Publications by authors named "Kamiar Zomorodian"

94 Publications

Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activities of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles within Soft Denture Liners against Oral Pathogens.

Bioinorg Chem Appl 2021 4;2021:9939275. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objectives: Soft denture liners provide a favorable environment for adhesion and colonization of microorganisms. This in vitro study aimed to examine the efficacy of different concentrations of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) incorporation into soft denture liner on the biofilm formation of the microbial species.

Methods: Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) images from NPs were recorded. Antifungal susceptibility testing of CuO NPs against five standard strains of (CBS 10261, 1905, 1912, 1949, 2730), (ATCC35668), (ATCC27607), and ATCC9222) was performed by the broth microdilution method with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute reference method. The biofilm inhibition percentages of CuO NPs on the soft denture liners were determined by XTT assay.

Results: The characterization of CuO NPs by scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses confirmed the synthesis of NPs with appropriate structure and size with a mean diameter of 18.3 ± 9.1 nm. The CuO NPs successfully inhibited the growth of the tested standard strains of nd spp. at concentrations ranging from 64 to 128 g mL. Indeed, incorporation of CuO NPs at a concentration of 500 g mL into the soft denture liners exhibited a significant activity (75%) in inhibition of . biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner. The biofilm formation of in the presence of CuO NPs was lower than spp. in comparison with the control group ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Incorporation of CuO NPs significantly decreased the colonization and plaque formation of the oral pathogens, especially accumulation. These NPs may be useful as a promising agent for the antimicrobial management of soft denture liner materials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9939275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8195668PMC
June 2021

Potential Pathogenicity of Species Isolated from Oral Cavity of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

Biomed Res Int 2021 26;2021:9982744. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Introduction: In the recent decade, the increased immunocompromised population such as diabetic patients makes a high incidence of invasive infections. Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine metabolic disorder, and diabetic patients are more susceptible to oral candidiasis infection. Candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by many species of . Secretion of exoenzymes plays an important role in the virulence and pathogenesis of species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of phospholipase, esterase, and hemolytic activity of species isolated from oral cavity lesions of diabetic patients.

Methods: A total of 108 species including 75 and 33 non- species were recovered from the oral cavity of diabetic patients included in our study. Egg yolk agar, Tween 80 opacity medium, and blood agar plate assays were used for determining phospholipase, esterase, and hemolytic activities, respectively.

Results: species had the most exoenzyme activity in comparison to non isolates. isolates showed 97.3%, 100%, and 77.3% phospholipase, hemolysin, and esterase activities, respectively. The difference between and non- was significant in phospholipase ( < 0.001) and hemolytic activity ( = 0.027), but not significant in esterase activity ( = 0.076).

Conclusion: This study showed that most of the isolates had different enzymatic patterns, and isolates had the most exoenzyme activity. So due to the potential effects of these enzymes in pathogenesis and virulence effects of species, we can conclude that the severity of extracellular enzymes may play a role in the severity of signs and symptoms of oral cavity infections in diabetic patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9982744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175137PMC
May 2021

Successful treatment of pulmonary aspergillosis due to in a child affected by systemic lupus erythematosus: A case report from Northeastern Iran.

Clin Case Rep 2021 May 24;9(5):e04248. Epub 2021 May 24.

Allergy Research Center Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Mashhad Iran.

A6-year-old girl affected to systemic lupus erythematosus with symptoms of fever, weakness, and lethargy, cough, chest pain, and abnormalchest x-ray. The isolated was identified using partial calmodulin gene sequencing. Gradual improvement was observed onday 19 of treatment with amphotericinB (50 mg /day).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.4248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142405PMC
May 2021

Protective Effects of the Probiotic Bacterium and a Murine Model of Oral Candidiasis.

Iran J Med Sci 2021 May;46(3):207-217

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Oral candidiasis is a frequent form of candidiasis, caused by species, in particular, (). The transition of from yeast to hyphae allows its attachment to epithelial cells, followed by biofilm formation, invasion, and tissue damage. Hence, we investigated the effect of subspecies thermophilus () on the growth as well as biofilm and germ-tube formation of both and in vivo in a murine model.

Methods: This experimental study was performed in the Department of Medical Mycology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, in collaboration with the Central Research Laboratory and the Comparative Biomedical Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran (2017 to 2018). The inhibitory activity of against species growth was evaluated using the broth microdilution method, and the inhibition of biofilm formation was measured using the XTT assay. The inhibition of germ-tube formation by was evaluated using the plate assay and fluorescence microscopy. The experimental activity of the probiotic bacterium was assessed by culture and histopathological methods in six groups of five mice, comprising those treated with four concentrations of probiotics, fluconazole, and distilled water. The one-way analysis of variance, followed by a hoc test, was used and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: inhibited species growth at concentrations of 16 to 512 µg/mL. This probiotic inhibited the formation of biofilms and germ tubes in a dose-dependent manner. significantly reduced the colony-forming units in the mice receiving 30 mg/mL of this probiotic treatment compared with the control group (P=0.024). The histopathological analysis showed that colonization was diminished in the mice following the administration of the probiotic.

Conclusion: Given the inhibitory activity of against the growth, transition, and biofilm formation of , it could be used in the management of oral candidiasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.30476/ijms.2020.82080.0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163705PMC
May 2021

Prevalence of superficial-cutaneous fungal infections in Shiraz, Iran: A five-year retrospective study (2015-2019).

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Jul 24;35(7):e23850. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Superficial and cutaneous fungal infections are common in tropical areas. The aim of this study was to provide a basic database of superficial and cutaneous mycoses and the most common etiological agents among patients.

Methods: Between 2015 and 2019, a total of 1807 patients suspected of superficial and cutaneous mycosis referring to the mycology laboratory of Shiraz medical school, Fars, Iran were evaluated. Specimens were taken from the patients' affected area, and clinical samples were examined by direct microscopy and culture. The epidemiological profile of the patients was collected.

Results: A total of 750 patients were confirmed with mycoses. Positive samples totaled 750 cases consisting of the nail (373/49.7%), skin (323/43%), head (47/6.26%), and mucosal membrane (4/0.5%). The yeasts group included 304 Candida spp. (70.3%), 123 Malassezia spp. (28.47%), and 5 Rhodotorula spp. (1.1%). The filamentous fungi were distributed as 34.8% dermatophytes and 7.5% non-dermatophyte. The clinical types of dermatophytosis were tinea unguium (110/261), tinea capitis (50/261), tinea pedis (48/261), tinea corporis (37/261), and tinea cruris (16/261). Non-dermatophyte molds included A. flavus 17, A. niger 4, Aspergillus spp. 15, Penicillium. 10, Fusarium 6, Mucor 2, Stemphylium 1, and Alternaria 1.

Conclusion: This study provides useful data for the study trends of superficial and cutaneous fungal infections in a specific area. The mycological data confirmed higher incidence of candidiasis (mainly onychomycosis) and dermatophytosis in patients affected by fungal pathogens, which helped to better understand the epidemiological aspects of these mycoses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8274978PMC
July 2021

Dissolvable carboxymethyl cellulose/polyvinylpyrrolidone microneedle arrays for transdermal delivery of Amphotericin B to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jul 14;182:1310-1321. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71348-45794, Iran; Basic Sciences in Infectious Diseases Research Center, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71348-45794, Iran. Electronic address:

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a significant public health problem caused by different species of Leishmania parasites. Due to low skin permeability, the development of an effective system for delivery of Amphotericin B (AMB), the common effective drug for leishmaniasis treatment, is required to replace the unpleasant and problematic injections. To overcome this problem, a dissolvable microneedle (MN) patch was developed, using biodegradable polymers (a mixture of polyvinylpyrrolidone and carboxymethyl cellulose) for AMB's transdermal delivery. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent images showed successful fabrication of the MNs and homogeneous dispersion of the drug into the needles. MNs showed good mechanical properties with the ability to penetrate the rat skin and reach the lower layers. After insertion to the skin, the MNs were rapidly dissolved to release the encapsulated drug, and the resulted micropores in the skin were quickly resealed within 30 min. MN patches showed non-toxicity as exposed to HT-29 cell line. Flow cytometry results showed a potent in vitro leishmanicidal activity of AMB-loaded MN patches against the Leishmania parasites (up to 86% of the parasites' death). Taken together, MN patches might represent a new, efficient and clinically translational approach for transdermal AMB delivery to treat CL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.05.075DOI Listing
July 2021

MALDI-TOF MS characterisation, genetic diversity and antifungal susceptibility of Trichosporon species from Iranian clinical samples.

Mycoses 2021 Aug 1;64(8):918-925. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Communicable Diseases Institute, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Trichosporonosis is an emerging fungal infection caused by Trichosporon species, a genus of yeast-like fungi, which are frequently encountered in human infections ranging from mild cutaneous lesions to fungemia in immunocompromised patients. The incidence of trichosporonosis has increased in recent years, owing to higher numbers of individuals at risk for this infection. Although amphotericin B, posaconazole and isavuconazole are generally effective against Trichosporon species, some isolates may have variable susceptibility to these antifungals.

Objectives: Herein, we evaluated the species distribution, genetic diversity and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Trichosporon isolates in Iran.

Methods: The yeasts were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Phylogenetic analysis was performed based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The in vitro susceptibilities of eight antifungal agents were analysed using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution methods.

Results: The isolates belonged to the species T asahii (n = 20), T japonicum (n = 4) and T faecale (n = 3). A dendrogram of the AFLP analysis demonstrated that T asahii and non-asahii Trichosporon strains (T japonicum and T faecale) are phylogenetically distinct. While voriconazole was the most active agent (GM MIC = 0.075 μg/ml), high fluconazole MICs (8 μg/ml) were observed for a quarter of Trichosporon isolates. The GM MIC value of amphotericin B for T asahii and non-asahii Trichosporon species was 0.9 μg/ml.

Conclusions: The distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of the identified Trichosporon species could inform therapeutic choices for treating these emerging life-threatening fungi.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.13306DOI Listing
August 2021

Antimicrobial core-shell electrospun nanofibers containing Ajwain essential oil for accelerating infected wound healing.

Int J Pharm 2021 Jun 12;603:120698. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Medical Mycology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71348-45794, Iran; Basic Sciences in Infectious Diseases Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71348-45794, Iran. Electronic address:

Treatment of skin injuries is still facing major challenges, such as chronicity and infections, particularly those caused by multi-drug resistance pathogens. An effective treatment of such wounds should accelerate the wound healing process while preventing bacterial contamination. Here, a novel core-shell nanofiber mat was fabricated comprising gelatin/polyvinyl alcohol (as a core) and aloe vera/arabinose/polyvinylpyrrolidone (as a shell) for accelerating the healing process of bacteria-infected wounds. Trachyspermum Ammi (Ajwain) essential oil (EO), as a potent and natural antimicrobial agent against microorganisms, was incorporated into the core of nanofiber mats using coaxial electrospinning. The microscopy images demonstrated the successful fabrication of the core-shell structure with a uniform fiber size of 564 ± 106.35 nm. Moreover, Ajwain EO-loaded nanofiber mat (core-shell/EO) provided excellent antimicrobial activity and antioxidant ability. The in vitro and ex vivo release of Ajwain EO from the fabricated nanofiber mat corroborated a prolonged release profile. Furthermore, in vivo antibacterial activity, wound closure, and histomorphological examinations showed the high efficacy of the core-shell/EO mat in the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus-infected full-thickness rat wounds compared to standard control treatment with a gauze. Overall, these results represent the core-shell/EO mat's potential as a newly developed wound dressing for bacteria-infected full-thickness skin injuries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120698DOI Listing
June 2021

Nanotechnology approaches for delivery and targeting of Amphotericin B in fungal and parasitic diseases.

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2021 04 23;16(10):857-877. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Parasitology & Mycology, School of Medicines, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, PO Box 7134845794, Iran.

Amphotericin B (AMB), with widespread antifungal and anti-parasitic activities and low cross-resistance with other drugs, has long been identified as a potent antimicrobial drug. However, its clinical toxicities, especially nephrotoxicity, have limited its use in clinical practice. Lately, nano-based systems have been the subject of serious research and becoming an effective strategy to improve toxicity and antimicrobial potency. Commercial AMB lipid formulations have been developed in order to improve the therapeutic index and nephrotoxicity, while limited use is mainly due to their high cost. The review aimed to highlight the updated information on nanotechnology-based approaches to the development of AMB delivery and targeting systems for treatment of fungal diseases and leishmaniasis, regarding therapeutic challenges and achievements of various delivery systems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/nnm-2020-0482DOI Listing
April 2021

In vitro antifungal susceptibility patterns of Trichophyton benhamiae complex isolates from diverse origin.

Mycoses 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Health Research Institute, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Species from the Trichophyton benhamiae complex are mostly zoophilic dermatophytes which cause inflammatory dermatophytosis in animals and humans worldwide.

Objectives: This study was purposed to (a) to identify 169 reference and clinical dermatophyte strains from the T benhamiae complex species by molecular method and adhering to the newest taxonomy in the complex (b) to evaluate the in vitro antifungal susceptibility profile of these strains against eight common and new antifungal agents that may be used for the treatment of dermatophytosis.

Methods: All isolates, mainly originated from Europe but also from Iran, Japan and USA, were subjected to ITS-rDNA sequencing. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles of eight common and new antifungal drugs against the isolates were determined by CLSI M38-A2 protocol and according to microdilution method.

Results: Based on the ITS-rDNA sequencing, T benhamiae was the dominant species (n = 102), followed by T europaeum (n = 29), T erinacei (n = 23), T japonicum (n = 10), Trichophyton sp (n = 4) and T eriotrephon (n = 1). MIC ranges across all isolates were as follows: luliconazole: 0.0002-0.002 µg/ml, terbinafine: 0.008-0.125 µg/ml, efinaconazole: 0.008-0.125 µg/ml, ciclopirox olamine: 0.03-0.5 µg/ml, itraconazole: 0.06-2 µg/ml, griseofulvin: 0.25-4 µg/ml, amorolfine hydrochloride: 0.125-4 µg/ml and tavaborole: 1-16 µg/ml.

Conclusion: Luliconazole, efinaconazole and terbinafine were the most potent antifungals against T benhamiae complex isolates, regardless of the geographic locations where strains were isolated. These data might help dermatologists to develop effective therapies for successful treatment of infections due to T benhamiae complex species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.13287DOI Listing
April 2021

aromatic water: A traditional drink with considerable anti- activity.

Curr Med Mycol 2020 Sep;6(3):1-8

Department of Pharmacognosy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background And Purpose: Aromatic waters (AWs) are therapeutic distillates, which harbor both essential oil and water-soluble components of a plant. Due to the dispersion of the light amount of essence through the AWs, they have their specific pleasant smell, taste, and medicinal properties. In Iranian traditional medicine, AW is used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. The present study was conducted to determine the chemical composition of the essential oil extracted from AW and its antifungal activities against species.

Materials And Methods: The composition of the essential oil extracted from AW was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, the evaluation of the antifungal activity of AW against species was performed using broth microdilution methods as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. Moreover, the biofilm formation inhibition, antioxidant properties, and experimental activity of AW were determined in an animal model.

Results: According to the results, thymol (78.08%) was the major compound of EO, followed by carvacrol (8.20%) and carvotanacetone (6.50%). Furthermore, AW exhibited antifungal activities against the examined fungi and inhibited the biofilm formation of C. albicans at a concentration of up to 0.25 V/V. Histopathological analyses revealed that colonization declined in the mice following the administration of AW in a therapeutic trial.

Conclusion: It seems that the presence of phenolic monoterpenes in AW has resulted in antifungal effects. Pleasant odor and antioxidant properties are extra bonuses to the antimicrobial effects of this plant. Based on the findings, AW might have the potential to be used in the management of alimentary candidiasis or oral hygienic products.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/cmm.6.3.3979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018821PMC
September 2020

Dual drug delivery of vancomycin and imipenem/cilastatin by coaxial nanofibers for treatment of diabetic foot ulcer infections.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Apr 15;123:111975. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Basic Sciences in Infectious Diseases Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Diabetic foot ulcer infections are the main causes of hospitalization in diabetics. The present study aimed to develop vancomycin and imipenem/cilastatin loaded core-shell nanofibers to facilitate the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Therefore, novel core-shell nanofibers composed of polyethylene oxide, chitosan, and vancomycin in shell and polyvinylpyrrolidone, gelatin, and imipenem/cilastatin in core compartments were prepared using the electrospinning technique. The nanofibers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, tensile test, and drug release. The antibacterial activity of drug-loaded nanofibers in different drugs concentrations was evaluated against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by disk diffusion method. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of fibers was investigated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. The obtained results showed that the prepared nanofibers were smooth having a core-shell structure with almost no cytotoxicity. The nanofibrous mats exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus and MRSA with the inhibition zones of 2.9 and 2.5 cm and gram-negative bacteria species of E. coli and P. aeruginosa with the inhibition zones of 1.9 and 2.8 cm, respectively. With respect to the significant antibacterial activities of these nanofibrous mats, they might be used as suitable drug delivery devices not only for diabetic foot ulcer infections but also for other chronic wounds.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.111975DOI Listing
April 2021

Survey of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A contamination in spices by HPLC-based method in Shiraz, Southern of Iran.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Among food and agricultural products, spices play important roles in the diets of millions of people worldwide. These products may be colonized by fungi genus and subsequently mycotoxin production. Due to the large demand and supply of spice for cooking, preservative effects, or medicine purpose, it is essential that further investigation is designed to examine mycotoxins in spice. In the present study, the possible contamination of spices by aflatoxins (AFTs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) were analyzed. A total of 80 spice samples (curry, sumac, ginger, and saffron) were purchased and cultured on appropriate medium. Simultaneously mycotoxins from spices were extracted with immunoaffinity columns (IAC), and the occurrence of AFTs (B1 + B2 + G1 + G2) and OTA was then determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorescence detector (FD). The results depicted that 62 (77.5%) and 58 (72.5%) spice samples were contaminated with AFTs and OTA, respectively. Out of the 80 analyzed spices samples, the mean concentration of AFTs and OTA was higher in the curry samples. Among spices that contaminated with mycotoxins, 5 (6.25%) and 2 (10%) of the samples were above the acceptable limit of AFTs (≥ 10 μg/kg) and OTA (≥ 15 μg/kg), respectively. Aspergillus species were the predominant species isolated, followed by Penicillium, and finally Mucor species.Among the examined samples, only few curry samples were contaminated with mycotoxins above acceptable limit. Despite this low level of contamination, this spice is used daily in the cuisine of this region of the world, and consequently, even the small amount of these heat stable toxins for a long time may cause many adverse effects. Hence, it is recommended to monitor the toxicogenous fungi contamination and level of mycotoxins in the spices.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13616-zDOI Listing
March 2021

Antimicrobial Activity of Thermocycled Polymethyl Methacrylate Resin Reinforced with Titanium Dioxide and Copper Oxide Nanoparticles.

Int J Dent 2021 30;2021:6690806. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Student Research Committee, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of 2.5% and 7.5% copper oxide (CuO) and titanium dioxide (TiO) nanoparticles on the antimicrobial activity of thermocycled polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base material against standard strains of yeast and bacteria species. . In this in vitro study, 150 disk-shaped (10 × 2 mm) specimens of heat-cured PMMA were prepared and divided into five groups ( = 30) to be reinforced with 2.5% CuO, 7.5% CuO, 2.5% TiO, or 7.5% TiO nanoparticles and a control group (without nanoparticle). The specimens were thermocycled, and their antimicrobial activity was assessed against standard strains of yeast including and and oral bacteria species including , , and . Data were analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests ( = 0.05).

Results: Both concentrations of CuO and TiO nanoparticles had significant antimicrobial activity against , and compared with the control group ( < 0.05). Significant differences existed between both 2.5% ( = 0.006) and 7.5% CuO ( = 0.005) and the control group against . However, TiO groups were not significantly different from the control group against Concerning , 7.5% TiO was the only nanoparticle with significantly higher antimicrobial activity compared with the control group ( = 0.043).

Conclusions: Both concentrations of CuO and TiO were effective antimicrobial agents against , and , and the concentration of CuO was effective against . Yet, TiO was not much effective. Regarding , only 7.5% TiO showed efficient antimicrobial activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6690806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868146PMC
January 2021

Core-shell chitosan/PVA-based nanofibrous scaffolds loaded with Satureja mutica or Oliveria decumbens essential oils as enhanced antimicrobial wound dressing.

Int J Pharm 2021 Mar 26;597:120288. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Wounds are prone to bacterial infections, which cause a delayed healing process. Regarding the emergence of bacterial resistance to common antibiotics, using natural antimicrobial agents can be beneficial. Chitosan is a biological polymer, which has shown partial antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. In this study, core-shell nanofibrous scaffolds composed of chitosan (CS)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the core and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/ maltodextrin (MD) as the shell were developed. Satureja mutica (S. mutica) or Oliveria decumbens (O. decumbens) essential oil (EO) was encapsulated into the core of the produced scaffolds. The broth microdilution analysis showed significant antimicrobial activity of the EOs. The SEM analysis indicated that the unloaded and loaded core-shell scaffolds with S. mutica or O. decumbens EO had a uniform, beadless structure with fiber mean diameters of 210 ± 50, 250 ± 45, and 225 ± 46 nm, respectively. The CS/PVA-PVP/MD and CS/PVA/EO-PVP/MD scaffolds indicated suitable mechanical properties. The addition of the studied EOs enhanced the antioxidant activity of the scaffolds. The antimicrobial test of produced scaffolds showed that loading of 10% S. mutica or O. decumbens EO could broaden the microbicidal activity of the CS/PVA-PVP/MD scaffolds. These results revealed that the CS/PVA/EO-PVP/MD nanofibrous scaffolds are promising candidates for wound dressing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120288DOI Listing
March 2021

The Effect of Personality Traits on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Outcomes in Student Pharmacists with Rat Phobia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Iran J Med Sci 2021 Jan;46(1):23-31

Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Little is known about which personality traits determine the effectiveness of various types of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on animal phobia. The objective of the present study was to investigate a possible association between personality traits and the outcome of single- and multi-session CBT.

Methods: The present randomized clinical trial was conducted from November 2018 to May 2019 in Shiraz, Iran. Forty female students with rat phobia, who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) criteria, were systematically allocated into a single- and a multi-session therapy group (odd numbers one-session treatment, even numbers multi-session treatment). In both groups, the students were gradually exposed to rats as part of the treatment. Psychological measures (state-anxiety, rat phobia, and disgust questionnaires) were used to compare pre- and post-intervention outcomes. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess which personality traits influenced the intervention outcome. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (version 20.0) and P values<0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: Rat phobia was positively and significantly affected by conscientiousness (P=0.001) and agreeableness (P=0.003). Of these personality traits, only a higher degree of conscientiousness resulted in a further reduction of state anxiety after the intervention (P=0.005). There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention outcomes.

Conclusion: The outcome of single- and multi-session rat phobia therapies was associated with specific personality traits of the participants, namely conscientiousness and agreeableness. Both intervention methods had an equal effect on reducing rat phobia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.30476/ijms.2019.82341.1045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812500PMC
January 2021

Concomitant of Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst and Aspergilloma: A Rare Coinfection.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2020 12;2020:6650478. Epub 2020 Dec 12.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

The coexistence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) and aspergilloma is rather uncommon. species, saprophytic fungi, can colonize pulmonary cavities that are caused by tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and CE. Infection by is often occurring in immunosuppressed patients. However, coinfection of aspergilloma with pulmonary hydatid cyst is very unusual, especially in an immunocompetent patient with unruptured cyst. Herein, we report a case of lung hydatid cyst coinfected with in a 42-year-old Iranian man from Southern Iran. Chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scan showed a circumscribed cystic lesion in the superior and inferior segment of the lower lobes of right and left lungs that suggests hydatid cyst. Radical surgery (lobectomy) was performed for the patient. Histopathological evaluation reconfirmed the classical laminated layer of hydatid cyst. Moreover, the ectocyst layer of the right lung showed the presence of numerous cluster septate hyphae with acute-angled branching, as seen in the morphology of species. DNA was extracted from the cyst, and the ITS1-5.8s-ITS2 region of the fungal agent was amplified. Sequencing and analysis of seminested PCR product revealed that the isolate has the most similarity with . Further attention is recommended to control fungal pathogens during pulmonary hydatidosis. The coexistence of aspergilloma should always be kept in mind for the better management of CE.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6650478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787855PMC
December 2020

Clinical and microbiological features of candiduria in critically ill adult patients in Shiraz, Iran (2016-2018): deviations from international guidelines and fluconazole therapeutic failure.

Med Mycol 2020 Dec 10. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Basic Sciences in Infectious Diseases Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Candiduria is common among patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs); however, clinical and microbiological data are limited, which accounts for non-compliance with international guidelines, including over treatment of asymptomatic candiduria that promotes antifungal resistance. This prospective study included adult patients admitted to ICUs of five referral hospitals in Shiraz, Iran, during 2016-2018. Species were identified by MALDI-TOF MS, and antifungal susceptibility was assessed according to CLSI M27-A3/S4. Among 2086 patients, 162 and 293 developed candiduria and bacteriuria, respectively. In total, 174 yeast isolates were collected; 88.5% were Candida albicans (91/174; 52.2%), C. glabrata (38/174; 21.8%), and C. tropicalis (25/174; 14.3%). Antifungal resistance was rare; only two isolates (one C. tropicalis and one C. krusei) were fluconazole resistant. Symptomatic candiduria was noted in 31.4% of patients (51/162); only 37% (19/51) of them were treated and 36.82% (7/19) showed fluconazole therapeutic failure. Two symptomatic patients developed candidemia shortly after candiduria. Among asymptomatic patients, 31.5% (35/111) were overtreated with fluconazole. The mortality rate was 25.3% (41/162); it did not differ between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Our results indicate that deviation from standard-of-care treatment for candiduria is a matter of concern given the high rate of fluconazole therapeutic failure among patients with symptomatic candiduria.

Lay Summary: Candiduria is an underestimated clinical presentation among critically ill patients and detailed data are scarce in this regard. Given the high rate of fluconazole therapeutic failure and development of candidemia in some cases, the mistreatment of candiduria should not be overlooked by clinicians.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myaa092DOI Listing
December 2020

Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility among clinical isolates of dermatophytes in Shiraz, Iran (2017-2019).

Mycoses 2021 Apr 20;64(4):385-393. Epub 2020 Dec 20.

Department of Medical Mycology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Dermatophytosis is a common superficial mycotic infection affecting individual's quality of life worldwide. The present study aimed to perform species-level identification and evaluate the antifungal susceptibility patterns of dermatophytes isolated in Shiraz, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on clinical samples collected during 2017-2019 from 307 patients suspected of having dermatophytosis. The isolates were identified by direct microscopy, culture and internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequencing, and their antifungal susceptibility patterns were determined by the microdilution method. Among 307 patients, dermatophytosis was diagnosed by microscopy in 190 (61.8%) subjects and confirmed in 130 (42.3%) cases by both microscopy and culture. It was found out tinea pedis was the most common clinical manifestation, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was the most prevalent species (28.4%), followed by T tonsurans (23.8%), Microsporum canis (11.5%), T interdigitale (10%), T verrucosum (6.9%), T rubrum (6.9%), T benhamiae (4.6%), T violaceum (3%), T simii (3%), Epidermophyton floccosum (0.7%) and M ferrugineum (0.7%). Moreover, it was revealed that luliconazole with a geometric mean (GM) minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.03 μg ml was the most effective agent against all tested isolates. Regardless of species, 30% of isolates responded to high MICs of griseofulvin (MIC  > 2 μg ml ). The increasing prevalence of nonindigenous species of T simii, T benhamiae and M ferrugineum in Shiraz, Iran, was a notable finding. In addition, infections due to zoophilic species showed an increasing trend. These epidemiological data, along with antifungal susceptibility patterns, may have implications for clinical decision-making and successful treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.13226DOI Listing
April 2021

High detection of virulence factors by Candida species isolated from bloodstream of patients with candidemia.

Microb Pathog 2020 Dec 17;149:104574. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Basic Sciences in Infectious Diseases Research Center, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Objective: Candida species are the normal inhabitants of the skin and mucosa that cause a wide range of debilitating diseases in immunocompromised patients and other susceptible individuals. The present study aimed to evaluate the production of exoenzymes and the biofilm formation capacity of Candida species isolated from candidemia.

Materials And Methods: In this study, a total of 100 stock Candida species isolates consist of 50 Candida albicans and 50 non-Candida albicans Candida species (24 C. glabrata, 15 C. parapsilosis, 5 C. dubliniensis, 3 C. tropicalis, 2 C. krusei and 1 C. fabianii) which previously were recovered from patients with candidemia were used. The enzymatic activity tests for hemolysin, proteinase, and phospholipase were performed by using blood Sabouraud dextrose agar, bovine serum albumin medium and egg yolk agar, respectively. Biofilm formation was determined by microplate assay method.

Result: All of the Candida albicans species could produce hemolysin. The predominant enzyme activity of species included strong and very strong levels of phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity were belonged to Candida albicans isolates. There were statistically significant differences in hemolysin (P < 0.001), proteinase (P = 0.003) and phospholipase (P < 0.001) activity between two groups of albicans and non-albicans species. The biofilm formation was seen in 30 (60%) of C. albicans and 49 (98%) of non-C. albicans species. There was significant statistical differences between the two groups of isolates in biofilm formation (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: It is clear that Candida species have ability to produce several enzymes as virulence factors to contribute its pathogenicity. There were significant differences in virulence factors between the two C. albicans and non- C. albicans group. The ability for biofilm formation and producing exo-enzyme were an important virulence factors in Candida species isolates. This differences found in this report might have role in severity of disease caused by different species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104574DOI Listing
December 2020

Levels of zinc and vitamin D3 in patients with pityriasis versicolor:A study in Southern Iran, Shiraz.

Dermatol Ther 2020 11 30;33(6):e14427. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Medical Mycology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.14427DOI Listing
November 2020

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of One- and Multi-Session Exposure-Based Treatments in Reducing Biological and Psychological Responses to Rat Phobia Among Students.

Psychol Res Behav Manag 2020 12;13:665-679. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Center of Basic Research in Infectious Diseases, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Animal phobia is one of the most common forms of specific phobias. This anxiety disorder challenges the medical student working with animal models. Regarding this, the present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of one- and multi-session cognitive exposure-based treatments in students with rat phobia.

Methods: For the purpose of the study, a total of 40 female students with rat phobia were allocated into two groups of one- and multi-session cognitive exposure-based treatments. The data were collected using psychological measures, including state anxiety, rat phobia, and disgust questionnaires, which were completed in three stages, including the baseline, pre-treatment, and post-treatment. The gene expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (ie, interleukin-1 [IL-1], nuclear factor-kappaB [NF-κB], and tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNFα]) associated with acute stress, as well as the serum levels of IL-6 and cortisol, were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. This study was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT20171123037602N1).

Results: According to the results, both treatments yielded a significant reduction in almost all psychological measures and biological variables, except for IL-6. Rat phobia was the only variable that showed a statistically greater reduction in the multi-session treatment group. Furthermore, rat phobia and disgust reduction were maintained in both groups to the same extent during follow-up.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study were indicative of the incidence of habituation in psychological and biological factors following exposure therapy. Both one- and multi-session treatments reduced the factors associated with rat phobia almost to the same degree. As a result of the high levels of disgust, anxiety-related biological factors remained high in four students despite observing a significant reduction in their fear. This led to passive avoidance in this group. The OST enabled the students to handle rats in less than half a day. Accordingly, it could be applied as a half-day workshop for students in medical universities to avoid the incidence of associated anxiety-related disorders in this group.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S256781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429405PMC
August 2020

Epidemiology of candidemia in Shiraz, southern Iran: A prospective multicenter study (2016-2018).

Med Mycol 2021 May;59(5):422-430

Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Systematic candidemia studies, especially in southern Iran, are scarce. In the current prospective study, we investigated candidemia in three major healthcare centers of Shiraz, the largest city in southern Iran. Yeast isolates from blood and other sterile body fluids were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) using the broth microdilution method. Clinical data were retrieved from patients' medical records. In total, 113 yeast isolates were recovered from 109 patients, over 60% of whom received fluconazole. Antifungal drugs were prescribed without considering species identification or AFST. The all-cause mortality rate was 28%. Almost 30% of the patients were from intensive care units (ICUs). Candida albicans (56/113; 49.5%) was the most prevalent species followed by C. glabrata (26/113; 23%), C. parapsilosis (13/113; 11.5%), C. tropicalis (7/113; 6.2%), and C. dubliniensis (5/113; 4.4%). Only five isolates showed antifungal resistance or decreased susceptibility to fluconazole: one C. orthopsilosis isolate from an azole-naïve patient and two C. glabrata, one C. albicans, and one C. dubliniensis isolates from patients treated with azoles, who developed therapeutic failure against azoles later. Our results revealed a low level of antifungal resistance but a notable rate of azole therapeutic failure among patients with candidemia due to non-albicans Candida species, which threaten the efficacy of fluconazole, the most widely used antifungal in southern regions of Iran. Candidemia studies should not be confined to ICUs and treatment should be administered based on species identification and AFST results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myaa059DOI Listing
May 2021

Comparative Analysis of Virulence Factors of Homozygous and Heterozygous Strains of Vaginal Isolates.

Int J Microbiol 2020 27;2020:8889224. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, 7134845794, Shiraz, Iran.

Although the epidemiology of pathogenic species is changing due to invasive diseases, has become the common cause of human infections worldwide. is a diploid yeast with a mostly clonal mode of reproduction and without known complete sexual cycle. This species has two heterozygous and homozygous strains at hyphal wall protein 1 gene locus (). Little is known about virulence factors of these strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exoenzyme activity of heterozygous and homozygous strains. A total of 60 stock species isolates, which consisted of 30 homozygous and 30 heterozygous strains, were used for exoenzyme activities. We used egg yolk agar, Sabouraud blood agar, and bovine serum albumin agar for evaluation of phospholipase, hemolysin, and proteinase activity, respectively. Homozygous strains of had more phospholipase and proteinase activity than heterozygous strains. However, there were no significant statistical differences between the two strains in the severity of exoenzymes production. Beta hemolysin activity was seen in 100% and 96.7% of the homozygous and heterozygous strains, respectively. The results of this study indicated that both of the strains exhibited exoenzyme activities in different ranges. There were no significant statistical differences in virulence factors between the homozygous and heterozygous strains.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8889224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7336225PMC
June 2020

Glucantime-loaded electrospun core-shell nanofibers composed of poly(ethylene oxide)/gelatin-poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan as dressing for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Nov 28;163:288-297. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Basic Sciences in Infectious Diseases Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Leishmaniasis, one of the main concerns of the World Health Organization, is a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania species. The main objective of this study was to prepare a topical drug delivery system that can deliver glucantime to the site of cutaneous Leishmania wounds. Using the electrospinning method, a core-shell nanofibrous mat composed of macromolecules including polyethylene oxide, gelatin, poly (vinyl alcohol) and chitosan was prepared. The prepared nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), tensile test and in vitro drug release test. The anti-Leishmania activities of drug-loaded nanofibers against Leishmania promastigotes and its cytotoxicity on fibroblasts were determined respectively by flow-cytometry and indirect MTT methods. Results of morphological studies showed that uniform nanofibers were prepared without any bead with average diameter of 404 nm. The TEM investigation confirmed the core-shell structure of the fibers. The in-vitro drug release assay was executed using Franz diffusion cell, which indicted 84% of glucantime was released during the first 9 h. The results indicated that 4 and 6 cm of nanofibers mat were significantly killed promatigotes up to 78%. Moreover, the MTT assay also showed that the fabricated nanofibers do not possess any cytotoxicity towards fibroblast cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.06.240DOI Listing
November 2020

Evaluation of Molecular Epidemiology, Clinical Characteristics, Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles, and Molecular Mechanisms of Antifungal Resistance of Iranian Species Complex Blood Isolates.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 21;10:206. Epub 2020 May 21.

Division of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Clonal expansion of fluconazole resistant (FLZ-R) isolates is increasingly being identified in many countries, while there is no study exploring the antifungal susceptibility pattern, genetic diversity, and clinical information for Iranian blood isolates. species complex blood isolates ( = 98) were recovered from nine hospitals located in three major cities, identified by MALDI-TOF MS, and their genetic relatedness was examined by AFLP fingerprinting. Antifungal susceptibility testing followed CLSI-M27-A3 and and hotspots 1/2 (HS1/2) of were sequenced to assess the azole and echinocandin resistance mechanisms, respectively. Ninety-four and four isolates were identified from 90 patients. Only 43 patients received systemic antifungal drugs with fluconazole as the main antifungal used. The overall mortality rate was 46.6% (42/90) and death mostly occurred for those receiving systemic antifungals (25/43) relative to those not treated (17/47). Although, antifungal-resistance was rare, one isolate was multidrug-resistant (FLZ = 16 μg/ml and micafungin = 8 μg/ml) and the infected patient showed therapeutic failure to FLZ prophylaxis. Mutations causing azole and echinocandin resistance were not found in the genes studied. AFLP revealed five genotypes (G) and G1 was the main one (59/94; 62.7%). Clinical outcome was significantly associated with city ( = 0.02, α <0.05) and Mashhad was significantly associated with mortality ( = 0.03, α <0.05). Overall, we found a low level of antifungal resistance for Iranian blood isolates, but the noted MDR strain can potentially become the source of future infections and challenge the antifungal therapy in antifungal-naïve patients. AFLP typing results warrants confirmation using other resolutive typing methods.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253641PMC
June 2021

Translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene as a marker for diagnosing of candidal onychomycosis.

Curr Med Mycol 2020 ;6(1):15-21

Department of Medical Mycology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background And Purpose: Culture-based identification methods have been the gold standard for the diagnosis of candidal onychomycosis. Molecular technologies, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, can provide an alternative for the rapid detection of species. The present study was conducted to investigate a pan- PCR assay based on the translation elongation factor 1-alpha () gene for the detection of the most prevalent pathogenic species.

Materials And Methods: For the purpose of the study, an optimized pan- PCR primer pair was designed, and the target was amplified and sequenced. The analytical and clinical diagnostic performance of the designed primers was tested using 17 reference strains, 137 nail scrapings suspected of onychomycosis, and 10 healthy nail specimens.

Results: The use of the universal primers designed on gene resulted in the successful amplification of a 270-base pair fragment in all species tested, except for and reacted neither with other fungi nor with . The sequence difference count matrix showed poor insertion/deletion differences (0-2 nt) among species. Among 137 nail specimens, 35% (n=48), 30.7% (n=42), and 40.1% (n=55) of the samples were found to be positive by direct microscopy, culture, and pan- PCR, respectively.

Conclusion: Based on the findings, the PCR-based detection targeting the DNA gene is a rapid and simple procedure for the diagnosis of candidal onychomycosis directly from nail sample.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/cmm.6.1.2503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217255PMC
January 2020

Emergence of Terbinafine Resistant in Iran, Harboring Mutations in the Squalene Epoxidase () Gene.

Infect Drug Resist 2020 13;13:845-850. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Invasive Fungi Research Center, Department of Medical Mycology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Introduction: and are important causative agents of superficial mycoses, demonstrating emergent antifungal drug resistance. We studied the antifungal susceptibility profiles in Iranian isolates of these two species.

Methods: A total of 96 and 45 isolates were subjected to molecular typing by ribosomal ITS region. Antifungal susceptibility profiles for terbinafine, griseofulvin, clotrimazole, efinaconazole, luliconazole, amorolfine and ciclopirox were obtained by CLSI broth microdilution method. The squalene epoxidase () gene was subjected to sequencing for mutations, if any, in isolates exhibiting elevated MICs for terbinafine.

Results: Luliconazole and efinaconazole showed the lowest MIC values against and isolates. There were five isolates with terbinafine MICs ≥32 µg/mL in our sample. They belonged to type VIII and harbored two alternative gene sequence variants, leading to Phe397Leu and Ala448Thr or Leu393Ser and Ala448Thr substitutions in the enzyme. All terbinafine resistant strains could be inhibited by luliconazole and efinaconazole.

Conclusion: This study documented a step in the global spread of resistance mechanisms in . However, treatment alternatives for resistant isolates were available.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S246025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7078656PMC
March 2020

Chemical compositions and antifungal activities of against and species.

Curr Med Mycol 2019 ;5(4):20-25

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background And Purpose: Despite the various applications of species, there are limited data in this domain. Regarding this, the present study was conducted to investigate the essential oil (EO) biological activity of species in Iran.

Materials And Methods: The EO of flowers was obtained by hydrodistillation. Chemical compositions of the EO were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were measured by means of the broth microdilution method. The estimation of antibiofilm and cytotoxic activities was also accomplished using the tetrazolium salt and MTT assays, respectively.

Results: A total of 26 components were identified in the EO with linalool as the main constituent (28.46%). A MIC range value of 0.25-8 μL/mL was obtained against all of the tested fungi. The EO inhibited the biofilm development of the tested strains at a concentration of 4-8 μL/mL. Cytotoxicity (IC) of EO against the HeLa cell was greater than the MIC concentration (6.49 μL/mL).

Conclusion: Based on the findings, it was concluded that the EO of has the potential for further use as an antifungal agent.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/cmm.5.4.2162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7034783PMC
January 2019

Nano-SnCl.SiO, an efficient catalyst for synthesis of benzimidazole drivatives as antifungal and cytotoxic agents.

Res Pharm Sci 2019 Dec 11;14(6):496-503. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, I.R. Iran.

The concept of green chemistry has made significant impact on many frontages including the use of green solvents or sustainable catalyst materials. Benzimidazole ring is an important nitrogen-containing heterocyclic, which exhibits a broad spectrum of bioactivities and are widely utilized by the medicinal chemists for drug discovery. A simple and efficient method was developed for the synthesis of some benzimidazole derivatives reaction of -phenylenediamine and substituted aldehydes in the presence of nano-SnCl/SiO as a mild catalyst. Ten 2-substituted benzimidazole compounds ( ) were synthesized. All compounds were evaluated against different species of yeasts and filament fungi using broth micro dilution method as recommended by clinical and laboratory standard institute. Among these compounds, the active ones were chosen for their cytotoxic activities evaluation against MCF-7 and A549 cell lines using MTT method. Compound showed the best antifungal activity against all tested species. Compounds had also desirable antifungal activities. Our cytotoxic results were also similar to the antifungal activities except for which had no cytotoxic activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.272536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6937748PMC
December 2019