Publications by authors named "Kamini A Rao"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Emotional Impact of Delay in Fertility Treatment due to COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Hum Reprod Sci 2020 Oct-Dec;13(4):317-322. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Milann Fertility Center, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Background: COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented public health emergency. When the pandemic started in our country fertility treatment was suspended for sometimes following national and international guidelines. This has led to delay in fertility treatment for some couples which was emotionally upsetting.

Methodology And Design: This study was done on the patients enrolled at our various fertility units across India. The survey questionnaire was sent to patients during the month of first May to June 15, 2020, when COVID-19 pandemic was active across the country, and fertility units were just resuming the services back. The questionnaire was distributed to 100 patients who were currently under treatment and their response was recorded. Ethical committee approval was not taken as surveys are exempted from IRB.

Results: This survey was undertaken to understand the emotional impact of delay/cancelation in the fertility treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey revealed that majority (95%) of couples felt cancelation of cycles as upsetting and 16% reporting it to be extremely upsetting. The impact was seen in the form of mood disturbances, anxiety, sleep disturbances, and depressive ideas. Almost half of the couples (49.4%) were desirous to start the fertility treatment immediately. Their knowledge regarding COVID-19 and pregnancy and future child was limited.

Conclusion: COVID-19 has had impact on every sphere of life. Delay in treatment and cancelation of cycles were emotionally upsetting to majority of couples and they were keen to restart the treatment sooner than later.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jhrs.JHRS_144_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7879841PMC
December 2020

Role of Seminal Plasma Proteins in Effective Zygote Formation- A Success Road to Pregnancy.

Protein Pept Lett 2019 ;26(4):238-250

BACCMILANN Fertility Center Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Seminal plasma proteins contributed by secretions of accessory glands plays a copious role in fertilization. Their role is overlooked for decades and even now, as Artificial Reproduction Techniques (ART) excludes the plasma components in the procedures. Recent evidences suggest the importance of these proteins starting from imparting fertility status to men, fertilization and till successful implantation of the conceptus in the female uterus. Seminal plasma is rich in diverse proteins, but a major part of the seminal plasma is constituted by very lesser number of proteins. This makes isolation and further research on non abundant protein a tough task. With the advent of much advanced proteomic techniques and bio informatics tools, studying the protein component of seminal plasma has become easy and promising. This review is focused on the role of seminal plasma proteins on various walks of fertilization process and thus, the possible exploitation of seminal plasma proteins for understanding the etiology of male related infertility issues. In addition, a compilation of seminal plasma proteins and their functions has been done.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929866526666190208112152DOI Listing
December 2019

Perifollicular Vascularity in Poor Ovarian Responders in Fertilization Cycles.

J Hum Reprod Sci 2018 Jul-Sep;11(3):242-246

Department of Reproductive Medicine, Milann-The Fertility Centre, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Context: Poor response is reported in 9%-24% of stimulated cycles. Color Doppler indices of follicular blood flow are correlated with oocyte recovery, fertilization rate, developmental potential of oocyte, and pregnancy rate in fertilization (IVF) treatment.

Aim: The aim of this study is to find out the correlation between perifollicular vascularity with clinical outcomes in poor ovarian responders during IVF cycles.

Settings And Design: A total of 49 poor ovarian responder women undergoing conventional IVF-embryo transfer procedure at a tertiary care hospital between September 2014 and 2015 were included in the study. It was a prospective observational study.

Subjects And Methods: Patients were recruited on the day of trigger following a transvaginal ultrasound if they developed ≤4 dominant follicles of ≥16 mm diameter. After ovarian stimulation patients who had all follicles with low-grade vascularity were classified as Group A, those with follicles with high-grade vascularity were Group C, and Group B included patients with follicles of both good and poor vascularity.

Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance and Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and software, namely SAS 9.2 and SPSS 15, has been used.

Results: A total 49 patients were recruited for the study.10 patients were allocated in Group A, 26 patients in Group B and 13 in Group C. Both groups were comparable in terms of age, period of infertility, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and gonadotrophin requirement. The number of metaphase II oocytes and good quality oocytes was significantly higher in Group C. Implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate, and live birth rate were comparable among all groups.

Conclusions: Perifollicular vascularity has an important role to play in clinical outcomes in poor ovarian responders in IVF cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jhrs.JHRS_139_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6262665PMC
December 2018

Cadmium effects on sperm morphology and semenogelin with relates to increased ROS in infertile smokers: An in vitro and in silico approach.

Reprod Biol 2018 Jun 3;18(2):189-197. Epub 2018 May 3.

School of Bio Science and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Smoking releases cadmium (Cd), the metal toxicant which causes an imbalance in reactive oxygen species level in seminal plasma. This imbalance is envisaged to impair the sperm DNA morphology and thereby result in male infertility. In order to correlate this association, we performed in vitro and in silico studies and evaluated the influence of reactive oxygen species imbalance on sperm morphology impairments due to smoking. The study included 76 infertile smokers, 72 infertile non-smokers, 68 fertile smokers and 74 fertile non-smokers (control). Semen samples were collected at regular intervals from all the subjects. Semen parameters were examined by computer assisted semen analysis, quantification of metal toxicant by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, assessment of antioxidants through enzymatic and non-enzymatic methods, diagnosis of reactive oxygen species by nitro blue tetrazolium method and Cd influence on sperm protein by in vitro and in silico methods. Our analysis revealed that the levels of cigarette toxicants in semen were high, accompanied by low levels of antioxidants in seminal plasma of infertile smoker subjects. In addition the investigation of Cd treated sperm cells through scanning electronic microscope showed the mid piece damage of spermatozoa. The dispersive X-ray analysis to identify the elemental composition further confirmed the presence of Cd. Finally, the in-silico analysis on semenogelin sequences revealed the D-H-D motif which represents a favourable binding site for Cd coordination. Our findings clearly indicated the influence of Cd on reactive oxygen species leading to impaired sperm morphology leading to male infertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.repbio.2018.04.003DOI Listing
June 2018

Human sperm DNA damage inhibition and antioxidant activity of T. arjuna bark: an in vitro study.

3 Biotech 2017 Jul 29;7(3):188. Epub 2017 Jun 29.

Gene Cloning and Technology, SBST, VIT University, Vellore-14, India.

Complimentary or natural antioxidant type of alternative medicine is developed worldwide to treat male infertility. The aim of this study is to the extraction of T. arjuna bark and activity against human sperm DNA damage in asthenoteratospermic smoker's subjects-an in vitro study. All preliminary and antioxidant assays (DPPH, HO, and total antioxidant, reducing power activity) were done. T. arjuna bark metal analysis was done with AAS. On the other hand, patients were asked to fill a direct questionnaire about smoking history; 25 infertile smokers were identified as asthenoteratospermic; 34 fertile non-smokers (control) were assessed for semen parameters by CASA, seminal plasma Zinc analysis by AAS, DNA fragmentation by colorimetric method and semen genomic DNA damage inhibition by modified non-enzymatic salting out extraction method. Most of the antioxidants are highly present in the aqueous extract; meanwhile, the major content in this extract is zinc 16 µg/g (Ca = 0.5 µg/g; Se = 2.2 µg/g and Mg = 1.6 µg/g) along with FT-IR peaks which also confirmed the metal presence. The semen parameters in smokers that were noticed are low sperm count and morphological changes. Meanwhile, in the seminal plasma of smokers, zinc and DNA fragmentation results were positively correlated with sperm morphology (p < 0.001). Repaired DNA bands were noticed in the in vitro study of aqueous T. arjuna bark, in smokers' semen. T. arjuna bark will act as cryo protector as well as great zinc supplementary to maintain sperm motility and morphology in smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-017-0853-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5491448PMC
July 2017

Validation of artificial neural network models for predicting biochemical markers associated with male infertility.

Syst Biol Reprod Med 2016 Aug 21;62(4):258-65. Epub 2016 Jun 21.

d School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University , Tamil Nadu , India.

Unlabelled: Seminal fluid is the secretion from many glands comprised of several organic and inorganic compounds including free amino acids, proteins, fructose, glucosidase, zinc, and other scavenging elements like Mg(2+), Ca(2+), K(+), and Na(+). Therefore, in the view of development of novel approaches and proper diagnosis to male infertility, overall understanding of the biochemical and molecular composition and its role in regulation of sperm quality is highly desirable. Perhaps this can be achieved through artificial intelligence. This study was aimed to elucidate and predict various biochemical markers present in human seminal plasma with three different neural network models. A total of 177 semen samples were collected for this research (both fertile and infertile samples) and immediately processed to prepare a semen analysis report, based on the protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO [2010]). The semen samples were then categorized into oligoasthenospermia (n=35), asthenospermia (n=35), azoospermia (n=22), normospermia (n=34), oligospermia (n=34), and control (n=17). The major biochemical parameters like total protein content, fructose, glucosidase, and zinc content were elucidated by standard protocols. All the biochemical markers were predicted by using three different artificial neural network (ANN) models with semen parameters as inputs. Of the three models, the back propagation neural network model (BPNN) yielded the best results with mean absolute error 0.025, -0.080, 0.166, and -0.057 for protein, fructose, glucosidase, and zinc, respectively. This suggests that BPNN can be used to predict biochemical parameters for the proper diagnosis of male infertility in assisted reproductive technology (ART) centres.

Abbreviations: AAS: absorption spectroscopy; AI: artificial intelligence; ANN: artificial neural networks; ART: assisted reproductive technology; BPNN: back propagation neural network model; DT: decision tress; MLP: multilayer perceptron; PESA: percutaneous epididymal sperm spiration; RBFN: radical basis function network; SRNN: simple recurrent neural network; SVM: support vector machines; TSE: testicular sperm extraction; WHO: World Health Organization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19396368.2016.1185654DOI Listing
August 2016

EFFECTS OF VARIOUS SEMEN EXTENDERS ON SEMEN PARAMETERS FOR THE PURPOSE OF HUMAN MALE FERTILITY PRESERVATION.

Cryo Letters 2015 May-Jun;36(3):182-6

Background: Cryopreservation enables semen to be preserved at subzero temperatures, usually at -196 degrees C. There is a need in preparing good extender for the semen to be cryopreserved until use, especially in the field of assisted reproduction.

Objective: To elucidate the apt extender for preserving both infertile and fertile samples for a minimum period and to check the post thaw results for various extenders used.

Materials And Methods: A total of 103 samples were collected for this research, and after semen analysis the semen samples were categorized into oligospermia (n = 20), oligoasthenospermia (n = 22), asthenospermia (n = 24), normospermia (n = 28), and control (n = 9).

Results: The extender supplemented with various antioxidants yields better results when compared to all the other extenders in case of fertile and infertile samples.

Conclusion: Supplementing semen extender with antioxidants and various ingredients is the concern in designing an apt semen extender recipe. This research prescribes antioxidant extender (E4) to preserve the infertile and fertile semen samples for the purpose of research and also for doing assisted reproduction.
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February 2016

Correlation of subendometrial-endometrial blood flow assessment by two-dimensional power Doppler with pregnancy outcome in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles.

J Hum Reprod Sci 2014 Apr;7(2):130-5

Department of Reproductive Medicine, Bangalore Assisted Conception Center, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Context: Various markers have been proposed to evaluate endometrial receptivity, such as molecular markers and sonographic markers. Commonly used sonographic markers include endometrial thickness and pattern. A good endometrial blood flow is considered necessary for improved pregnancy outcome.

Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role of subendometrial endometrial blood flow with two-dimensional-power Doppler (2D-PD) in predicting pregnancy outcome in hormone replacement frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles.

Setting And Design: Prospective, non-randomized observational study. A total of 165 patients undergoing their first FET cycle were evaluated for subendometrial-endometrial blood flow by 2D-PD once the endometrium was ≥7 mm thick. Group A consisted of 127 women showing the presence of subendometrial-endometrial blood flow. Group B comprised of 38 women in whom subendometrial blood flow was absent. Progesterone supplement was added and transfer of 2-3 cleavage stage good quality embryos was done after 3 days.

Statistical Analysis: Independent two-tailed t-test and Chi-square test.

Results: There was no significant difference in body mass index, endometrial thickness, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone levels, number of mature oocytes, semen parameters and the number of good quality embryos in the two groups (P > 0.05). The mean age in Group A was 32.05 years and 33.73 years in Group B, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.04). Overall pregnancy rate (PR) was 30.90%. PRs were significantly higher in the presence of subendometrial-endometrial blood flow than in its absence (35.43% vs. 15.78%, P = 0.02). Furthermore, clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate were significantly higher in Group A when compared to Group B (31.49% and 14.79% vs. 13.15% and 6.52%, P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively).

Conclusion: The presence of endometrial blood flow significantly improves cycle outcome in hormone replacement therapy-FET cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-1208.138872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4150140PMC
April 2014

Effect of Pre-ovulatory Single Dose GnRH agonist Therapy on IVF Outcome in GnRH Antagonist Cycles; A Prospective Study.

J Reprod Infertil 2012 Oct;13(4):225-31

Consultant Reproductive Medicine, Bangalore Assisted Conception Centre, Bangalore, India.

Background: The purpose of present study was to evaluate the role of pre-ovulatory GnRH agonist therapy on IVF outcomes in GnRH antagonist cycles.

Methods: In this prospective study we recruited 100 infertile women undergoing IVF cycles with GnRH antagonists. The patients were assigned to two groups: Group A (the study group, n = 42) were assigned for receiving hCG + triptorelin for the final oocyte maturation and group B (the control group, n = 58) were assigned for only hCG. The t-test, chi-square (χ(2)), and Fisher's exact test were used for data analysis. A p < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. The results are presented by mean± SD, and in percents (%).

Results: LH levels significantly (p < 0.001) increased in the study group on the day of oocyte retrieval. All embryological parameters including the number of mature oocytes, fertilization and cleavage rates, number of high quality embryos and number of cases whose embryos were frozen were non-significantly higher in the study group. There were small but non-significant improvements in the clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, live birth and implantation rates in the study group.

Conclusion: Administering a single dose of GnRH agonist before oocyte retrieval in antagonist cycles may be helpful in improving the pregnancy rate but the results need to be verified in a larger trials.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3719342PMC
October 2012

Prediction of Zn concentration in human seminal plasma of Normospermia samples by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN).

J Assist Reprod Genet 2013 Apr 11;30(4):453-9. Epub 2013 Jan 11.

School of Biosciences and Technology, Gene cloning Technology Laboratory, VIT University, Vellore, 632014, India.

Purpose: There has been an increasing interest in the evaluation of metal ion concentration, present in different body fluids. It is known that metal ions, especially zinc play vital role in the fertility of human semen.

Objective: The main objective of the study is to evaluate the Zn concentration in Normospermia samples by Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and to predict the same by artificial neural network (ANN).

Materials And Methods: Normospermia semen samples were collected from the patients who came to attend semen analysis at Bangalore assisted conception centre, Bangalore, India. Semen analysis was done according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidance. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to estimate the total Zn in these samples, while the Back propagation neural network algorithm (BPNN) was used to predict the Zn levels in these samples.

Results: Zinc concentration obtained by AAS and BPNN indicated that there was a good correlation between the estimated and predicted values and was also found to be statistically significant.

Conclusion: The BPNN algorithm developed in this study could be used for the prediction of Zn concentration in human Normospermia samples.

Future Perspective: The algorithm could be further developed to predict the concentration of all the trace elements present in human seminal plasma of different infertile categories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10815-012-9926-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3644119PMC
April 2013

From the Editor's desk.

Authors:
Kamini A Rao

J Hum Reprod Sci 2010 May;3(2):61

Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences E-mail:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-1208.69330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2970792PMC
May 2010

The degree of serum estradiol decline in early and midluteal phase had no adverse effect on IVF/ICSI outcome.

J Hum Reprod Sci 2010 Jan;3(1):25-30

Department of Reproductive Medicine, Bangalore Assisted Conception Center, #6/7 Kumara Krupa, High Grounds, Bangalore - 560 001, India.

Background: Estradiol levels fall rapidly in the luteal phase of ART cycles. So far, the effect of this estradiol decline on pregnancy outcome has remained controversial.

Aim: To study the effect of early and midluteal estradiol decline on pregnancy and miscarriage rate. We also sought to determine whether estradiol fall was related to increased risk of bleeding per vagina in the first trimester among pregnancies which crossed 12 weeks.

Setting: Tertiary Assisted conception center.

Design: Retrospective study.

Materials And Methods: We analyzed data of 360 consecutive patients who underwent IVF-ET/ICSI cycles using one of the three protocols: Midluteal downregulation, short flare, and antagonist protocol.

Statistical Methods: Statistical evaluation was performed with the Student's t test, Chi square, Fischer's exact test, analysis of variance, and Mann-Whitney tests were appropriate using SPSS for Windows, Standard version 11.0.

Results: The mean % EL-E2 and % ML-E2 declines were not significantly different in the pregnant and nonpregnant groups when analyzed separately in the three protocols. Also, the degree of midluteal estradiol decline did not correlate with pregnancy outcome. Moreover, the mean % early and midluteal estradiol decline did not differ significantly in patients with preclinical, clinical abortions, and ongoing pregnancy. The estradiol decline was not found to influence the risk of bleeding in the first trimester.

Conclusions: Our results show that the degree of estradiol fall in the luteal phase of ART cycles does not influence pregnancy and first trimester miscarriage rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-1208.63118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2890906PMC
January 2010

Does local endometrial injury in the nontransfer cycle improve the IVF-ET outcome in the subsequent cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF? A randomized controlled pilot study.

J Hum Reprod Sci 2010 Jan;3(1):15-9

Department of Reproductive Medicine, Bangalore Assisted Conception Center, #6/7 Kumara Krupa, High Grounds, Bangalore - 560001, India.

Background: Management of repeated implantation failure despite transfer of good-quality embryos still remains a dilemma for ART specialists. Scrapping of endometrium in the nontransfer cycle has been shown to improve the pregnancy rate in the subsequent IVF/ET cycle in recent studies.

Aim: The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to determine whether endometrial injury caused by Pipelle sampling in the nontransfer cycle could improve the probability of pregnancy in the subsequent IVF cycle in patients who had previous failed IVF outcome.

Setting: Tertiary assisted conception center.

Design: Randomized controlled study.

Materials And Methods: 100 eligible patients with previous failed IVF despite transfer of good-quality embryos were randomly allocated to the intervention group and control groups. In the intervention group, Pipelle endometrial sampling was done twice: One in the follicular phase and again in the luteal phase in the cycle preceding the embryo transfer cycle.

Outcome Measure: The primary outcome measure was live birth rate. The secondary outcome measures were implantation and clinical pregnancy rates.

Results: The live birth rate was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to control group (22.4% and 9.8% P = 0.04). The clinical pregnancy rate in the intervention group was 32.7%, while that in the control group was 13.7%, which was also statistically significant (P = 0.01). The implantation rate was significantly higher in the intervention group as compared to controls (13.07% vs 7.1% P = 0.04).

Conclusions: Endometrial injury in nontransfer cycle improves the live birth rate, clinical pregnancy and implantation rates in the subsequent IVF-ET cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-1208.63116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2890904PMC
January 2010

From the Editor's desk.

Authors:
Kamini A Rao

J Hum Reprod Sci 2010 Jan;3(1)

Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences E-mail:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-1208.63112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2890900PMC
January 2010

From the Editor's Desk.

Authors:
Kamini A Rao

J Hum Reprod Sci 2009 Jul;2(2):53

Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences, Bangalore, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-1208.57221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2800926PMC
July 2009

From the Editor's Desk.

Authors:
Kamini A Rao

J Hum Reprod Sci 2009 Jan;2(1)

Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences, E-mail:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-1208.51334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2700689PMC
January 2009

From the Editor's desk.

Authors:
Kamini A Rao

J Hum Reprod Sci 2008 Jul;1(2):49

Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences. E-mail:

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2700663PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-1208.44110DOI Listing
July 2008

Putting sexual and reproductive health on the agenda.

Authors:
Kamini A Rao

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2008 Sep 10;102(3):221-2. Epub 2008 Jul 10.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgo.2008.05.014DOI Listing
September 2008

From the Editor's Desk.

Authors:
Kamini A Rao

J Hum Reprod Sci 2008 Jan;1(1)

Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences. E-mail:

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2700677PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-1208.39590DOI Listing
January 2008

Recurrent pregnancy loss.

J Indian Med Assoc 2006 Aug;104(8):458, 460-1

Bangalore Assisted Conception Center.

Recurrent abortions are hisheartening to the couple and also to the treating clinicians. Miscarriage is the loss of pregnancy weighing 500 g or less. Recurrent miscarriage or habitual abortion is defined as three or more consective abortions. Important factors involved in recurrent early pregnancy loss are genetic factors, endocrine factors, anatomic factors, immunologic factors, infectious factors and environmental factors. The factors are described in a nutshell in the text. Any severe infection that leads to bacteraemia orviraemia can cause sporadic miscarriage. Congenital uterine abnormalities have been associated most often with second-trimestar pregnancy loss. As regarding management of recurrent pregnancy loss the clinician has limited options. The use of aspiration in low dose (75 mg) and heparin is beneficial in APS positive patients. Multivitamins and folic acid assume importance in thrombophilic disorders. Tender live care with regular antenatal check-ups go a great way in achieving live term pregnancy.
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August 2006

Infertility treatment is a human right.

Authors:
Kamini A Rao

Indian J Med Ethics 2005 Oct-Dec;2(4):128

Bangalore Assisted Conception Centre, 7/6 Kumara Kripa Road, Bangalore 560 001, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20529/IJME.2005.064DOI Listing
June 2006

Access to safe abortion within the limits of the law.

Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2006 Jun 24;20(3):421-32. Epub 2006 Mar 24.

Bangalore Assisted Conception Centre, 6/7, Kumarakrupa Road, Highgrounds, Bangalore-560 001, India.

The World Health Organization defines unsafe abortion as a procedure for terminating an unintended pregnancy carried out by people lacking the necessary skills or in an environment that does not conform to minimal medical standards, or both. The Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development recommends that 'In circumstances where abortion is not against the law, such abortion should be safe'. However, millions of women still risk their lives by undergoing unsafe abortion even if they comply with the law. This is a serious violation of women's human rights, and obstetricians and gynaecologists have a fundamental role in breaking the administrative and procedural barriers to safe abortion. This chapter reviews the magnitude of the problem, its consequences for women's health, the barriers to access to safe abortion, including its legal status, the effect of the law on the rate and the consequences of abortion, the human rights implications and the current evidence on methods to perform safe abortion. This chapter concludes with an analysis of what can be done to change the current situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2006.01.020DOI Listing
June 2006