Publications by authors named "Kan Zhang"

222 Publications

Chemical constituents from the rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. and their Nrf2 inducing activity.

Chem Biodivers 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Shandong University Cheeloo College of Medicine, pharmacy, West Wenhua Road 44, 250012, jinan, CHINA.

The rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. has been widely used for the therapy of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The nuclear transcription factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is a potential target for treating DN. The purpose of this research was to study the chemical constituents from the rhizome of L. chuanxiong, evaluate their Nrf2 inducing activity, and find the molecules with potential therapeutic effect against DN. In this study, two new phthalides (1-2) along with twenty-seven known constituents were obtained from the rhizome of L. chuanxiong. Their structures were elucidated through various spectroscopic methods. Twelve constituents, including eight phthalides (2, 5, 6, 10-13, 14) and four other compounds (17, 18, 20, 28), stimulated NAD(P)H: quinone reductase (QR) activity, suggesting that these bioactive constituents were potential Nrf2 activators. Among the isolated compounds, phthalide levistolide A (LA, 14) upregulated the protein levels of Nrf2, NQO1, and γ-GCS in a dose-dependent manner. Our results implied that the clinical application of the rhizome of L. chuanxiong as an anti-DN drug in TCM might be attributed to the Nrf2 inducing effect of phthalides. Thus, phthalides is a group of promising leading molecules for discovering anti-DN agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202100302DOI Listing
August 2021

The item network and domain network of burnout in Chinese nurses.

BMC Nurs 2021 Aug 17;20(1):147. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

College of Teachers, Chengdu University, Chengdu, 610106, China.

Background: As a common social phenomenon, nurses' occupational burnout has a high incidence rate, which seriously affects their mental health and nursing level. The current assessment mostly uses the total score model and explores the influence of external factors on burnout, while the correlation between burnout items or dimensions is less explored. Ignoring the correlation between the items or dimensions may result in a limited understanding of nurse occupational burnout. This paper explores the item and dimension network structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) in Chinese nurses, so as to gain a deeper understanding of this psychological construct and identify potential targets for clinical intervention.

Methods: A total of 493 Chinese nurses were recruited by cluster sampling. All participants were invited to complete the survey on symptoms of burnout. Network analysis was used to investigate the item network of MBI-GS. In addition, community detection was used to explore the communities of MBI-GS, and then network analysis was used to investigate the dimension network of MBI-GS based on the results of community detection. Regularized partial correlation and non-regularized partial correlation were used to describe the association between different nodes of the item network and dimension network, respectively. Expected influence and predictability were used to describe the relative importance and the controllability of nodes in both the item and dimension networks.

Results: In the item network, most of the strongly correlated edges were in the same dimension of emotional exhaustion (E), cynicism (C) and reduced professional efficacy (R), respectively. E5 (Item 5 of emotional exhaustion, the same below) "I feel burned out from my work", C1 "I have become more callous toward work since I took this job", and R3 "In my opinion, I am good at my job" had the highest expected influence (z-scores = 0.99, 0.81 and 0.94, respectively), indicating theirs highest importance in the network. E1 "I feel emotionally drained from my work" and E5 had the highest predictability (E1 = 0.74, E5 = 0.74). It shows that these two nodes can be interpreted by their internal neighbors to the greatest extent and have the highest controllability in the network. The spinglass algorithm and walktrap algorithm obtained exactly the same three communities, which are consistent with the original dimensions of MBI-GS. In the dimension network, the emotional exhaustion dimension was closely related to the cynicism dimension (weight = 0.65).

Conclusions: The network model is a useful tool to study burnout in Chinese nurses. This study explores the item and domain network structure of nurse burnout from the network perspective. By calculating the relevant indicators, we found that E5, C1, and R3 were the most central nodes in the item network and cynicism was the central node in the domain network, suggesting that interventions aimed at E5, C1, R3 and cynicism might decrease the overall burnout level of Chinese nurses to the greatest extent. This study provides potential targets and a new way of thinking for the intervention of nurse burnout, which can be explored and verified in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12912-021-00670-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369754PMC
August 2021

The Pepper Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase CaMAPK7 Acts as a Positive Regulator in Response to Infection.

Front Microbiol 2021 6;12:664926. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Genetics, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways play a vital role in multiple plant processes, including growth, development, and stress signaling, but their involvement in response to is poorly understood, particularly in pepper plants. Herein, was identified from the pepper genome and functionally analyzed. The accumulations of transcripts and promoter activities were both significantly induced in response to strain FJC100301 infection, and exogenously applied phytohormones, including methyl jasmonate (MeJA), brassinolide (BR), salicylic acid (SA), and ethephon (ETN), were decreased by abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of significantly enhanced the susceptibility of pepper plants to infection by and downregulated the defense-related marker genes, including , , , and . In contrast, the ectopic overexpression of in transgenic tobacco enhanced resistance to and upregulated the defense-associated marker genes, including , , , , , , and . Furthermore, transient overexpression of in pepper leaves triggered intensive hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death, HO accumulation, and enriched CaWRKY40 at the promoters of its target genes and drove their transcript accumulations, including , , and . Taken together, these data indicate that infection induced the expression of , which indirectly modifies the binding of CaWRKY40 to its downstream targets, including , , and , ultimately leading to the activation of pepper immunity against . The protein that responds to CaMAPK7 in pepper plants should be isolated in the future to build a signaling bridge between CaMAPK7 and CaWRKY40.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.664926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290481PMC
July 2021

Experiment investigation on pulsed gamma-ray fluence rate effect on Yb-doped yttrium aluminum garnet scintillator.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Jun;92(6):063304

State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024, China.

As an ultrafast inorganic scintillator, Yb-doped YAlO [yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG)] crystals have potential applications in various fields, such as ultrafast radiation detection, solar neutrino detection, pulsed radiation imaging, and nuclear reaction kinetics diagnosis. In this work, the fluence rate effect of pulsed γ rays on the Yb:YAG scintillation crystal was investigated at the "QiangGuang-I" facility. The experiment results show that the fluence rate linear response upper limit of the Yb:YAG crystal is about 9.1 × 10 MeV cm s. The Yb:YAG crystal changed from colorless to yellow, and the relative light output decreased to 63% of its initial value after the irradiations, which were attributed to the radiation induced damage. It is deduced that oxygen vacancies and divalent Yb cations were generated after the irradiations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0047026DOI Listing
June 2021

Solution-focused brief therapy for adolescent and young adult cancer patients in China: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

J Psychosoc Oncol 2021 Jul 7:1-18. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Objective: This pilot clinical trial investigated solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) for psychological distress among adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer in China.

Methods: Fifty Chinese AYA patients diagnosed with cancer were randomized into the treatment group (SFBT) and control group (active control). Psychological distress was measured by the brief symptom inventory and hope was measured by the Herth-Hope-Index. Treatment effects were analyzed using analysis-of-covariance and between-group small-sample-size corrected Hedges' .

Results: The results indicated that SFBT resulted in a significant reduction in the psychological distress and improvement in hope of AYA patients with cancer. Analyses of the 4-week posttreatment score suggest the short-term sustainability of SFBT for psychological distress among AYAs diagnosed with cancer.

Conclusions And Implications: This study has demonstrated that SFBT's impact is statistically significant and clinically meaningful. The inclusion of positive emotions, i.e., hope, as part of the investigation also highlighted the significance of promoting positive emotions among AYA patients with cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07347332.2021.1931627DOI Listing
July 2021

Epithelial miR-206 targets CD39/extracellular ATP to upregulate airway IL-25 and TSLP in type 2-high asthma.

JCI Insight 2021 Jun 8;6(11). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The epithelial cell-derived cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) initiate type 2 inflammation in allergic diseases, including asthma. However, the signaling pathway regulating these cytokines expression remains elusive. Since microRNAs are pivotal regulators of gene expression, we profiled microRNA expression in bronchial epithelial brushings from type 2-low and type 2-high asthma patients. miR-206 was the most highly expressed epithelial microRNA in type 2-high asthma relative to type 2-low asthma but was downregulated in both subsets compared with healthy controls. CD39, an ectonucleotidase degrading ATP, was a target of miR-206 and upregulated in asthma. Allergen-induced acute extracellular ATP accumulation led to miR-206 downregulation and CD39 upregulation in human bronchial epithelial cells, forming a feedback loop to eliminate excessive ATP. Airway ATP levels were markedly elevated and strongly correlated with IL-25 and TSLP expression in asthma patients. Intriguingly, airway miR-206 antagonism increased Cd39 expression; reduced ATP accumulation; suppressed IL-25, IL-33, and Tslp expression and group 2 innate lymphoid cell expansion; and alleviated type 2 inflammation in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. In contrast, airway miR-206 overexpression had opposite effects. Overall, epithelial miR-206 upregulates airway IL-25 and TSLP expression by targeting the CD39-extracellular ATP axis, which represents a potentially novel therapeutic target in type 2-high asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.148103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8262281PMC
June 2021

Recent Progress of High Performance Thermosets Based on Norbornene Functional Benzoxazine Resins.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Research School of Polymeric Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China.

With the growing demand for high performance polymeric materials in industry, several types of thermosets such as bismaleimides, advanced epoxy resins, cyanate esters, and phenolic resins have been widely investigated to improve the performance of thermosetting products. Among them, benzoxazine resins have received wide attention due to their extraordinarily rich molecular design flexibility, which can customize our needs and adapt increasing requirements. To further improve the properties of polybenzoxiazines, researchers have found that the introduction of a norbornene functional group into the benzoxazine moiety can effectively improve the comprehensive performance of polybenzoxazine thermosets. This article focused on reviewing the recent development of high-performance thermosets based on norbornene functional benzoxazine thermosetting resins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13091417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124165PMC
April 2021

Emerging technologies for conversion of sustainable algal biomass into value-added products: A state-of-the-art review.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 20;784:147024. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biology, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong, China; Institute of Marine Sciences, Shantou University, Shantou, Guangdong 515063, China. Electronic address:

Concerns regarding high energy demand and gradual depletion of fossil fuels have attracted the desire of seeking renewable and sustainable alternatives. Similar to but better than the first- and second-generation biomass, algae derived third-generation biorefinery aims to generate value-added products by microbial cell factories and has a great potential due to its abundant, carbohydrate-rich and lignin-lacking properties. However, it is crucial to establish an efficient process with higher competitiveness over the current petroleum industry to effectively utilize algal resources. In this review, we summarize the recent technological advances in maximizing the bioavailability of different algal resources. Following an overview of approaches to enhancing the hydrolytic efficiency, we review prominent opportunities involved in microbial conversion into various value-added products including alcohols, organic acids, biogas and other potential industrial products, and also provide key challenges and trends for future insights into developing biorefineries of marine biomass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147024DOI Listing
August 2021

Chemical Adsorption Strategy for DMC-MeOH Mixture Separation.

Molecules 2021 Mar 19;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001, China.

The effective separation of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from its methanol mixture through simple, inexpensive and low energy-input method is a promising and challenging field in the process of organic synthesis. Herein, a reversible adsorption strategy through the assistance of superbase and CO for DMC/methanol separation at ambient condition was described. The process was demonstrated effectively via the excellent CO adsorption efficiency. Notably, the protocol was also suitable to other alcohol (i.e., monohydric alcohol, dihydric alcohol, trihydric alcohol) mixtures. The study provided guidance for potential separation of DMC/alcohol mixture in the scale-up production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003759PMC
March 2021

Suppressing Water Dissociation via Control of Intrinsic Oxygen Defects for Awakening Solar H O-to-H O Generation.

Small 2021 Apr 9;17(13):e2100400. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

MIIT Key Laboratory of Advanced Display Material and Devices, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, P. R. China.

BiVO theoretically has a thermodynamic activity trend toward highly selective water oxidative H O formation, but it is more inclined to generate O in practical. The influence of intrinsic oxygen vacancy (O ), especially, on surface reactivity, has never been considered as a possible activity loss mechanism in the synthetic BiVO . In this work, it is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated that the intrinsic surface O is responsible for lower H O evolution activity via promoting water dissociation to form intermediate. Through an annealing process under a V O rich atmosphere, the surface O can be eliminated that awakens the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidative H O activity in a NaHCO electrolyte, which achieves an average of 58.4%, and increases by up to 4.28 times of the one annealed in air. This work offers a general understanding of catalytic activity loss and may be extended to other photo or electrocatalysts for catalytic selectivity regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202100400DOI Listing
April 2021

Efficient Combination of G-C N and CDs for Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance: A Review of Synthesis, Strategies, and Applications.

Small 2021 Mar 8:e2007523. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Green Catalysis Center, College of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, P. R. China.

Recently, heterogeneous photocatalysts have achieved much interest on account of their great potential applications in resolving many tough energy and environmental troubles around the world through an ecologically sustainable way. Heterogeneous nanocomposites composed of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C N ) and carbon dots (CDs) possess broad spectrum absorption, appropriate electronic band structures, rapid carrier mobility, abundant reserves, excellent chemical stability, and facile synthesis methods, which make them promising composite photocatalysts for suitable applications such as photocatalytic solar fuels production and contaminant decomposition. With the rapid development in photocatalysis by hybridization of g-C N and CDs, a systematic summary and prospection of performance improvement are urgent and meaningful. This review first focuses on various kinds of effectively synthetic methods of composites. Following, the strategies available for enhanced performance, including morphology optimization, spectral absorption improvement, ternary or quaternary composition hybrid, lateral or vertical heterostructures construction, heteroatom doping, and so forth, are fully discussed. Then, the applications mainly in efficient photocatalytic hydrogen generation, photocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction, and organic pollutants degradation are systematically demonstrated. Finally, the remaining issues and prospect of further development are proposed as some kind of guidance for powerful combination of g-C N and CDs with high efficiency to photocatalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202007523DOI Listing
March 2021

Integrin-dependent microgliosis mediates ketamine-induced neuronal apoptosis during postnatal rat retinal development.

Exp Neurol 2021 Jun 26;340:113659. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200127, China; Center for Brain Science, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays a pivotal role for microglia in developing retina. We tested whether integrin-dependent microgliosis mediates ketamine-induced neuronal apoptosis in the developing rat retina.

Methods: We performed immunofluorescence assays to investigate the role of integrin receptors expressed in the microglia in ketamine-induced neuronal apoptosis. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to investigate the protein and mRNA levels of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) and/or chemokines (CCL2, CXCL6, CXCL10, and CXCL12). Experiments were performed using whole-mount retinas dissected from P7 Sprague-Dawley rats.

Results: Integrin receptors expressed in microglia were upregulated in ketamine-induced neuronal apoptosis in the early developing rat retina. Downregulating integrin receptors with RGD peptide ameliorated ketamine-induced microgliosis through: 1) ameliorating the change in microglia morphology from immature ramified microglia to an amoeboid state; 2) decreasing the number of microglia and intensity of activated microglia in the retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL); and 3) decreasing cytokine (TNF-α and IL-1β) and chemokine (CCL2, CXCL10) levels in the retinal tissue. Inhibition of activated microglia with minocycline or the blockade of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) with a receptor antagonist (RA) attenuated neuronal apoptosis after exposure to ketamine.

Conclusions: The upregulation of integrin β1 receptors in the microglia acts as a signaling molecule, triggering microgliosis to aggravate ketamine-induced neuronal apoptosis via the release of TNF-α and IL-1β in the early developing rat retina.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2021.113659DOI Listing
June 2021

Correction to: Homology analysis between clinically isolated extraintestinal and enteral Klebsiella pneumoniae among neonates.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Feb 2;21(1):37. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 139 Renmin Road, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-021-02100-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7852220PMC
February 2021

An auditory hand-proximity effect: The auditory Simon effect is enhanced near the hands.

Psychon Bull Rev 2021 Jun 19;28(3):853-861. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 Lincui Road, Beijing, 100101, China.

Visual processing near the hands is altered compared with stimuli far from the hands. Here, we aimed to test whether this alteration can be found in auditory processing. Participants were required to perform an auditory Simon task either with their hands close to the loudspeakers or far from the loudspeakers. Two experiments consistently showed that the auditory Simon effect was enhanced when the hands were close to the speakers compared with far from the speakers. This is consistent with previous findings of an enhanced visual Simon effect near the hands. Furthermore, the hand-proximity effects in auditory and visual Simon tasks (an enhanced Simon effect near hands compared with far from hands) were comparable, indicating hand-proximity effect is reliable across visual and auditory modalities. Thus, the present study extended the hand-proximity effect from vision to audition by showing that the auditory Simon effect was enhanced near the hands compared with far from the hands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13423-020-01860-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Electrochemical Oxidative Cross-Coupling of Enaminones and Thiophenols to Construct C-S Bonds.

Chem Asian J 2020 Dec 26;15(23):4005-4008. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi Normal, University, Nanchang, 330022, Jiangxi, P. R.China.

An electrochemical oxidative C(sp)-H sulfuration has been developed. Various enaminones and thiophenols were compatible, generating the desired alkenyl sulfur compounds in up to 87 % yield. This transformation proceeded smoothly under mild reaction conditions without external oxidant and transition-metal catalyst. Remarkably, thiophenols selectively coupled with enamines when substrates had other alkenyl groups. In addition, the desired products could be further transformed into a series of α-sulfur isoxazoles, which are a kind of useful heterocycles in materials and bioactive molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202001116DOI Listing
December 2020

Homology analysis between clinically isolated extraintestinal and enteral Klebsiella pneumoniae among neonates.

BMC Microbiol 2021 01 11;21(1):25. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 139 Renmin Road, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China.

Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a leading cause of hospital-associated (HA) infections. It has been reported that gastrointestinal colonization (GI) is likely to be a common and significant reservoir for the transmission and infections of K. pneumoniae in both adults and neonates. However, the homologous relationship between clinically isolated extraintestinal and enteral K. pneumoniae in neonates hasn't been characterized yet.

Results: Forty-three isolates from 21 neonatal patients were collected in this study. The proportion of carbapenem resistance was 62.8%. There were 12 patients (12/21, 57.4%) whose antibiotic resistance phenotypes, genotypes, and ST types (STs) were concordant. Six sequence types were detected using MLST, with ST37 and ST54 being the dominant types. The results of MLST were consist with the results of PFGE.

Conclusions: These data showed that there might be a close homologous relationship between extraintestinal K. pneumoniae (EXKP) and enteral K. pneumoniae (EKP) in neonates, indicating that the K. pneumoniae from the GI tract is possibly to be a significant reservoir for causing extraintestinal infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-020-02073-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802202PMC
January 2021

Aggregation of Vascular Risk Factors Modulates the Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuation in Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 21;12:604246. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Several vascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, and smoking status are found to be associated with cognitive decline and the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to investigate whether an aggregation of vascular risk factors modulates the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Forty-three MCI patients and twenty-nine healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional MRI scans, and spontaneous brain activity was measured by the ALFF technique. The vascular risk profile was represented with the Framingham Heart Study general cardiovascular disease (FHS-CVD) risk score, and each group was further divided into high and low risk subgroups. Two-way ANOVA was performed to explore the main effects of diagnosis and vascular risk and their interaction on ALFF. The main effect of diagnosis on ALFF was found in left middle temporal gyrus (LMTG) and left superior parietal gyrus (LSPG), and the main effect of risk on ALFF was detected in left fusiform gyrus (LFFG), left precuneus (LPCUN), and left cerebellum posterior lobe (LCPL). Patients with MCI exhibited increased ALFF in the LMTG and LSPG than HCs, and participants with high vascular risk showed increased ALFF in the LFFG and LCPL, while decreased ALFF in the LPCUN. An interaction between diagnosis (MCI vs. HC) and FHS-CVD risk (high vs. low) regarding ALFF was observed in the left hippocampus (LHIP). HCs with high vascular risk showed significantly increased ALFF in the LHIP than those with low vascular risk, while MCI patients with high vascular risk showed decreased ALFF in the LHIP than HCs with high vascular risk. Interestingly, the mean ALFF of LHIP positively correlated with word recall test in HCs with high vascular risk (rho = 0.630, = 0.016), while negatively correlated with the same test in MCI patients with high vascular risk (rho = -0.607, = 0.001). This study provides preliminary evidence highlighting that the aggregation of vascular risk factors modulates the spontaneous brain activity in MCI patients, and this may serve as a potential imaging mechanism underlying vascular contribution to AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.604246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7779477PMC
December 2020

Medical Education Reform in China: The Shanghai Medical Training Model.

J Grad Med Educ 2020 Dec 18;12(6):655-660. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Former Dean, The Alpert Medical School, Brown University.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4300/JGME-D-20-00069.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7771606PMC
December 2020

Foundation and Clinical Evaluation of a New Method for Detecting SARS-CoV-2 Antigen by Fluorescent Microsphere Immunochromatography.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 30;10:553837. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Translational Medicine Research Center, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of Biomedical Engineering and Translational Medicine, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To develop a rapid detection reagent for SARS-CoV-2 antigen for the auxiliary diagnosis of new coronary pneumonia (COVID-19), and perform the methodological evaluation and clinical evaluation of the reagent.

Method: SARS-CoV-2 N-protein test strip was created by combining fluorescent microsphere labeling technology and immunochromatographic technology, based on the principle of double antibody sandwich. Then we evaluated the analytical capability and clinical application of the strips.

Result: The limit of detection of the strips for recombinant N protein was 100 ng/ml and for activated SARS -CoV-2 virus was 1 × 10 TCID/ml. The strips also have high analytical specificity and anti-interference capability. According to the predetermined cut-off value, the specificity of the test strip in healthy controls and patients with other respiratory disease was 100.00 and 97.29%, the sensitivity in COVID-19 cases at progress stage and cured stage was 67.15 and 7.02%. The positive percentage agreement and negative percentage agreement of antigen strip to RNA test were 83.16 and 94.45%.

Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 fluorescence immunochromatographic test strip can achieve fast, sensitive and accurate detection, which can meet the clinical requirements for rapid detection of viruses on the spot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.553837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734310PMC
December 2020

Design of High-Performance Polybenzoxazines with Tunable Extended Networks Based on Resveratrol and Allyl Functional Benzoxazine.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Nov 26;12(12). Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK.

A novel resveratrol-based bio-benzoxazine monomer (RES-al) containing an allyl group has been synthesized using resveratrol, allylamine, and paraformaldehyde via Mannich condensation reaction, and its chemical structures have been characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and NMR techniques. The polymerization behavior of this benzoxazine resin has been investigated using in situ FT-IR and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements, and the thermal-mechanical properties of its corresponding polybenzoxazines are evaluated by DMA and TGA. We show that by controlling the curing process of the oxazine ring, the C=C bond in resveratrol, and the allyl group in RES-al, the cross-linking network of the polybenzoxazine can be manipulated, giving rise to tunable performance of thermosets. As all curable functionalities in RES-al are polymerized, the resulted polybenzoxazine exhibits a good thermal stability with a temperature of 313 °C, a T value of 352 °C, and char yield of 53% at 800 °C under N.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12122794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761256PMC
November 2020

Exploiting Ru-Induced Lattice Strain in CoRu Nanoalloys for Robust Bifunctional Hydrogen Production.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Feb 8;60(6):3290-3298. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Green Catalysis Center, and College of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450000, China.

Designing bifunctional catalysts capable of driving the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and also H evolution via the hydrolysis of hydrogen storage materials such as ammonia borane (AB) is of considerable practical importance for future hydrogen economies. Herein, we systematically examined the effect of tensile lattice strain in CoRu nanoalloys supported on carbon quantum dots (CoRu/CQDs) on hydrogen generation by HER and AB hydrolysis. By varying the Ru content, the lattice parameters and Ru-induced lattice strain in the CoRu nanoalloys could be tuned. The CoRu /CQDs catalyst with an ultra-low Ru content (1.33 wt.%) exhibited excellent catalytic activity for HER (η=18 mV at 10 mA cm in 1 M KOH) and extraordinary activity for the hydrolysis of AB with a turnover frequency of 3255.4 mol  mol  min or 814.7 mol  mol  min at 298 K, respectively, representing one of the best activities yet reported for AB hydrolysis over a ruthenium alloy catalyst. Moreover, the CoRu /CQDs catalyst displayed excellent stability during each reaction, including seven alternating cycles of HER and AB hydrolysis. Theoretical calculations revealed that the remarkable catalytic performance of CoRu /CQDs resulted from the optimal alloy electronic structure realized by incorporating small amounts of Ru, which enabled fast interfacial electron transfer to intermediates, thus benefitting H evolution kinetics. Results support the development of new and improved catalysts HER and AB hydrolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202013985DOI Listing
February 2021

Neither Preoperative Pulse Pressure nor Systolic Blood Pressure Is Associated With Cardiac Complications After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

Anesth Analg 2020 11;131(5):1491-1499

Department of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia and Outcomes Research, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Increased pulse pressure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular events, cardiac and all-cause mortality in surgical and nonsurgical patients. Whether increased pulse pressure worsens myocardial injury and dysfunction after cardiac surgery, however, has not been fully characterized. We examined whether cardiac surgical patients with elevated pulse pressure are more susceptible to myocardial injury, dysfunction, cardiac-related complications, and mortality. Secondarily, we examined whether pulse pressure was a stronger predictor of the outcomes than systolic blood pressure.

Methods: This retrospective observational study included adult cardiac surgical patients having elective isolated on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) between 2010 and 2017 at the Cleveland Clinic. The association between elevated pulse pressure and (1) perioperative myocardial injury, measured by postoperative troponin-T concentrations, (2) perioperative myocardial dysfunction, assessed by the requirement for perioperative inotropic support using the modified inotropic score (MIS), and (3) cardiovascular complications assessed by the composite outcome of postoperative mechanical circulatory assistance or in-hospital mortality were assessed using multivariable linear regression models. Secondarily, the association between pulse pressure versus systolic blood pressure and the outcomes were compared.

Results: Of 2704 patients who met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, complete data were available for 2003 patients. Increased pulse pressure over 40 mm Hg was associated with elevated postoperative troponin-T level, estimated to be 1.05 (97.5% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.09; P < .001) times higher per 10 mm Hg increase in pulse pressure. The association between pulse pressure and myocardial dysfunction and the composite outcome of cardiovascular complications and death were not significant. There was no difference in the association with pulse pressure versus systolic blood pressure and troponin-T concentrations.

Conclusions: Elevated preoperative pulse pressure was associated with a modest increase in postoperative troponin-T concentrations, but not postoperative cardiovascular complications or in-hospital mortality in patients having CABG. Pulse pressure was not a better predictor than systolic blood pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000005124DOI Listing
November 2020

Energy Manipulation in Lanthanide-Doped Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Tunable Dual-Mode Luminescence toward Advanced Anti-Counterfeiting.

Adv Mater 2020 Nov 1;32(45):e2002121. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

MIIT Key Laboratory of Advanced Display Materials and Devices, Institute of Optoelectronics & Nanomaterials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, China.

Developing advanced luminescent materials and techniques is of significant importance for anti-counterfeiting applications, and remains a huge challenge. In this work, a new and efficient approach for achieving efficient dual-mode luminescence with tunable color outputs via Gd -mediated interfacial energy transfer, Ce -assisted cross-relaxation, and core-shell nanostructuring strategy is reported. The introduction of Ce into the inner core not only serves the regulation of upconversion emission, but also facilitates the ultraviolet photon harvesting and subsequent energy transfer to downshifting (DS) activators in the outer shell layer. Furthermore, the construction of the [email protected] nanoarchitecture enables the spatial separation of upconverting activators and DS centers, which greatly suppresses their adverse cross-relaxation processes. Consequently, efficient and multicolor-tunable dual-mode emissions can be simultaneously observed in the pre-designed NaGdF :Yb/Ho/[email protected] :X (X = Eu, Tb, Sm, Dy) core-shell nanostructures under 254 nm ultraviolet light and 980 nm laser excitation. The proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates that 2D-encoded patterns based on dual-mode emitting nanomaterials are very promising for anti-counterfeiting applications. It is believed that this preliminary study will advance the development of the fluorescent materials for potential applications in anti-counterfeiting and optical multiplexing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202002121DOI Listing
November 2020

Enhancing photoelectrochemical performance of the BiMoO photoanode by ferroelectric polarization regulation.

Nanoscale 2020 Sep 2;12(35):18446-18454. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, P. R. China.

Photoelectrochemical water splitting provides a promising strategy for converting solar energy into chemical fuels and has attracted extensive interest. Herein, BiMoO nanopillars with large surface areas were fabricated on an ITO-coated glass substrate and their photoelectrochemical properties are enhanced through appropriate manipulation of ferroelectric polarization. The BiMoO photoanode with polarization orientation toward ITO shows an enhanced photocurrent density of 250 μA cm at 1.23 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode, which is 28% higher than that of pristine BiMoO nanopillars without macroscopic polarization. The corresponding depolarization electric field benefits the separation of light-excited electron-hole pairs, thus minimizing the recombination of charge carriers and further enhancing the photocurrent current density. Our work offers a new strategy of BiMoO-based photoelectrochemical devices with great potential of application in the conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr02809fDOI Listing
September 2020

Gut microbiota interacts with intrinsic brain activity of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 02 15;27(2):163-173. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Aims: To explore the potential relationships among gut microbiota (GM), local brain spontaneous activity, and neuropsychological characteristics in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients.

Methods: Twenty aMCI and 22 healthy control (HC) subjects were recruited. The GM composition was determined by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed, and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) was calculated across different frequencies. The Spearman or Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between spontaneous brain activity and cognitive function, and GM composition.

Results: aMCI patients had altered GM state and local spontaneous brain activity as compared with HC subjects. Correlation analysis showed that aMCI and HC groups had different "GM-intrinsic brain activity interaction" patterns. In aMCI group, at the typical band (0.01-0.08 Hz), the relative abundance (RA) of Bacteroides from phylum to genus level was negatively correlated with fALFF value of cerebellar vermis IV-V, and the Ruminococcaceae RA was negatively correlated with fALFF values of left lenticular nucleus and pallidum. The Clostridiaceae RA and Blautia RA were positively correlated with the left cerebellum lobules IV-V at the slow-4 band (0.027-0.073 Hz). The Veillonellaceae RA was positively correlated with fALFF values of left precentral gyrus at the slow-5 band (0.073-0.08 Hz). Correlation analysis showed that Clostridium members (Lachnospiraceae and Blautia) were positively, while Veillonellaceae was negatively, correlated with cognition test. Bacteroides was positively correlated with attention and computation, and negatively correlated with the three-stage command score.

Conclusions: aMCI patients have a specific GM-intrinsic brain activity-cognitive function interaction pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.13451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7816203PMC
February 2021

Risk factors, resource use, and cost of postoperative low cardiac output syndrome.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2020 Jul 16. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Tenax Therapeutics, Morrisville, NC.

Objective: Low cardiac output syndrome complicates recovery after cardiac surgery. We examined the incidence and risk factors for low cardiac output syndrome and its association with postoperative mortality, morbidity, resource use, and cost.

Methods: This cross-sectional retrospective observational study examined patients having cardiac surgery captured in the Premier Healthcare Database. Low cardiac output syndrome was defined as the requirement for postoperative mechanical circulatory support and/or hemodynamic instability requiring prolonged inotropic support. Incidence, risk factors, and association of low cardiac output syndrome with postoperative outcomes, including mortality, hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, hospital readmission, and cost at 30 days, 90 days, and 6 months, were examined.

Results: Among 59,810 patients from 164 hospitals having cardiac surgery between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2014, low cardiac output syndrome developed in 6067 (10.1%) patients. Patients presenting in cardiogenic shock or systolic (± diastolic) heart failure were at greatest risk. Risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality was 12-fold greater with low cardiac output syndrome (odds ratio, 12.0; 95% confidence interval, 10.6-13.5). Risk-adjusted hospital costs (2019$; median [Q1, Q3]) were $64,041 [21,439] in patients who developed low cardiac output syndrome versus $48,086 [16,098] without; P < .001. Increased costs were driven by longer risk-adjusted hospital stay (10.1 [4.5] vs 8.5 [3.8] days); P < .001, intensive care unit (5.5 [2.5] vs 3.3 [1.5] days; P < .001) stay, and all-cause 30-day adjusted hospital readmission rates (mean [SD] 16.6 [8.2]% vs 13.9 [7.2]%; P < .001).

Conclusions: Cardiac surgical patients who develop postoperative low cardiac output syndrome suffer greater mortality and have greater resource use, health care costs, and all-cause readmission, which informs perioperative decision making, and impacts hospital performance metrics and federal priority to reduce health care costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2020.06.125DOI Listing
July 2020

Establishing a high sensitivity detection method for SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG and developing a clinical application of this method.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 Dec;9(1):2020-2029

Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and was initially discovered in Wuhan. This outbreak quickly spread all over China and then to more than 20 other countries. SARS-CoV-2 fluorescent microsphere immunochromatographic test strips were prepared by the combination of time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay with a lateral flow assay. The analytical performance and clinical evaluation of this testing method was done and the clinical significance of the testing method was verified. The LLOD of SARS-CoV-2 antibody IgG and IgM was 0.121U/L and 0.366U/L. The specificity of IgM and IgG strips in healthy people and in patients with non-COVID-19 disease was 94%, 96.72% and 95.50%, 99.49%, respectively; and sensitivity of IgM and IgG strips for patients during treatment and follow-up was 63.02%, 37.61% and 87.28%, 90.17%, respectively. The SARS-CoV-2 antibody test strip can provide rapid, flexible and accurate testing, and is able to meet the clinical requirement for rapid on-site testing of virus. The ability to detect IgM and IgG provided a significant benefit for the detection and prediction of clinical course with COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1811161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7534335PMC
December 2020

Effect of hardening and sealing on color of chemically colored stainless steel.

Sci Rep 2020 Aug 11;10(1):13561. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, 030024, China.

A light reflection device combined with visible light spectrophotometer was used to measure the reflectance-wavelength curves of colored stainless steel after coloring, hardening and sealing. After these processes, the coordinate in CIE 1931 color coordinate system and brightness of samples were confirmed by chromatometry method, and the effects of hardening and sealing processes on color were determined. In hardening process, the thickness of coloring film increases significantly, the peaks of reflectance-wavelength curves move to the long-wave region, the hue of samples changes clockwise in CIE 1931 coordinate diagram, and the trend of saturation in hardening process is consistent with the saturation of the sample having larger potential difference. In sealing process, the thickness of film increases slightly, the peaks of reflectance-wavelength curves move to the long-wave region, the reflectivity and brightness of samples increase, the hue of samples moves clockwise in CIE 1931 coordinate diagram, and the saturation of some samples decreases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70359-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7419505PMC
August 2020

Genetic Diversity and Prediction Analysis of Small Isolated Giant Panda Populations After Release of Individuals.

Evol Bioinform Online 2020 10;16:1176934320939945. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Release of individuals is an effective conservation approach to protect endangered species. To save this small isolated giant panda population in Liziping Nature Reserve, a few giant pandas have been released to this population. Here we assess genetic diversity and future changes in the population using noninvasive genetic sampling after releasing giant pandas. In this study, a total of 28 giant pandas (including 4 released individuals) were identified in the Liziping, China. Compared with other giant panda populations, this population has medium-level genetic diversity; however, a Bayesian-coalescent method clearly detected, quantified, and dated a recent decrease in population size. The predictions for genetic diversity and survival of the population in the next 100 years indicate that this population has a high risk of extinction. We show that released giant pandas can preserve genetic diversity and improve the probability of survival in this small isolated giant panda population. To promote the recovery of this population, we suggest that panda release should be continued and this population will need to release 10 males and 20 females in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1176934320939945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7357131PMC
July 2020

Presenilin 1 and APP Gene Mutations in Early-Onset AD Families from a Southeast Region of China.

Curr Alzheimer Res 2020 ;17(6):540-546

Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Early-Onset Familial Alzheimer's Disease (EOFAD) has been reported to be associated with Presenilin 1 (PSEN1), Presenilin 2 (PSEN2), and Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) genes. The spectrum of mutations in Chinese patients with EOFAD was rarely investigated.

Objective: To investigate the spectrum of mutations in patients with EOFAD in Chinese population.

Methods: We performed whole-exome sequencing and described relevant clinical features in a total of 67 subjects from 3 families with EOFAD.

Results: A splice mutation (p.S290C) in PSEN1 and a missense mutation (p.V717I) in APP were identified.

Conclusion: The variant p. S290C (c.869-2>G) in PSEN1 in Chinese EOAD family revealed different clinical phenotypes when compared with that of Europeans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567205017666200624195809DOI Listing
January 2020
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