Publications by authors named "Kamaruddin Jaalam"

7 Publications

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Commemorating the 40-Year Journey of the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Malays J Med Sci 2019 Mar 30;26(2):1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, USM Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

The School of Medical Sciences of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) is the launching pad for this journal. From the school's humble beginning at the USM Main Campus in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, it has grown in stature at its current location in the USM Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. Commemorating its 40th anniversary, this editorial aims to recollect, although not exhaustively, the wealth of returns for the USM, as well as for the nation, which the school has managed to deliver in that period. Resolute to its vision and mission, this article highlights the outstanding accomplishments in various core aspects of the school's academic, research and professional growth as we continually strive to train globally competitive and compassionate medical graduates, medical specialists and scientists, skilled to serve nation's needs and broader markets worldwide. Currently guided by the Malaysian Higher Education Blueprint (2015-2025), the school shall remain ingenious in its duties in the many more years to come, as we head for a world-class trajectory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21315/mjms2019.26.2.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6687216PMC
March 2019

Undiagnosed chicken meat aspiration as a cause of difficult-to-ventilate in a boy with traumatic brain injury.

Respir Med Case Rep 2018 8;23:93-95. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus, 16150, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Introduction: Bronchoscopy is a commonly used procedure in the context of aspiration in the Intensive Care Unit setting. Despite its ability to remove mucus plug and undigested gastric contents, aspiration of gastric content into the trachea is one of the most feared complications among anesthesiologist.

Discussion: The scenario is made worst if the aspiration causes acute hypoxemic respiratory failure immediately post intubation. However, in the event of desaturation, the quick decision to proceed with bronchoscopy is a challenging task to the anesthesiologist without knowing the causes.

Case Presentation: We present a case of a 12-year-old boy who had a difficult-to-ventilate scenario post transferring and immediately connected to ventilator in operation theatre (OT) from portable ventilator from the emergency department. She was successfully managed by bronchoscopy.

Conclusion: Special attention should be given to the difficult-to-ventilate scenario post intubation of traumatic brain injury patient prior to operation. Prompt diagnosis and bronchoscope-assisted removal of foreign body was found to be a successful to reduce morbidity and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmcr.2018.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5772507PMC
January 2018

The use of end-tidal capnography to monitor non-intubated patients presenting with acute exacerbation of asthma in the emergency department.

J Emerg Med 2011 Dec 9;41(6):581-9. Epub 2009 Mar 9.

Penang General Hospital, Penang, Malaysia.

Study Objective: To determine if the slope of Phase II and Phase III, and the alpha angle of the expiratory capnographic waveform, as measured via computer-recognizable algorithms, can reflect changes in bronchospasm in acute asthmatic non-intubated patients presenting to the emergency department (ED).

Methods: In this prospective study carried out in a university hospital ED, 30 patients with acute asthma were monitored with clinical severity scoring and peak flow measurements, and then had a nasal cannula attached for sidestream sampling of expired carbon dioxide. The capnographic waveform was recorded onto a personal computer card for analysis. The patients were treated according to departmental protocols. After treatment, when they had improved enough for discharge, a second set of results was obtained for capnographic waveform recording. The pre-treatment and post-treatment results were then compared with paired-samples t-test analysis.

Results: On the capnographic waveform pre- and post-treatment, there was a significant difference in the slope of Phase III (p < 0.001) and alpha angle (p < 0.001), but not in the Phase II slope (p = 0.35). There was significant change in peak flow meter reading, but it was poorly correlated with all the capnographic indices.

Conclusion: The study provides some preliminary data showing that capnographic waveform indices can indicate improvement in airway diameter in acute asthmatics in the ED. Capnographic waveform analysis presents several advantages in that it is effort-independent, and provides continuous monitoring of normal tidal respiration. With further refined studies, it may serve as a new method of monitoring non-intubated asthmatics in the ED.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2008.10.017DOI Listing
December 2011

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation : the short comings in Malaysia.

Malays J Med Sci 2008 Jan;15(1):49-51

Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus,16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

This short review explores the current status of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Malaysia and highlights some of the factors that have a negative impact on its rate of success. Absence of a unifying body such as a national resuscitation council results in non-uniformity in the practice and teaching of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In the out-of-hospital setting, there is the lack of basic skills and knowledge in performing bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation as well as using an automated external defibrillator among the Malaysian public. The ambulance response time is also a significant negative factor. In the in-hospital setting, often times, resuscitation is first attended by junior doctors or nurses lacking in the skill and experience needed. Resuscitation trolleys were often inadequately equipped.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3341899PMC
January 2008

Baseline assessment of intensive care-acquired nosocomial infection surveillancein three adult intensive care units in Malaysia.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2008 Oct 1;2(5):364-8. Epub 2008 Oct 1.

Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: Nosocomial infections (NIs) have a serious impact on patient outcomes in Intensive Care Units (ICUs).

Method: A prospective cohort-targeted comprehensive surveillance study on NI associated with usage of devices was conducted in three ICUs in Malaysia using a developed NI surveillance form. Patients who developed infection outside an ICU were excluded from the study.

Results: The device associated NI was 21.1%. The mean duration for development of NI was 10.0 +/- 7.44 days in ICU. The major device-associated infections were nosocomial pneumonia (18.7%) followed by bacteremia (8.5%) and urinary tract infections (4.7%) respectively. NI incidence density rate was 20.6 per 1,000 patient-days. Bacteremia, urinary tract infection (UTI) and nosocomial pneumonia (NP) rates were 8.9, 4.7 and 20.5 per 1,000 patient-days, respectively. Acinetobacter species, Klebseilla pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant pathogens isolated from the NIs subjects during the study period in the three ICUs.

Conclusion: Analysis of the rate of the NIs associated with usage of devices in the three ICUs showed that it is highly correlated with the use of mechanical ventilation devices, followed by intravascular devices and usage of indwelling urinary catheters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.198DOI Listing
October 2008

Ambulance services at hospital universiti sains malaysia and hospital kota bharu: a retrospective study of calls.

Malays J Med Sci 2005 Jul;12(2):34-42

Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medical Sciences.

This retrospective study attempted to identify the pattern of ambulance calls for the past two years at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) and Hospital Kota Bharu (HKB). This study will provide a simple method of acquiring information related to ambulance response time (ART) and to test whether it met the international standards and needs of the client. Additionally, this paper takes into account the management of emergency calls. This included ambulance response time, which was part of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) episode: onset of ART, which started when details like phone number of the caller, exact location of the incident and the nature of the main complaint had been noted. ART ended when the emergency team arrived at the scene of incident. Information regarding ambulance calls from the record offices of HUSM and HKB was recorded for the year 2001 and 2002, tabulated and analyzed. There was a significant difference in the total number of calls managed by HUSM and HKB in the year 2001. It was noted that 645 calls were managed by HUSM while 1069 calls were recorded at HKB. In the year 2002, however, HUSM led with 613 extra numbers of calls as compare to HKB with 1193 numbers of calls. The pattern of ambulance calls observed is thought to possibly be influenced by social activities like local festivities, school holidays and the seasons. Further, it is observed that no studies were previously undertaken to compare the ART at both the HUSM and HKB to that of the international standards. In fact, a literature review undertaken so far showed no similar studies have been done for the whole Malaysia.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3349399PMC
July 2005

Effect of different curcumin dosages on human gall bladder.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2002 ;11(4):314-8

School of Medicine, University of North Sumatera, Medan, Indonesia.

Our previous study demonstrated that curcumin, an active compound of Curcuma xanthorrhiza and C. domestica, produces a positive cholekinetic effect. A 20 mg amount of curcumin is capable of contracting the gall bladder by up to 29% within an observation time of 2 h. The aim of the current study was to define the dosage of curcumin capable of producing a 50% contraction of the gall bladder, and to determine if there is a linear relationship between doubling the curcumin dosage and the doubling of gall bladder contraction. A randomised, single-blind, three-phase, crossover-designed examination was carried out on 12 healthy volunteers. Ultrasonography was carried out serially to measure the gall bladder volume. The data obtained was analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The fasting volumes of gall bladders were similar (P > 0.50), with 17.28 +/- 5.47 mL for 20 mg curcumin, 18.34 +/- 3.75 mL for 40 mg and 18.24 +/- 3.72 mL for 80 mg. The percentage decrease in gall bladder volume 2 h after administration of 20, 40 and 80 mg was 34.10 +/- 10.16, 51.15 +/- 8.08 and 72.25 +/- 8.22, respectively, which was significantly different (P < 0.01). On the basis of the present findings, it appears that the dosage of cucumin capable of producing a 50% contraction of the bladder was 40 mg. This study did not show any linear relationship between doubling curcumin dosage and the doubling of gall bladder contraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-6047.2002.00296.xDOI Listing
May 2003
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