and transcriptome profiles of juice sacs in different granulation levels from Huyou fruit (. The accumulation of cell wall components, including the water-soluble pectin, protopectin, cellulose, and lignin, were significantly correlated with the granulation process, resulting in the firmness increase of the juice sac. The labeling of the cell wall components indicated the early accumulation of cellulose and high-methylesterified pectin in the outer layer cells, as well as the late accumulation of lignin in the inner layer cells of the juice sac. Several phytohormones, including auxins, abscisic acids, cytokinins, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and/or their metabolites, were positively correlated to the granulation level, indicating an active and complex phytohormones metabolism in the granulation process. Combining the trend analysis by the Mfuzz method and the module-trait correlation analysis by the Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis method, a total of 2940 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to be positively correlated with the granulation level. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment indicated that the selected DEGs were mainly involved in the cell wall organization and biogenesis, cell wall macromolecule metabolic process, carbohydrate metabolic process, and polysaccharide metabolic process. Among these selected genes, those encoding β-1,4-xylosyltransferase IRX9, cellulose synthase, xyloglucan: xyloglucosyl transferase, xyloglucan galactosyltransferase MUR3, α-1,4-galacturonosyltransferase, expansin, polygalacturonase, pectinesterase, β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase, endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase, endoglucanase and pectate lyase that required for the biosynthesis or structural modification of cell wall were identified. In addition, NAC, MYB, bHLH, and MADS were the top abundant transcription factors (TFs) families positively correlated with the granulation level, while the LOB was the top abundant TFs family negatively correlated with the granulation level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.923443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9330425PMC
July 2022

4D-printed bilayer hydrogel with adjustable bending degree for enteroatmospheric fistula closure.

Mater Today Bio 2022 Dec 14;16:100363. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Research Institute of General Surgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210009, China.

Recently, four-dimensional (4D) shape-morphing structures, which can dynamically change shape over time, have attracted much attention in biomedical manufacturing. The 4D printing has the capacity to fabricate dynamic construction conforming to the natural bending of biological tissues, superior to other manufacturing techniques. In this study, we presented a multi-responsive, flexible, and biocompatible 4D-printed bilayer hydrogel based on acrylamide-acrylic acid/cellulose nanocrystal (AAm-AAc/CNC) network. The first layer was first stretched and then formed reversible coordination with Fe to maintain this pre-stretched length; it was later combined with a second layer. The deformation process was actuated by the reduction of Fe to Fe in the first layer which restored it to its initial length. The deformation condition was to immerse the 4D construct in sodium lactate (LA-Na) and then expose it to ultraviolet (UV) light until maximal deformation was realized. The bending degree of this 4D construct can be programmed by modifying the pre-stretched lengths of the first layer. We explored various deformation steps in simple and complex constructs to verify that the 4D bilayer hydrogel can mimic the curved morphology of the intestines. The bilayer hydrogel can also curve in deionized water due to anisotropic volume change yet the response time and maximum bending degree was inferior to deformation in LA-Na and UV light. Finally, we made a 4D-printed bilayer hydrogel stent to test its closure effect for enteroatmospheric fistulas (EAFs) and . The results illustrate that the hydrogel plays a role in the temporary closure of EAFs. This study offers an effective method to produce curved structures and expands the potential applications of 4D printing in biomedical fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mtbio.2022.100363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9309522PMC
December 2022

Oxidative C-H/N-H Carbonylation of Benzamide by Nickel Catalysis with CO as the Carbonyl Source.

J Org Chem 2022 Aug 26;87(15):10390-10397. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magnetochemical Function Materials, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, 12 Jiangan Road, Guilin 541004, China.

An efficient and direct carbonylation of aminoquinoline benzamides has been developed using abundant and inexpensive Ni(OAc)·4HO as the catalyst and carbon monoxide as a cost-efficient C1 building block. This process features good functional-group tolerance and can be conducted on gram scale. The directing group can be easily removed under mild conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.2c00673DOI Listing
August 2022

Applying deep learning-based regional feature recognition from macro-scale image to assist energy saving and emission reduction in industrial energy systems.

J Adv Res 2022 Jul 22. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Image recognition technology has immense potential to be applied in industrial energy systems for energy conservation. However, the low recognition accuracy and generalization ability under actual operation conditions limit its commercial application.

Objectives: To improve the recognition accuracy and generalization ability, a novel image recognition method integrating deep learning and domain knowledge was applied to assist energy saving and emission reduction for industrial energy systems.

Methods: As a typical industrial scenario, the defrosting control in the refrigeration system was selected as the specific optimization object. By combining deep learning algorithm with domain knowledge, a residual-based convolutional neural network model (RCNN) was proposed specifically for frosty state recognition, which features the residual input and average pooling output. Based on the real-time recognition of frosty levels, a defrosting control optimization method was proposed to initiate and terminate the defrosting operation on demand.

Results: By combining the advanced image recognition technique with specific energy domain knowledge, the proposed RCNN enables both high recognition accuracy and strong generalization ability. The recognition accuracy of RCNN reached 95.06% for the trained objects and 93.67% for non-trained objects while that of only 75.86% for the conventional CNN. By adopting the presented system optimization method assisted by RCNN, the defrosting frequency, accumulated time and energy consumption were 53.8%, 57.02% and 34.5% less than the original control method. Furthermore, the environmental and cost analysis illustrated that the annual reduction in CO emissions is 2145.21 to 3412.84 kg and the payback time was less than 2.5 years which was far below the service life.

Conclusion: The technical feasibility and significant energy-saving benefits of deep learning-based image recognition method were demonstrated through the field experiment. Our study shows the great application potential of image recognition technology and promotes carbon neutrality in industrial energy systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2022.07.003DOI Listing
July 2022

Functions and performance of ionic liquids in enhancing electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reactions: a comprehensive review.

RSC Adv 2022 Jun 6;12(30):19452-19469. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

College of Quality and Safety Engineering, China Jilliang University Hangzhou Zhejiang 310018 China

As a green and renewable energy source, hydrogen can be produced by the electrolysis of water the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Nevertheless, this method requires efficient and low-cost electro-catalysts to improve hydrogen production efficiency. Ionic liquids (ILs), with a unique combination of such superior properties as low vapor pressure, high electrical conductivity, high electrochemical stability, and a wide variety of functional groups, have found applications in electrochemical systems designed for efficient HER. Herein, we provide a comprehensive and updated review on the functions and performance of ILs used in electrochemical systems to enhance the HER. As the name suggests, ILs have been employed either as electrolytes by themselves, or as electrolyte additives. They also played many functional roles in the synthesis of HER electrocatalysts, including as the synthesis reaction solvent, reaction precursor as well as single/dual ion sources, binder and structure-directing agents of the catalysts. With the assistance of ILs, HER efficiency of electrocatalysts was improved significantly, resulting in decreased overpotentials in the range of 16-385 mV @ 10 mA cm and increased Tafel slopes in the range of 30-210 mV dec. Lastly, the problems and challenges of ILs in electrocatalytic water electrolysis and HER are also discussed and their prospects considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ra02547gDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9258732PMC
June 2022

Using Multi-Task Learning-Based Framework to Detect ST-Segment and J-Point Deviation From Holter.

Front Physiol 2022 29;13:912739. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Artificial intelligence is increasingly being used on the clinical electrocardiogram workflows. Few electrocardiograms based on artificial intelligence algorithms have focused on detecting myocardial ischemia using long-term electrocardiogram data. A main reason for this is that interference signals generated from daily activities while wearing the Holter monitor lowered the ability of artificial intelligence to detect myocardial ischemia. In this study, an automatic system combining denoising and segmentation modules was developed to detect the deviation of the ST-segment and J point. We proposed a ECG Bidirectional Transformer network that applied in both denoising and segmentation tasks. The denoising model achieved RMSE, SNR, and PRD values of 0.074, 10.006, and 16.327, respectively. The segmentation model achieved precision, sensitivity (recall), and F1-score of 96.00, 93.06, and 94.51%, respectively. The system's ability to distinguish the depression and elevation of the ST-segment and J point was also verified by cardiologists as well. From our ECG dataset, 103 patients with ST-segment depression and 10 patients with ST-segment elevation were detected with positive predictive values of 80.6 and 60% respectively. Using Holter ECG and transformer-based deep neural networks, we can detect subtle ST-segment changes in noisy ECG signals. This system has the potential to improve the efficacy of daily medicine and to provide a broader population-level screening for asymptomatic myocardial ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.912739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9277481PMC
June 2022

Further insight into decreases in seed glucosinolate content based on QTL mapping and RNA-seq in Brassica napus L.

Theor Appl Genet 2022 Jul 16. Epub 2022 Jul 16.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, China.

Key Message: The QTL hotspots determining seed glucosinolate content instead of only four HAG1 loci and elucidation of a potential regulatory model for rapeseed SGC variation. Glucosinolates (GSLs) are amino acid-derived, sulfur-rich secondary metabolites that function as biopesticides and flavor compounds, but the high seed glucosinolate content (SGC) reduces seed quality for rapeseed meal. To dissect the genetic mechanism and further reduce SGC in rapeseed, QTL mapping was performed using an updated high-density genetic map based on a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from two parents that showed significant differences in SGC. In 15 environments, a total of 162 significant QTLs were identified for SGC and then integrated into 59 consensus QTLs, of which 32 were novel QTLs. Four QTL hotspot regions (QTL-HRs) for SGC variation were discovered on chromosomes A09, C02, C07 and C09, including seven major QTLs that have previously been reported and four novel major QTLs in addition to HAG1 loci. SGC was largely determined by superimposition of advantage allele in the four QTL-HRs. Important candidate genes directly related to GSL pathways were identified underlying the four QTL-HRs, including BnaC09.MYB28, BnaA09.APK1, BnaC09.SUR1 and BnaC02.GTR2a. Related differentially expressed candidates identified in the minor but environment stable QTLs indicated that sulfur assimilation plays an important rather than dominant role in SGC variation. A potential regulatory model for rapeseed SGC variation constructed by combining candidate GSL gene identification and differentially expressed gene analysis based on RNA-seq contributed to a better understanding of the GSL accumulation mechanism. This study provides insights to further understand the genetic regulatory mechanism of GSLs, as well as the potential loci and a new route to further diminish the SGC in rapeseed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-022-04161-5DOI Listing
July 2022

Access to Phosphine-Containing Quinazolinones Enabled by Photo-Induced Radical Phosphorylation/Cyclization of Unactivated Alkenes.

J Org Chem 2022 Aug 13;87(15):10146-10157. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Key Laboratory of Drug-Targeting and Drug Delivery System of the Education Ministry and Sichuan Province, Sichuan Engineering Laboratory for Plant-Sourced Drug and Sichuan Research Center for Drug Precision Industrial Technology, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

A mild and facile photo-induced cascade radical addition/cyclization of unactivated alkenes has been reported, through which a variety of biologically valuable phosphine-containing quinazolinones could be obtained in moderate to good yields. The protocol was characterized by mild conditions, broad substrate scope, and high atomic economy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.2c01092DOI Listing
August 2022

Clinical, Radiological and Pathological Characteristics Between Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Multiple Sclerosis: A Review.

Front Neurol 2022 24;13:841521. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Chongqing, China.

Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are a group of diseases associated with small vessel lesions, the former often resulting from the vascular lesion itself, while the latter originating from demyelinating which can damage the cerebral small veins. Clinically, CSVD and MS do not have specific signs and symptoms, and it is often difficult to distinguish between the two from the aspects of the pathology and imaging. Therefore, failure to correctly identify and diagnose the two diseases will delay early intervention, which in turn will affect the long-term functional activity for patients and even increase their burden of life. This review has summarized recent studies regarding their similarities and difference of the clinical manifestations, pathological features and imaging changes in CSVD and MS, which could provide a reliable basis for the diagnosis and differentiation of the two diseases in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2022.841521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9263123PMC
June 2022

Advances of section drying in citrus fruit: The metabolic changes, mechanisms and prevention methods.

Food Chem 2022 Nov 16;395:133499. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Laboratory of Fruit Quality Biology / The State Agriculture Ministry Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement / Horticultural Products Cold Chain Logistics Technology and Equipment National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory / Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Integrative Biology of Horticultural Plants, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, PR China. Electronic address:

Citrus fruit are consumed worldwide due to their excellent features, such as delicious taste and health-promoting compounds. However, section drying, a physiological disorder of citrus fruit, often occurs both in the preharvest and postharvest storage, causing a significant reduction in fruit quality and consumer acceptance. In this review, section drying of citrus fruit was divided into three types: granulation, vesicle collapse and both above. The main causes, metabolic changes and mechanisms of section drying were discussed, respectively. Furthermore, the prevention methods of section drying in citrus fruit, including preharvest and postharvest methods, were also summarized. Given the significant influence of section drying in citrus fruit production, the mechanisms and prevention methods of section drying are worth further exploration. A better understanding of section drying may provide guidance for the prevention of this disorder and future breeding of citrus fruit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133499DOI Listing
November 2022

Identification of a cytokine-dominated immunosuppressive class in squamous cell lung carcinoma with implications for immunotherapy resistance.

Genome Med 2022 Jul 8;14(1):72. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, China.

Background: Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy has revolutionized the treatment of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). However, a significant proportion of patients with high tumour PD-L1 expression remain resistant to immune checkpoint inhibitors. To understand the underlying resistance mechanisms, characterization of the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment and identification of biomarkers to predict resistance in patients are urgently needed.

Methods: Our study retrospectively analysed RNA sequencing data of 624 LUSC samples. We analysed gene expression patterns from tumour microenvironment by unsupervised clustering. We correlated the expression patterns with a set of T cell exhaustion signatures, immunosuppressive cells, clinical characteristics, and immunotherapeutic responses. Internal and external testing datasets were used to validate the presence of exhausted immune status.

Results: Approximately 28 to 36% of LUSC patients were found to exhibit significant enrichments of T cell exhaustion signatures, high fraction of immunosuppressive cells (M2 macrophage and CD4 Treg), co-upregulation of 9 inhibitory checkpoints (CTLA4, PDCD1, LAG3, BTLA, TIGIT, HAVCR2, IDO1, SIGLEC7, and VISTA), and enhanced expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. TGFβ and CCL18). We defined this immunosuppressive group of patients as exhausted immune class (EIC). Although EIC showed a high density of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes, these were associated with poor prognosis. EIC had relatively elevated PD-L1 expression, but showed potential resistance to ICB therapy. The signature of 167 genes for EIC prediction was significantly enriched in melanoma patients with ICB therapy resistance. EIC was characterized by a lower chromosomal alteration burden and a unique methylation pattern. We developed a web application ( http://lilab2.sysu.edu.cn/tex & http://liwzlab.cn/tex ) for researchers to further investigate potential association of ICB resistance based on our multi-omics analysis data.

Conclusions: We introduced a novel LUSC immunosuppressive class which expressed high PD-L1 but showed potential resistance to ICB therapy. This comprehensive characterization of immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment in LUSC provided new insights for further exploration of resistance mechanisms and optimization of immunotherapy strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13073-022-01079-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9264601PMC
July 2022

Engineering the biosynthesis of fungal nonribosomal peptides.

Nat Prod Rep 2022 Jul 7. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Southwest Center for Natural Products Research, University of Arizona, 250 E. Valencia Rd., Tucson, AZ 85706, USA.

Covering: 2011 up to the end of 2021.Fungal nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) and the related polyketide-nonribosomal peptide hybrid products (PK-NRPs) are a prolific source of bioactive compounds, some of which have been developed into essential drugs. The synthesis of these complex natural products (NPs) utilizes nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), multidomain megaenzymes that assemble specific peptide products by sequential condensation of amino acids and amino acid-like substances, independent of the ribosome. NRPSs, collaborating polyketide synthase modules, and their associated tailoring enzymes involved in product maturation represent promising targets for NP structure diversification and the generation of small molecule unnatural products (uNPs) with improved or novel bioactivities. Indeed, reprogramming of NRPSs and recruiting of novel tailoring enzymes is the strategy by which nature evolves NRP products. The recent years have witnessed a rapid development in the discovery and identification of novel NRPs and PK-NRPs, and significant advances have also been made towards the engineering of fungal NRP assembly lines to generate uNP peptides. However, the intrinsic complexities of fungal NRP and PK-NRP biosynthesis, and the large size of the NRPSs still present formidable conceptual and technical challenges for the rational and efficient reprogramming of these pathways. This review examines key examples for the successful (and for some less-successful) re-engineering of fungal NRPS assembly lines to inform future efforts towards generating novel, biologically active peptides and PK-NRPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2np00036aDOI Listing
July 2022

Down-regulation of MLLT1 super elongation complex subunit impairs the anti-tumor activity of natural killer cells in esophageal cancer.

Immunobiology 2022 Jul 16;227(4):152238. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

The Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tongren Hospital of Wuhan University, 241 Pengliuyang Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430060, China. Electronic address:

Natural killer (NK) cells actively participate in anti-tumor immunity and are thus regarded as a promising tool in immunotherapy against esophageal cancer (EC). However, the mechanisms regulating NK cell activation and exhaustion have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we characterized the expression and function of MLLT1 super elongation complex subunit (MLLT1) in esophageal NK cells in a mouse EC model. MLLT1 was down-regulated in esophageal NK cells, especially NK cells expressing both T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM-3) and lymphocyte activation gene3(LAG-3). In vitro knockdown of MLLT1 in NK cells resulted in significant decreases in the expression of IFN-γ and perforin, as well as impaired NK cell cytotoxicity on tumor cells. Adoptive transfer of MLLT-deficient NK cells into EC-bearing mice showed consistent impairment of NK cell anti-tumor activity, as evidenced by decreases in IFN-γ and perforin but not granzyme B. Furthermore, EC tissue cells, which were enriched from the esophagus of EC-bearing mice, induced down-regulation of MLLT1 in splenic NK cells. This down-regulation was partially restored by a TIM-3 blocking antibody. Therefore, this study indicated that TIM-3 signaling down-regulated MLLT1 in esophageal NK cells, and MLLT1 down-regulation undermined the tumoricidal function of NK cells in EC. Our study unveils a novel mechanism underlying NK cell exhaustion/dysfunction in the EC microenvironment. MLLT1 could be a potential target in future NK cell-mediated immunotherapy against EC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2022.152238DOI Listing
July 2022

Arthroscopic reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligaments with allograft: single-tunnel single-bundle versus single-tunnel double-bundle techniques.

J Orthop Traumatol 2022 Jun 27;23(1):26. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Sports Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen Second People's Hospital, Shenzhen, 518035, Guangdong, China.

Purpose: To compare the clinical results of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using the single-tunnel single-bundle (STSB) technique versus the single-tunnel double-bundle (STDB) technique.

Methods: This was a retrospective, single-center, single-surgeon study based on data collected from March 2012 to June 2013. According to our inclusion/exclusion criteria, a total of 78 patients (64 males, 14 females; mean age, 25.1 years) who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with anterior tibialis tendon allografts through either the STSB technique (36 cases) or the STDB technique (42 cases) in our department were recruited. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Lysholm, and Tegner scores were used to evaluate the subjective function of the knee joint during the postoperative follow-up. The Lachman test and pivot shift test were used to objectively assess the stability of the knee.

Results: The average follow-up duration was 24.9 ± 1.8 months in the STSB group and 24.6 ± 1.7 months in the STDB group (P > 0.05). Patients in both groups recovered to the preoperative sports level with few complications. The postoperative Lysholm score (86.1 ± 7.5 vs. 47.7 ± 9.0 in the STSB group; 87.0 ± 7.1 vs. 48.2 ± 8.3 in the STDB group), IKDC score (87.8 ± 7.2 vs. 49.3 ± 6.1 in the STSB group; 88.7 ± 6.6 vs. 49.8 ± 6.3 in the STDB group), Tegner score (6.5 ± 1.3 vs. 2.5 ± 1.3 in the STSB group; 6.6 ± 1.2 vs. 2.6 ± 1.2 in the STDB group), Lachman test positive rate (8.3% vs. 89.9% in the STSB group; 7.1% vs. 85.7% in the STDB group), and pivot shift test positive rate (27.8% vs. 63.9% in the STSB group; 7.1% vs. 69.0% in the STDB group) were significantly improved compared to the preoperative status in both groups (P < 0.05). However, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups at the final follow-up (P > 0.05), except for the pivot shift test positive rate in the STDB group versus the STSB group (7.1% vs. 27.8%, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: The STDB technique achieved a satisfactory clinical outcome with better rotational stability compared to the traditional STSB technique and therefore provided an effective option for ACL reconstruction.

Level Of Evidence: Case series, Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10195-022-00649-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9237191PMC
June 2022

Sex Differences in Hypercortisolism and Glucose-Metabolism Disturbances in Patients with Mild Autonomous Cortisol Secretion: Findings From a Single Center in China.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 9;13:857947. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Endocrinology, the First Medical Center of Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background And Objective: Mild autonomous cortisol secretion (MACS) presents with a marked female preponderance, but whether the sex difference in its distribution has any relevance to the presentation and outcome of the disease is unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to compare biochemical indices of hypercortisolism and impaired glucose metabolism between male and female patients with MACS.

Method: We enrolled a total of 98 patients with autonomous/possible autonomous cortisol secretion in our study, and indices of hypercortisolism and glucose metabolism were collected and compared between the male and female patients. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between sex and cortisol-secretory ability, as well as between the latter and glucose metabolism. In addition, we conducted further stratified analyses according to the degree of autonomous cortisol secretion and menopausal status.

Results: Cortisol levels at 00:00 and 08:00 h after a 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and low-dose DST were significantly higher in female than in male MACS patients, and the inhibition rate of 1-mg DST was lower in the women than in the men. This significant difference still remained after adjusting for age, BMI, and the course of the disease. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between autonomous cortisol secretion and fasting C-peptide, as well as with the C-peptide-to-glucose ratio in females relative to male patients. In addition, stratified analyses indicated that this association was observed only among women with autonomous cortisol secretion and who were premenopausal.

Conclusion: The level of autonomic cortisol secretion in female patients with MACS was higher than in male patients, and the association between autonomous cortisol secretory ability and glucose homeostasis was only noted in patients with autonomous cortisol secretion and in premenopausal women. This phenomenon will, however, require closer follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.857947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9218075PMC
June 2022

Identification and Validation of Necroptosis-Related LncRNA Signature in Hepatocellular Carcinoma for Prognosis Estimation and Microenvironment Status.

Front Genet 2022 8;13:898507. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Cancer Research Center Nantong, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among malignancies with the highest fatality toll globally and minimal therapeutic options. Necroptosis is a programmed form of necrosis or inflammatory cell death, which can affect prognosis and microenvironmental status of HCC. Therefore, we aimed to explore the prognostic value of necroptosis-related lncRNAs (NRLs) in HCC and the role of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in immunotherapy. The RNA-sequencing data and clinical information were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC). NRLs were identified by Pearson correlation analysis. The signature was constructed using the LASSO-Cox regression analysis and evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and the area under the Kaplan-Meier curve. The nomogram was built based on clinical information and risk score. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), immunoassay, half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC) analysis of the risk group, and the HCC subtype identification based on NRLs were also carried out. Finally, we detected the expression of lncRNAs in HCC tissues and cell lines . A total of 508 NRLs were screened out, and seven NRLs were constructed as a risk stratification system to classify patients into distinct low- and high-risk groups. Patients in the high-risk group had a significantly lower overall survival (OS) than those in the low-risk group. Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, we found that the risk score was an independent predictor of OS. Functional analysis showed that the immune status of different patients was different. The IC analysis of chemotherapy demonstrated that patients in the high-risk group were more sensitive to commonly prescribed drugs. qRT-PCR showed that three high-risk lncRNAs were upregulated in drug-resistant cells, and the expression in HCC tissues was higher than that in adjacent tissues. The prediction signature developed in this study can be used to assess the prognosis and microenvironment of HCC patients, and serve as a new benchmark for HCC treatment selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.898507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9214229PMC
June 2022

Comparative Transcriptomics and Metabolites Analysis of Two Closely Related Species Reveal Environmental Adaptation Mechanism and Active Ingredients Difference.

Front Plant Sci 2022 31;13:905275. Epub 2022 May 31.

State Key Laboratory of Dao-di Herbs, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Roots of and are recorded as the source plant of traditional Chinese medicine "Langdu," containing active ingredients with anticancer and anti-AIDS activity. However, the two species have specific patterns in the graphic distribution. Compared with distributes in higher latitude and lower temperature areas and might have experienced cold stress adaptation. To reveal the molecular mechanism of environmental adaptation, RNA-seq was performed toward the roots, stems, and leaves of and . A total of 6,830 pairs of putative orthologs between the two species were identified. Estimations of non-synonymous or synonymous substitution rate ratios for these orthologs indicated that 533 of the pairs may be under positive selection (Ka/Ks > 0.5). Functional enrichment analysis revealed that significant proportions of the orthologs were in the TCA cycle, fructose and mannose metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, and terpenoid biosynthesis providing insights into how the two closely related species adapted differentially to extreme environments. Consistent with the transcriptome, a higher content of soluble sugars and proline was obtained in , reflecting the adaptation of plants to different environments. Additionally, 5 primary or secondary metabolites were screened as the biomarkers to distinguish the two species. Determination of 4 diterpenoids was established and performed, showing jolkinolide B as a representative component in , whereas ingenol endemic to . To better study population genetics, EST-SSR markers were generated and tested in 9 species of . A total of 33 of the 68 pairs were screened out for producing clear fragments in at least four species, which will furthermore facilitate the studies on the genetic improvement and phylogenetics of this rapidly adapting taxon. In this study, transcriptome and metabolome analyses revealed the evolution of genes related to cold stress tolerance, biosynthesis of TCA cycle, soluble sugars, fatty acids, and amino acids, consistent with the molecular strategy that genotypes adapting to environment. The key active ingredients of the two species were quantitatively analyzed to reveal the difference in pharmacodynamic substance basis and molecular mechanism, providing insights into rational crude drug use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.905275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9194899PMC
May 2022

Clinical features and prognosis of COVID-19 patients with metabolic syndrome: A multicenter, retrospective study.

Med Clin (Engl Ed) 2022 May 9;158(10):458-465. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

Background: Few studies have investigated the impacts of metabolic syndrome (MS) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We described the clinical features and prognosis of confirmed COVID-19 patients with MS during hospitalization and after discharge.

Methods: Two hundred and thirty-three COVID-19 patients from the hospitals in 8 cities of Jiangsu, China were retrospectively included. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients were described and risk factors of severe illness were analyzed by logistic regression analysis.

Results: Forty-five (19.3%) of 233 COVID-19 patients had MS. The median age of COVID-19 patients with MS was significantly higher than non-MS patients (53.0 years vs. 46.0 years,  = 0.004). There were no significant differences of clinical symptoms, abnormal chest CT images, and treatment drugs between two groups. More patients with MS had severe illness (33.3% vs. 6.4%,  < 0.001) and critical illness (4.4% vs. 0.5%,  = 0.037) than non-MS patients. The proportions of respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome in MS patients were also higher than non-MS patients during hospitalization. Multivariate analysis showed that concurrent MS (odds ratio [OR] 7.668, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.062-19.201,  < 0.001) and lymphopenia (OR 3.315, 95% CI 1.306-8.411,  = 0.012) were independent risk factors of severe illness of COVID-19. At a median follow-up of 28 days after discharge, bilateral pneumonia was found in 95.2% of MS patients, while only 54.7% of non-MS patients presented bilateral pneumonia.

Conclusions: 19.3% of COVID-19 patients had MS in our study. COVID-19 patients with MS are more likely to develop severe complications and have worse prognosis. More attention should be paid to COVID-19 patients with MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcle.2021.05.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9181760PMC
May 2022

Mobile cabin hospital compulsory quarantine for mild patients can serve as an alternative treatment for COVID-19: the Chinese experience.

Am J Transl Res 2022 15;14(5):3132-3142. Epub 2022 May 15.

Department of Emergency Center, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Shengli Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University Fuzhou, Fujian, China.

Objective: To explore the application value of mobile cabin hospitals in combating COVID-19 outbreak.

Methods: The basic clinical data, the number of admission, CT scan, novel coronavirus nucleic acid testing results were collected and calculated. The operational elements of running this temporary hospital were reviewed from its construction to closing.

Results: Wuhan Hanyang Mobile Cabin Hospital was transformed from Hall B1 of Wuhan International Expo Center. With a total of 930 beds in this temporary hospital, 1,028 patients were admitted, among them, 598 patients were cured, and 430 patients were transferred to designated hospitals in the special period. Totally, 1,206 mobile CT scan were conducted. 2,295 novel coronavirus nucleic acid tests were performed, among which, 1,032 tests showed two continuous negative results, 924 tests with one negative, while 302 tests with positive result (13.16%). No nosocomial infection of working staff was found due to the conduction of multiple measures. The patients' livelihoods were well safeguarded in mobile cabin hospitals.

Conclusion: The mobile cabin hospital compulsory quarantine for mild patients can serve as an alternative method to combat COVID-19.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9185049PMC
May 2022
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