Publications by authors named "Kalscheur K"

70 Publications

Performance and amino acid utilization of early lactation dairy cows fed regular or reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles.

J Dairy Sci 2010 Jul;93(7):3176-91

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, USA.

The objective of this study was to evaluate lactation response and AA utilization of early lactation cows fed 2 types of dried distillers grains with solubles (DG): regular (DDGS) or reduced-fat (RFDGS). Thirty-six Holstein cows 19.7+/-2.6 d in milk at the start of the experiment were used in a randomized complete block design for 14 wk including a 2-wk covariate period. Treatments consisted of the following diets: 1) control (CON) diet containing 0% DG; 2) diet containing 22% DDGS; and 3) diet containing 20% RFDGS. Distillers grains replaced soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, and soyhulls from the CON diet. Diets were formulated to be similar in crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, and net energy for lactation concentrations. Dry matter intake (24.7 kg/d) and milk yield (39.3 kg/d) were similar for all diets. Milk fat and lactose percentages were unaffected by diets; however, protein percentage was greater for cows fed the DG diets compared with the CON diet. Consequently, milk protein yield was also greater for the DG diets compared with CON. Milk urea nitrogen decreased for cows fed DG diets and averaged 11.8, 10.9, and 10.1 mg/dL, respectively, for CON, DDGS, and RFDGS. Feed efficiency tended to be greater and N efficiency was greater for cows fed DG compared with CON. Body weight (711 kg), body weight change (+0.49 kg/d), and body condition score (3.36) were similar for all diets, but cows fed CON tended to gain more body condition (+0.14) than cows fed DG diets. Amino acid utilization was evaluated at the peak of milk production corresponding to wk 9 of lactation. Arterial Lys concentration was lower with DG diets (70.4, 58.6, and 55.8 microM/L). Cows fed DG had greater arterial Met concentration (21.3 microM) compared with CON (14.9 microM). Arterio-venous difference of Lys was similar across diets, whereas that of Met was greater for the DG diets compared with the CON diet (10.3 vs. 13.0 microM/L). Extraction efficiency of Lys by the mammary gland was greater for DG diets than for CON (76.1 vs. 65.4%). Mammary uptake of Lys (2.56 g/kg of milk) was similar for all diets, and the uptake of Met tended to increase in cows fed DG diets. Plasma glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol were unaffected by treatment; however, cows fed DG diets had lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and tended to have lower nonesterified fatty acid concentrations than cows fed the CON diet. Despite the apparent deficiency of Lys, milk protein percentage was increased in cows fed DG diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2974DOI Listing
July 2010

Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in dairy cow diets containing dried distillers grains plus solubles.

J Dairy Sci 2010 Jun;93(6):2661-9

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007-0647, USA.

Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows (127+/-52 d in milk) were used in 4 replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares with 4-wk periods to evaluate interactions of dietary inclusion of a fermentation product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC; XPC, Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, IA) and dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) on production of milk and milk components when fed diets containing approximately 30% dietary neutral detergent fiber with calculated forage neutral detergent fiber of 19.3% of diet dry matter (DM). Treatments were a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with SC included at 0 or 14 g/d and DDGS at 0 or 20% of diet DM. Diets consisted of 27% corn silage, 18% alfalfa hay, and 55% concentrate mix on a DM basis. Diets not containing DDGS included additional corn, soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, soyhulls, and rumen inert fat to remain isocaloric and isonitrogenous with DDGS diets. Dry matter intake (26.0 kg/d) was similar for all diets. Milk production increased with the addition of SC to diets (43.6 vs. 42.0 kg/d for diets without SC) and decreased for cows fed diets containing DDGS (42.0 kg/d vs. 43.6 kg/d for diets not containing DDGS). Milk fat percentage (3.05 vs. 3.22% for DDGS and non-DDGS diets, respectively) and yield (1.27 vs. 1.41 kg/d) were decreased by the addition of DDGS but were not affected by the addition of SC. Concentrations of long-chain, polyunsaturated, trans-, and conjugated fatty acids in milk of cows fed DDGS were increased, but milk fatty acid profiles were not affected by SC. Milk true protein concentrations were similar for all diets; however, the addition of SC increased yield of true protein (1.32 vs. 1.27 kg/d). Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen increased when SC was included in the diet with DDGS. The DDGS decreased yields of energy-corrected milk (39.4 vs. 42.1 kg/d) and tended to decrease feed efficiency (1.53 vs. 1.61 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake). Body weights and condition scores were not affected by treatments. Results suggest that diets containing minimal amounts of forage fiber and DDGS at 20% of diet DM will contribute to decreased milk production and milk fat depression. The addition of SC did improve milk and milk protein yields but did not prevent milk fat depression caused by DDGS. Production responses to SC were similar when cows were fed DDGS or non-DDGS diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-3040DOI Listing
June 2010

Response of lactating dairy cows to high protein distillers grains or 3 other protein supplements.

J Dairy Sci 2010 May;93(5):2095-104

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007-0647, USA.

This study compared high protein dried distillers grains (HPDDG) with soybean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM), and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as protein supplements in dairy diets. A lactation trial used 12 multiparous cows averaging 78 d in milk at the start of the experiment in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Weeks 1 and 2 of each period were used for adjustment and wk 3 and 4 for data collection. Each treatment diet consisted of 55% forage and one of the 4 protein supplements in a concentrate mix. Total mixed diets averaged 15.3% crude protein, with 38% of the protein from one of the 4 protein supplements. Dry matter intake (24.4 kg/d) and crude protein intake (3.57 kg/d) were similar for all 4 diets. Milk production (31.8 kg/d), protein yield (1.05 kg/d), fat yield (1.29 kg/d), and protein percentage (3.31) were similar for all 4 treatment diets. Milk fat percentage was lower when fed DDGS (3.78) than when fed SBM or HPDDG (4.21), but similar with CM (4.07). Feed efficiency (1.44kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake) and nitrogen efficiency (0.29) were not affected by diet. Total milk nitrogen and true milk protein were highest when fed the HPDDG diet. Molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and the acetate to propionate ratio in ruminal contents and ruminal ammonia concentrations were similar for all diets. Arterial and venous concentrations of total essential AA tended to be lower when fed CM, reflecting lower concentrations of His, Ile, Leu, and Val when fed the CM diet. Extraction efficiency of AA from blood by the mammary gland indicated that Met was the first limiting AA when fed the SBM diet, whereas Lys was first limiting for the other diets. Phenylalanine was third limiting with all diets. Feeding HPDDG was equally as effective as feeding SBM, CM, and regular distillers grains as a protein supplement for lactating cows.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2687DOI Listing
May 2010

Replacement of starch from corn with nonforage fiber from distillers grains and soyhulls in diets of lactating dairy cows.

J Dairy Sci 2010 Mar;93(3):1086-97

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007, USA.

Forty Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design with a 2-wk covariate period followed by a 6-wk experimental period to evaluate incremental substitution of nonforage fiber provided by dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and soyhulls (SH) for starch provided by corn in the diet. Diets provided decreasing concentrations of starch: 29% starch with 0% DDGS; 26% starch with 7% DDGS; 23% starch with 14% DDGS; and 20% starch with 21% DDGS. Diets contained 27% corn silage, 22% alfalfa hay, and 51% concentrate mix and were formulated to be 17% crude protein, 4.7% fat, and 23% neutral detergent fiber from forage. Total neutral detergent fiber increased as DDGS and SH were included in the diet. Soyhulls were included in a linear fashion along with DDGS to replace soybean meal and expeller soybean meal, thereby maintaining a similar crude protein content across diets. Dry matter intake decreased linearly; consequently, feed efficiency tended to increase linearly as starch was replaced by nonforage fiber. There was no effect of diet on milk production or milk fat and protein percentage or yield. Milk fatty acid profiles were similar across diets. Other response variables, including 4% fat-corrected milk, total solids, and milk urea nitrogen, were unaffected by dietary treatments. Ruminal volatile fatty acid concentration did not differ between diets. Concentrations of blood glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate were similar across diets. Results from this research suggest that nonforage fiber from DDGS can partially substitute for starch from corn in dairy cow diets without affecting milk production and milk composition. Economic analysis of the diets showed that feeding DDGS and SH in substitution of corn was cost-effective. Results from this experiment indicate that DDGS and SH can replace corn as an energy source to decrease feed costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2332DOI Listing
March 2010

Lactation performance and amino acid utilization of cows fed increasing amounts of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles.

J Dairy Sci 2010 Jan;93(1):288-303

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007, USA.

The use of a solvent-extraction process that removes corn oil from distillers grains produces a reduced-fat co-product (RFDG). To determine the optimal concentration of RFDG in mid-lactation diets, 22 multiparous and 19 primiparous Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design for 8 wk, including a 2-wk covariate period. The RFDG was included at 0, 10, 20, and 30% of the diet on a dry matter basis, replacing soybean feedstuffs. Increasing RFDG in diets had no effect on dry matter intake (23.1 kg/d) or milk production (35.0 kg/d). Milk fat percentage increased linearly from 3.18 to 3.72% as RFDG increased from 0 to 30% of the diet. Similarly, milk fat yield tended to increase linearly from 1.08 to 1.32 kg/d. Milk protein percentage (2.99, 3.06, 3.13, and 2.99% for diets with RFDG from 0 to 30%) responded quadratically, whereas protein yield was not affected by treatment. Milk urea N decreased linearly from 15.8 to 13.1mg/dL. The efficiency of N utilization for milk production was not affected by including RFDG (26.1%), whereas the efficiency of milk production (energy-corrected milk divided by dry matter intake) tended to increase linearly with increasing RFDG in the diet. Similarly, concentrations of plasma glucose increased linearly. Arterial Lys decreased linearly from 66.0 to 44.8 microM/L, whereas arterial Met increased linearly from 16.5 to 29.3 microM/L. Arteriovenous difference of Lys decreased linearly from 42.6 to 32.5 microM/L, whereas that of Met was unaffected. The extraction of Lys by the mammary gland increased linearly from 64.3 to 72.2%, whereas that of Met decreased linearly from 71.6 to 42.7%. Feeding up to 30% of RFDG in a mid-lactation diet supported lactation performance similarly to cows fed the soybean protein-based diet (0% RFDG).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2377DOI Listing
January 2010

Invited review: The use of distillers products in dairy cattle diets.

J Dairy Sci 2009 Dec;92(12):5802-13

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007-0647, USA.

Distillers grains with solubles (DGS) is the major coproduct of ethanol production, usually made from corn, which is fed to dairy cattle. It is a good protein (crude protein, CP) source (>30% CP) high in ruminally undegradable protein (approximately 55% of CP) and is a good energy source (net energy for lactation of approximately 2.25 Mcal/kg of dry matter). The intermediate fat concentration (10% of dry matter) and readily digestible fiber (approximately 39% neutral detergent fiber) contribute to the high energy content in DGS. Performance was usually similar when animals were fed wet or dried products, although some research results tended to favor the wet products. Diets can contain DGS as partial replacement for both concentrates and forages, but DGS usually replaces concentrates. Adequate effective fiber was needed to avoid milk fat depression when DGS replaced forages in lactating cow diets. Nutritionally balanced diets can be formulated that contain 20% or more of the diet dry matter as DGS. Such diets supported similar or higher milk production compared with when cows were fed traditional feeds. Although DGS can constitute more than 30% of diet dry matter, gut fill may limit dry matter intake and production in diets with more than 20% wet DGS and that also contain other moist feeds. The fiber in DGS, which often replaces high-starch feeds, does not eliminate acidosis but minimizes its problems. Distillers solubles, which are often blended with distillers grains to provide DGS, can be fed separately as condensed corn distillers solubles. Other distillers coproducts besides DGS such as high-protein distillers grains, corn germ, corn bran, and low-fat distillers grains are becoming available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2549DOI Listing
December 2009

Canola meal replacing distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows.

J Dairy Sci 2009 Nov;92(11):5669-76

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007-0647, USA.

A study was conducted to determine the response to feeding diets containing canola meal (CM) as a protein supplement in place of all or portions of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Twelve lactating Holstein cows (4 primiparous and 8 multiparous) were fed in a 4 x 4 Latin square design over 4-wk periods. Data were collected wk 3 and 4 of each period. Diets were formulated in which CM was 100, 66, 33, and 0% of the supplemental protein replacing the protein from DDGS. All diets (averaged 15.1% crude protein and 4.5% ether extract) contained 55% forage and 45% concentrate, with the forage being 50% corn silage and 50% alfalfa hay. Dry matter intake (25.4 kg/d) was similar for all diets. Milk production (35.2, 35.8, 34.5, and 34.3 kg/d, respectively, for 100, 66, 33, and 0% CM) was similar for all diets, but tended to be greater with higher proportions of CM. Milk protein concentration (3.04%), fat concentration (3.92%), and fat yield (1.37 kg/d) were similar for all diets, whereas protein yield (1.08, 1.10, 1.05, and 1.03 kg/d, respectively, for 100, 66, 33, and 0% CM) tended to be greater with increasing amounts of CM in the diet. Feed efficiency (1.46 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake) was similar for all diets. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid for milk protein synthesis when CM or DDGS were fed, whereas methionine was first limiting when the combination diets were fed. Concentrations of ammonia and volatile fatty acids in ruminal contents were similar for all diets. Canola meal is a suitable replacement for DDGS in dairy cow diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2009-2276DOI Listing
November 2009

Isolipidic additions of fat from corn germ, corn distillers grains, or corn oil in dairy cow diets.

J Dairy Sci 2009 Nov;92(11):5523-33

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.

Eight multiparous and 8 primiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to determine the effects on dairy cow performance of feeding corn germ (CG) compared with dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or corn oil (CO). Four isolipidic dietary treatments were formulated: a control diet, a 14% corn germ diet (CGD), a 30% dry distillers grains with solubles diet (DGD), and a 2.5% corn oil diet (COD). All diets were formulated to contain 6.0% fat, with the fat in the control diet provided by a ruminally inert fat source. Dry matter intake was decreased by feeding the COD compared with the CGD; however, no difference in dry matter intake was observed among the control diet, the DGD, and the COD. Dietary treatments had no effect on milk yield, energy-corrected milk, or 4% fat-corrected milk. Feeding CG had no effect on milk fat percentage when compared with the control diet; however, milk fat percentage tended to decrease with DDGS and decreased with CO when compared with the CGD. Milk protein percentage decreased when cows were fed the COD compared with the control diet. Feeding CO tended to decrease milk fat yield compared with CG; however, dietary treatments had no effect on milk protein and lactose yield. Feed efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments and averaged 1.55 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake. Feeding DDGS and CO increased the concentration of vaccenic and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat. Concentrations of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk were increased in response to feeding the 3 corn coproducts. Fat from CG appears to be relatively protected in the rumen when compared with that from DDGS and CO and therefore will not affect the production of milk fat to the degree of the more available fat in DDGS and CO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1867DOI Listing
November 2009

Ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility of dried or wet distillers grains with increasing concentrations of condensed distillers solubles.

J Anim Sci 2009 Sep 5;87(9):3013-9. Epub 2009 Jun 5.

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.

The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect that the amount of condensed distillers solubles (CDS) added back to distillers grains (DG) and its form, wet or dried, have on nutrient digestion. Three Holstein cows with ruminal cannulas were used to evaluate in situ ruminal degradability of DM and CP and in vitro intestinal digestibility of CP. Condensed distillers solubles were added back to wet DG in the following ratios of wet DG to CDS: 100:0, 86.7:13.3, 73.3:26.7, and 60:40. One-half of each mixed feed at each ratio was dried, and the other one-half remained wet, resulting in 8 DG samples. Feeds were incubated in the rumen for 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 h. Intestinal CP digestibility was measured on residue from 12-h ruminal incubation feeds by the pepsin-pancreatin method. The soluble fraction of DM and CP was greater (P < 0.001) for wet compared with dried DG and increased as CDS increased in each blend (P < 0.001). The potentially degradable fraction of DM and CP was greater (P < 0.001) for dried compared with wet DG and decreased as CDS increased in each blend (P < 0.01). The rate of DM and CP degradation was not (P > 0.05) affected by form or inclusion of CDS. Rumen-degraded DM was greater (P < 0.001) for wet compared with dried DG (59.7 vs. 48.6%), and as the percentage of CDS increased, it increased (P < 0.001) from 49.3 to 61.2%. Rumen-degraded protein (RDP) was greater (P < 0.001) for wet DG than dried DG (53.1 vs. 38.0%). In addition, RDP increased (P < 0.001) from 42.0 to 50.5% as the concentration of CDS increased from 0 to 40%. Estimated intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegraded protein was greater (P = 0.003) for wet DG compared with dried DG (69.7 vs. 64.0%), but was unaffected (P = 0.11) by the addition of CDS. Intestinal absorbable dietary protein was greater (P < 0.001) for dried DG (39.7%) compared with wet DG (32.7%), and decreased (P < 0.001) from 39.9 to 32.0% with increasing concentrations of CDS. Total digestible protein (TDP) increased (P < 0.001) from 77.7 to 85.8% for dried and wet DG, whereas different ratios of DG to CDS resulted in similar TDP. Based on this study, ruminal DM and CP degradability and intestinal protein digestibility of DG increased when the percentage of CDS increased. Although dried DG can supply more ruminal undegraded protein, wet DG can supply more TDP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2527/jas.2009-1894DOI Listing
September 2009

Ensiling characteristics of wet distillers grains mixed with soybean hulls and evaluation of the feeding value for growing Holstein heifers.

J Anim Sci 2009 Jun 27;87(6):2113-23. Epub 2009 Feb 27.

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007, USA.

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the fermentation characteristics of ensiled wet corn distillers grains with solubles (WDG) alone or mixed with soybean hulls (SH) and the ability of the mixture to maintain growth performance in dairy heifers. The first experiment was an ensiling study using laboratory silos. Ensiled blends were 100% WDG, 85% WDG with 15% SH, and 70% WDG with 30% SH on an as-fed basis. Silos were opened for analysis on d 0, 3, 7, and 21. The pH was less in the 100% WDG compared with other treatments (P < 0.01), but all treatments had a pH near 4. Lactic acid concentration was greater in 100% WDG compared with the blends of WDG and SH (P < 0.01). Acetic acid was not found in 100% WDG and increased over time in the 2 blends (P < 0.01). Other differences between blends, such as DM, CP, ammonia N, fiber, and fat, were reflective of the different concentrations of WDG and SH in the blends. In the second experiment, the 70% WDG and 30% SH (as-fed) blend was ensiled in a silo bag and then evaluated as a feed for growing dairy heifer diets. Twenty-four heifers were used in a randomized complete block design and assigned to be fed 1 of 3 diets: 1) control, 2) low inclusion of WDGSH, and 3) a high inclusion of WDGSH. All treatment diets consisted of 50% brome grass hay on a DM basis. The control diet had 50% of the diet (DM basis) as a grain mix, which was composed of corn, soybean meal, and minerals. The low WDGSH diet contained 24.4% of the blend and 25.6% grain mix. The high WDGSH diet contained 48.7% of the blend and 1.3% mineral mix. Average daily gain and most of the body growth measures were similar among treatments. However, DMI decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as the WDGSH blends were fed, resulting in improved (P = 0.02) G:F. Results from these experiments indicated that WDG can be effectively ensiled with SH and sustain adequate growth rate when fed to growing dairy heifers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-1607DOI Listing
June 2009

Evaluation of corn germ from ethanol production as an alternative fat source in dairy cow diets.

J Dairy Sci 2009 Mar;92(3):1023-37

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.

Sixteen multiparous cows (12 Holstein and 4 Brown Swiss, 132 +/- 20 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to determine the effects of feeding corn germ on dairy cow performance. Diets were formulated with increasing concentrations of corn germ (Dakota Germ, Poet Nutrition, Sioux Falls, SD) at 0, 7, 14, and 21% of the diet dry matter (DM). All diets had a 55:45 forage to concentrate ratio, where forage was 55% corn silage and 45% alfalfa hay. Dietary fat increased from 4.8% in the control diet to 8.2% at the greatest inclusion level of corn germ. The addition of corn germ resulted in a quadratic response in DM intake with numerically greater intake at 14% of diet DM. Feeding corn germ at 7 and 14% of diet DM increased milk yield and energy-corrected milk as well as fat percentage and yield. Milk protein yield tended to decrease as the concentration of corn germ increased in the diet. Dietary treatments had no effect on feed efficiency, which averaged 1.40 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of DMI. Increasing the dietary concentration of corn germ resulted in a linear increase in milk fat concentrations of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids at the expense of saturated fatty acids. Milk fat concentration and yield of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid were increased with increased dietary concentrations of corn germ. Although milk fat concentrations of both total trans-18:1 and cis-18:1 fatty acids increased linearly, a marked numeric increase in the concentration of trans-10 C18:1 was observed in milk from cows fed the 21% corn germ diet. A similar response was observed in plasma concentration of trans-10 C18:1. Feeding increasing concentrations of corn germ had no effect on plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, or beta-hydroxybutyrate; however, the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids increased linearly, with plasma cholesterol concentration demonstrating a similar trend. Germ removed from corn grain before ethanol production provides an alternative source of fat for energy in lactating dairy cows when fed at 7 and 14% of diet DM. Our results suggest that fat from corn germ may be relatively protected with no adverse effect on DM intake, milk production, and milk composition when fed up to 14% of diet DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1207DOI Listing
March 2009

Ruminal phosphorus disappearance from corn and soybean feedstuffs.

J Dairy Sci 2008 Oct;91(10):3938-46

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007, USA.

Byproducts of corn and soybeans have high phosphorus (P) content, but little is known about their P disappearance in the rumen of lactating dairy cows. In situ disappearance of P from corn and soybean feed-stuffs was determined in 2 experiments. In the first experiment, 3 ruminally cannulated lactating dairy cows were used to estimate in situ P disappearance of 9 feed ingredients that included 3 sources of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDG; DGa, DGb, DGc), corn, corn germ, solvent-extracted soybean meal, (44% CP; SBM), expeller soybean meal (SoyPlus; SP), extruded soybeans (ES), and soyhulls (SH). Nylon bags were incubated in the rumen of each cow for 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 h. The water-soluble fraction of P (A(P)) was greatest in DDG (mean 82.1%) followed by corn germ (77%), with SH having the least A(P) among all feedstuffs (45%). The remaining feedstuffs (SBM, SP, ES, and corn) were similar in A(P) (64.2%). The slowly available fraction of P (B(P)) was greatest in SH (45.6%), lowest in DDG (13.5%), and intermediate, averaging 31.4%, in SBM, ES, SP, and corn. The effective disappearance of P (ED(P)) was greatest for DDG (93.5%), whereas corn germ, ES, SBM, and SP followed with an ED(P) of 93.3, 88.0, 87.5, and 87.0%, respectively. The ED(P) was less for corn and SH than for the other feedstuffs at 83.3 and 69.1%, respectively. Rate of P disappearance was similar for all feedstuffs (16.2%/h). In the second experiment, 3 new sources of DDG (DG1, DG2, and DG3), and one wet distillers grains with solubles (WDG) source were incubated for 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h on replicate days in the rumen of 2 cannulated lactating dairy cows. Fraction A(P) varied from 82.7 to 90.3%, with that in WDG being the least soluble. The WDG source had a greater B(P) fraction (15.8%) compared with the DDG sources (9.5%). The WDG had the lowest ED(P) (88.1%), whereas the DDG varied from 89.7 to 92.7%. Corn and soybean byproducts tested, with the exception of SH, have high ruminal P disappearance as measured with the Dacron bag technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0688DOI Listing
October 2008

Conjugated linoleic acid increases in milk from cows fed condensed corn distillers solubles and fish oil.

J Dairy Sci 2008 Jul;91(7):2796-807

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007-0647, USA.

Twelve lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental diets in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to ascertain the lactational response to feeding fish oil (FO), condensed corn distillers solubles (CDS) as a source of extra linoleic acid, or both. Diets contained either no FO or 0.5% FO and either no CDS or 10% CDS in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were fed as total mixed rations for ad libitum consumption. The forage to concentrate ratio was 55:45 on a dry matter basis for all diets and the diets contained 16.2% crude protein. The ether extract concentrations were 2.86, 3.22, 4.77, and 5.02% for control, FO, CDS, and FOCDS diets, respectively. Inclusion of FO or CDS or both had no effect on dry matter intake, feed efficiency, body weight, and body condition scores compared with diets without FO and CDS, respectively. Yields of milk (33.3 kg/d), energy-corrected milk, protein, lactose, and milk urea N were similar for all diets. Feeding FO and CDS decreased milk fat percentages (3.85, 3.39, 3.33, and 3.12%) and yields compared with diets without FO and CDS. Proportions of trans-11 C18:1 (vaccenic acid), cis-9 trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.52, 0.90, 1.11, and 1.52 g/100 g of fatty acids), and trans-10 cis-12 CLA (0.07, 0.14, 0.13, and 0.16 g/100 g of fatty acids) in milk fat were increased by FO and CDS. No interactions were observed between FO and CDS on cis-9 trans-11 CLA although vaccenic acid tended to be higher with the interaction. The addition of CDS to diets increased trans-10 C18:1. Greater ratios of vaccenic acid to cis-9 trans-11 CLA in plasma than in milk fat indicate tissue synthesis of cis-9 trans-11 CLA in the mammary gland from vaccenic acid in cows fed FO or CDS. Feeding fish oil at 0.5% of diet dry matter with a C18:2 n-6 rich source such as CDS increased the milk CLA content but decreased milk fat percentages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0938DOI Listing
July 2008

The feeding value of corn distillers solubles for lactating dairy cows.

J Dairy Sci 2008 Jan;91(1):279-87

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007-0647, USA.

Fifteen Holstein cows (10 multiparous and 5 primiparous) in early to mid lactation (79.3 +/- 9.2 d in milk) were used in a multiple 5 x 5 Latin square design with 4-wk periods to evaluate and compare the use of condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS) and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in the total mixed ration. The forage portion of the diets was kept constant at 27.5% corn silage and 27.5% alfalfa hay (dry matter basis). Diets were 1) 0% distillers grains products (control); 2) 18.5% DDGS; 3) 10% CCDS; 4) 20% CCDS; and 5) a combination diet of 18.5% DDGS with 10% CCDS. Diets 2 and 3 contained 2% fat from DDGS or CCDS, whereas diet 4 contained 4% fat from CCDS and diet 5 contained 4% fat from the blend of DDGS and CCDS. The diets were balanced to provide 17% crude protein with variation in acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and fat concentration. Dry matter intake (21.5 kg/d) was similar for all diets. Milk yield (33.8, 36.2, 35.5, 36.0, and 36.0 kg/d) tended to be greater for diets 2 to 5 than for diet 1, whereas yields of fat (1.04 kg/d), protein (1.02 kg/d), fat percentage (2.94), and protein percentage (2.98) were similar for all diets. Energy-corrected milk (32.2 kg/d) and feed efficiency (1.58 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of dry matter intake) were similar for all diets. Milk urea nitrogen (15.0, 10.9, 11.1, 11.0, and 11.4 mg/dL) as well as blood urea nitrogen (15.6, 12.5, 14.6, 13.8, and 14.2 mg/dL) were decreased in diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. Milk concentrations of long-chain fatty acids as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids were greater and medium-chain fatty acid concentrations were lower for diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. Concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.33, 0.68, 0.51, 0.85, and 1.07 g/100 g of fatty acids) as well as trans-10, cis-12 CLA (<0.01, 0.01, <0.01, 0.02, and 0.02 g/100 g of fatty acids) were greater for diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. Molar proportions of ruminal acetate decreased and propionate increased for diets 2 to 5 compared with diet 1. The results showed that CCDS is as effective as DDGS in replacing soybean meal and corn grain in the total mixed ration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0250DOI Listing
January 2008

Dried distillers grains plus solubles with corn silage or alfalfa hay as the primary forage source in dairy cow diets.

J Dairy Sci 2007 Dec;90(12):5587-99

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007-0647, USA.

Nine multiparous (250 +/- 6 d in milk) and 3 primiparous (204 +/- 6 d in milk) Holstein cows were utilized in a 3 x 3 Latin square design to evaluate the lactation performance of cows fed a diet containing dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) with either corn silage or alfalfa hay as forage. Cows were fed total mixed diets containing corn silage (CS), 50% corn silage and 50% alfalfa hay (CSAH), or alfalfa hay (AH) as the forage source. All diets had a 50:50 forage-to-concentrate ratio, contained 15% DDGS, and were formulated to be equal in metabolizable protein. Dry matter intake increased when cows were fed CSAH (24.9 kg/d) compared with CS (21.9 kg/d) and AH (20.9 kg/d). Yields of milk (26.5, 28.4, 29.0 kg/d for CS, CSAH, and AH, respectively) increased linearly as proportions of alfalfa fed increased but 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk were not affected by treatment. Feed efficiency (1.28, 1.23, and 1.45 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of intake) improved when AH was fed compared with CS or CSAH. Milk fat concentration (3.67, 3.55, and 3.49%) decreased linearly when alfalfa replaced corn silage, but was observed only in primiparous cows, not multiparous cows. Milk protein concentration (3.32, 3.29, and 3.29%) was not affected by diet although yield (0.90, 0.96, and 0.98 kg/d) tended to increase linearly when alfalfa was added to the diet. This may have been due to an increase in essential amino acid (AA) availability and uptake by the mammary gland or to greater crude protein intake in cows fed AH. In addition, replacing corn silage with alfalfa increased the uptake of Lys by the mammary gland. Methionine was the first-limiting AA based on the transfer efficiency of AA in arterial plasma to milk protein. However, Lys was the first-limiting AA in CS and CSAH and Met was first limiting in AH for mammary gland extraction efficiency of AA from plasma. In conclusion, replacing corn silage with alfalfa hay in diets containing 15% DDGS increased milk yield and tended to increase milk protein yield linearly in cows during late lactation. Feeding alfalfa hay as the sole forage source improved feed efficiency compared with diets containing corn silage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-753DOI Listing
December 2007

Ruminal and intestinal degradability of distillers grains plus solubles varies by source.

J Dairy Sci 2007 Jun;90(6):2909-18

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007, USA.

Currently in the dairy industry, there is a concern about the variability in the nutrient content among sources of distillers grains plus solubles (DG), but little research has evaluated the variability in metabolizable AA among sources. The ruminal degradability of crude protein (CP) in soybean meal (SBM), dried DG from 5 sources (DG1, DG2, DG3, DG4, and DG5), and 1 source of wet DG (WDG) were determined using 2 lactating ruminally cannulated Holstein cows. Feeds were incubated in the rumen for 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 h. Intestinal CP digestibility via pepsin and pancreatin and AA profiles were measured on residue from 12-h ruminal incubation of feeds. Ruminal undegradable protein (RUP) was less for SBM (46.4%) than for DG. The WDG (53.6%) had less RUP than dried DG. The RUP concentrations of DG3 (59.1%) and DG5 (60.3%) were lower than DG1 (71.7%) and DG4 (67.5%), with DG1 having more than DG2 (63.7%) and DG4. Intestinal digestibility of RUP was greater for SBM (86.7%) than DG. The DG2 (76.8%) and DG3 (74.2%) had greater intestinal digestibility compared with DG1 (59.2%), DG4 (63.0%), and DG5 (68.1%). The intestinal digestibility in WDG (65.8%) was similar to all other DG except for DG1, which was lower. Total digestibility of CP was greater in SBM (93.9%) compared with DG. Among the DG sources, the CP in DG2 (85.3%) and DG3 (84.9%) was more digestible compared with DG1 (70.7%), DG4 (74.9%), and DG5 (80.8%) but not WDG (81.9%). Based on the milk protein score (MPS), which is an estimate of the proportion of milk protein that a protein source can sustain until the first limiting AA is depleted, Met was the first limiting AA in SBM and Lys in DG. The concentrations of essential AA in the RUP were not different among DG sources, but the greater MPS in WDG (0.306) compared with the dried DG (0.240) sources indicated that WDG may have been the more ideal RUP source; but, the MPS of the metabolizable protein indicated that the protein quality of WDG was similar to that in DG2, DG3, and DG5. In conclusion, protein degradability and digestibility differed greatly among DG sources, but these differences were actually not as prominent in the concentrations of metabolizable AA and MPS among these sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-613DOI Listing
June 2007

Evaluation of various sources of corn dried distillers grains plus solubles for lactating dairy cattle.

J Dairy Sci 2006 Dec;89(12):4784-94

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feeding dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) from different sources on milk production and composition in dairy cows. Eight multiparous and 4 primiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Treatments consisted of total mixed diets containing no DDGS (CON), or DDGS from source 1 (DDGS-1), source 2 (DDGS-2), or source 3 (DDGS-3) at 20% of diet dry matter. The processing of DDGS-2 and DDGS-3 was intended to decrease heat damage and improve nutritional quality. The DDGS in the diets replaced a portion of the ground corn and soybean meal, allowing them to be isonitrogenous at 16% crude protein. All diets had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 55:45. Dry matter intake (21.4 kg/d) did not differ among diets, but cows fed diets containing DDGS had greater yields of milk (34.6 vs. 31.2 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk (32.7 vs. 29.6 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (35.4 vs. 32.3) compared with cows fed the CON diet. Feed efficiency was greater in cows fed DDGS compared with CON (1.78 vs. 1.63). Milk fat yield was greater in cows fed DDGS compared with those fed CON (1.26 vs. 1.14 kg/d). Milk protein percentages (3.28, 3.13, 3.19, and 3.17% for CON, DDGS-1, DDGS-2, and DDGS-3, respectively) were greater for CON vs. DDGS and tended to be lower for DDGS-1 than for DDGS-2 and DDGS-3. Milk protein yields tended to be greater for cows fed DDGS than for those fed CON (1.09 vs. 1.02 kg/d). Concentrations of milk urea nitrogen were lower in cows fed DDGS compared with CON (9.36 vs. 10.6 mg/dL). Feeding DDGS decreased arterial plasma concentrations of Arg, Ile, Lys, and Thr and increased His and Leu compared with CON. Arterial plasma from cows fed DDGS-2 and DDGS-3 had greater concentrations of Ile, Trp, and Val compared with DDGS-1. In all diets, Lys, Met, and Phe were the first 3 limiting amino acids for protein synthesis with Lys being first limiting in DDGS-1 and DDGS-3 and Met being first limiting for CON and DDGS-2. Inclusion of DDGS did not affect the molar proportions of ruminal acetate or propionate compared with CON. Ruminal proportions of butyrate were lower in CON compared with DDGS. Total concentrations of VFA were greater in CON compared with DDGS. The concentrations of rumen ammonia were greater in CON (7.2 mg/dL) compared with DDGS (4.5 mg/dL). Overall, the source of DDGS used in this study did not affect lactation performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72528-0DOI Listing
December 2006

Slow-release urea and highly fermentable sugars in diets fed to lactating dairy cows.

J Dairy Sci 2006 Nov;89(11):4395-403

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007, USA.

This experiment was designed to test the inclusion of highly fermentable sugars (FS) in dairy rations and their interactions with a slow-release urea (SU) product. The FS are a blend of liquid coproducts from the corn milling and cheese industries, and the SU is calcium chloride urea. Eight multiparous and 4 primiparous Brown Swiss cows (117 +/- 46 d in milk) were blocked by parity and utilized in a multiple Latin square design. Basal diets were formulated for 16.6% crude protein and 1.55 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation and contained 35% of dietary dry matter as corn silage, 15% alfalfa hay, 34% of a concentrate mix containing varying proportions of ground shelled corn and soybean meal, and 16% of a constant concentrate premix. The premix consisted of equal proportions of corn distillers grains, soybean hulls, expeller soybean meal, vitamins, and minerals across all diets. Diets contained either no supplemental FS (NFS) or FS (8.64% RationMate) and either no SU (NSU) or SU (0.61% Ruma Pro) in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Feeding FS tended to decrease milk production compared with feeding NFS. Milk fat percentage was increased for cows fed FS compared with NFS. Feeding SU decreased dry matter intake and increased feed efficiency compared with cows fed NSU. Dietary treatment had no effect on energy-corrected milk, milk fat yield, milk protein percentage, or milk urea N. Feeding FS increased the molar proportion of ruminal butyrate and decreased the molar proportion of propionate; however, no other effects were observed on ruminal fermentation. No interactions between FS and SU were observed. It was concluded that the replacement of corn and soybean meal with dietary FS increased milk fat percentage and that the replacement of soybean meal with SU significantly improved feed efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72486-9DOI Listing
November 2006

Short communication: Eicosatrienoic acid and docosatrienoic acid do not promote vaccenic acid accumulation in mixed ruminal cultures.

J Dairy Sci 2006 Nov;89(11):4336-9

Department of Animal Science, Food and Nutrition, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, Carbondale 62901, USA.

Previous research found that docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3) was a component of fish oil that promotes trans-C18:1 accumulation in ruminal cultures when incubated with linoleic acid. The objective of this study was to determine if eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3n-3) and docosatrienoic acid (C22:3n-3), n-3 fatty acids in fish oil, promote accumulation of trans-C18:1, vaccenic acid (VA) in particular, using cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Treatments consisted of control, control plus 5 mg of C20:3n-3 (ETA), control plus 5 mg of C22:3n-3 (DTA), control plus 15 mg of linoleic acid (LA), control plus 5 mg of C20:3n-3 and 15 mg of linoleic acid (ETALA), and control plus 5 mg of C22:3n-3 and 15 mg of linoleic acid (DTALA). Treatments were incubated in triplicate in 125-mL flasks, and 5 mL of culture contents was taken at 0 and 24 h for fatty acid analysis by gas-liquid chromatography. After 24 h of incubation, the concentrations of trans-C18:1 (0.87, 0.88, and 0.99 mg/culture), and VA (0.52, 0.56, and 0.62 mg/culture) were similar for the control, ETA, and DTA cultures, respectively. The concentrations of trans-C18:1 (5.51, 5.41, and 5.36 mg/culture), and VA (4.78, 4.62, and 4.59 mg/culture) were also similar between LA, ETALA, and DTALA cultures, respectively. These data suggest that C20:3n-3 and C22:3n-3 are not the active components in fish oil that promote VA accumulation when incubated with linoleic acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72480-8DOI Listing
November 2006

Milk production and composition from cows fed small amounts of fish oil with extruded soybeans.

J Dairy Sci 2006 Oct;89(10):3972-80

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University Brookings, South Dakota 57007-0647, USA.

Eight Holstein (189 +/- 57 DIM) and 4 Brown Swiss (126 +/- 49 DIM) multiparous cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 28-d periods to determine the minimal dietary concentration of fish oil necessary to maximize milk conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vaccenic acid (VA). Treatments consisted of a control diet with a 50:50 ratio of forage to concentrate (dry matter basis), and 3 diets with 2% added fat consisting of 0.33% fish oil, 0.67% fish oil, and 1% fish oil with extruded soybeans providing the balance of added fat. Dry matter intake (23.1, 22.6, 22.8, and 22.9 kg/d, for control, low, medium, and high fish oil diets, respectively) was similar for all diets. Milk production (21.5, 23.7, 22.7, and 24.2 kg/d) was higher for cows fed the fat-supplemented diets vs. the control. Milk fat (4.42, 3.81, 3.80, and 4.03%) and true protein (3.71, 3.58, 3.54, and 3.55%) concentrations decreased when cows were fed diets containing supplemental fat. Concentration of milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA (0.55, 1.17, 1.03, and 1.19 g/100 g of fatty acids) was increased similarly by all diets containing supplemental fat. Milk VA (1.12, 2.47, 2.13, and 2.63 g/100 g of fatty acids) was increased most in milk from cows fed the low and high fish oil diets. Milk total n-3 fatty acids were increased (0.82, 0.96, 0.92, and 1.01 g/100 g of fatty acids) by all fat-supplemented diets. The low fish oil diet was as effective at increasing VA and CLA in milk as the high fish oil diet, showing that only low concentrations of dietary fish oil are necessary for increasing concentrations of VA and CLA in milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72440-7DOI Listing
October 2006

Evaluation of dried and wet distillers grains included at two concentrations in the diets of lactating dairy cows.

J Dairy Sci 2006 Aug;89(8):3133-42

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007-0647, USA.

The purpose of this study was to determine the lactation performance of dairy cows fed dried or wet distillers grains (DG) with solubles (DDGS or WDGS) at 2 dietary concentrations. A trial using 15 cows was designed as a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square with periods of 4 wk each and data collected during wk 3 and 4 of each period. Diets, on a dry matter basis, were: control, 10% DDGS, 20% DDGS, 10% WDGS, and 20% WDGS. All diets contained 25% corn silage, 25% alfalfa hay, and 50% of the respective concentrate mixes. Dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be greater for cows fed control than DG (23.4, 22.8, 22.5, 23.0, and 21.9 kg/d for control, 10% DDGS, 20% DDGS, 10% WDGS, and 20% WDGS). Milk yield (39.8, 40.9, 42.5, 42.5, and 43.5 kg/d) was greater for cows fed DG than control. Milk fat percentage (3.23, 3.16, 3.28, 3.55, and 3.40%) was similar for cows fed control and DG, but greater for cows fed WDGS than DDGS. Milk fat yield was greater for cows fed DG than control and tended to be greater for cows fed WDGS than DDGS. Milk fat from cows fed DG, especially 20% DG, was more unsaturated and contained more cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid than when fed the control diet. Milk protein percentage (3.05, 3.01, 3.02, 3.11, and 3.06%) was similar for cows fed control and DG but greater for cows fed WDGS than DDGS. Milk protein yield was greater for cows fed DG than control, tended to be greater for cows fed WDGS than DDGS, and tended to be greater for cows fed 20% DG than 10% DG. Milk urea nitrogen was similar for cows fed control and DG but greater for cows fed WDGS than DDGS and tended to be higher for cows fed 20% DG than 10% DG. Ruminal ammonia concentrations were greater for cows fed WDGS than DDGS. Overall, feeding DG improved feed efficiency (1.70, 1.79, 1.87, 1.84, and 1.92 kg of energy-corrected milk/kg of DMI) by increasing yields of milk, protein, and fat while tending to decrease DMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72587-5DOI Listing
August 2006

Feeding lactose to increase ruminal butyrate and the metabolic status of transition dairy cows.

J Dairy Sci 2006 Jan;89(1):267-76

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, 57007, USA.

Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows (775 +/- 24 kg body weight; 3.4 +/- 0.11 body condition score) were used in a randomized complete block design experiment to determine the impact of increased ruminal butyrate from the fermentation of lactose on metabolism and lactation. Dietary treatments were either a corn-based control diet (CON) or a diet containing lactose at 15.7% of diet dry matter (LAC). Experimental diets were fed from 21 d before expected calving through 21 d in milk (DIM). Blood was sampled at -21, -14, -7, -2, 2, 7, 14, and 21 DIM, rumen fluid at -21, -7, and 7 DIM, and liver tissue via biopsy at 7 and 14 DIM. Pre- and postpartum dry matter intake (DMI) through 28 DIM averaged 12.8 and 17.7 kg/d, respectively, and did not differ between treatments; however, cows fed LAC did not exhibit a prepartum decrease in DMI. Milk yield was unaffected by treatments and averaged 45.7 kg/d during the first 70 DIM. Plasma glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids were not affected by dietary treatments. Feeding LAC increased the ruminal proportion of butyrate both pre- (11.3 vs. 9.2 +/- 0.45%) and postpartum (13.0 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.67%). Likewise, circulating plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate was increased both pre- (6.1 vs. 4.2 +/- 0.31 mg/dL) and postpartum (14.6 vs. 8.34 +/- 1.7 mg/dL) when feeding LAC compared with CON. Liver lipid content was decreased (8.6. vs. 14.7 +/- 1.5% of wet weight) in cows fed LAC relative to those fed CON, whereas liver glycogen was not affected by dietary treatments. Feeding lactose to transition dairy cows increased the proportion of butyrate in the rumen and beta-hydroxybutyrate in plasma and decreased liver lipid but did not affect lactation performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72091-4DOI Listing
January 2006

Milk production of dairy cows fed differing concentrations of rumen-degraded protein.

J Dairy Sci 2006 Jan;89(1):249-59

Department of Animal and Avian Sciences University of Maryland, College Park, 20742, USA.

Thirty-two multiparous and 16 primiparous Holstein cows in midlactation averaging 126 d in milk were used to determine the effects of rumen-degraded protein (RDP) concentration on lactation performance. Cows were assigned to diets in a repeated Latin square design with 3-wk experimental periods. Diets were formulated to provide 4 concentrations of dietary RDP [6.8, 8.2, 9.6, and 11.0% of dry matter (DM)] while rumen-undegraded protein remained constant (5.8% of DM). Diets contained 50% corn silage and 50% concentrate (DM basis). Ingredients within diets were equal across treatments except for ground corn, soybean meal, and ruminally protected soybean meal. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Milk yield, fat yield, and protein yield all increased linearly when cows were fed diets with greater RDP. Milk fat and protein concentration each increased by 0.16 percentage units for cows fed 11% RDP compared with 6.8% RDP. Milk protein yield increased by 0.19 g/d for every 1 g/d increase in crude protein supplied mainly as RDP. As RDP increased, the efficiency of N use declined linearly. Milk urea N increased linearly when cows were fed increasing amounts of RDP, indicating increased losses of N via urine. Feeding deficient RDP diets to dairy cows can decrease nitrogen excretion, but it also decreases lactation performance. These data show an environmental benefit from underfeeding RDP to dairy cows according to National Research Council requirements, but at a financial cost to the dairy producer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72089-6DOI Listing
January 2006

Effects of dietary alpha-amylase on metabolism and performance of transition dairy cows.

J Dairy Sci 2005 Dec;88(12):4405-13

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, 57007, USA.

Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows [body weight, 759 kg (SD = 30 kg); body condition score, 3.2 (SD = 0.13)] were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the effect of feeding alpha-amylase during the transition period on rumen fermentation, key metabolic indicators, and lactation performance. Cows were assigned to either a control diet or the control diet supplemented with alpha-amylase (662 fungal amylase units per gram, AMA) at 0.1% of diet dry matter (DM). Experimental diets were fed from 21 d before expected calving through 21 d in milk. From 22 to 70 d in milk, all cows were fed a similar lactation cow diet. Average pre- and postpartum DM intakes were 12.4 and 17.8 kg/d, respectively, and did not differ between treatments; however, DM intakes during the last week prepartum decreased to a greater degree in AMA than control cows compared with wk -2. Supplementing diets with alpha-amylase tended to increase proportions of ruminal butyrate prepartum but not postpartum. Treatment differences were not detected for concentrations of insulin in plasma and lipid and glycogen in liver tissue. Prepartum, concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids were increased in cows fed AMA compared with the control diet. Postpartum, concentrations of glucose in plasma tended to be increased by feeding AMA. Increased plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids pre- but not postpartum and a tendency for increased plasma glucose postpartum demonstrate shifting reliance from lipid- to carbohydrate-based metabolism postpartum in cows fed alpha-amylase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)73127-1DOI Listing
December 2005

Effects of feeding propionate and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids on transition dairy cow performance.

J Dairy Sci 2005 Mar;88(3):983-93

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.

Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 40) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the effects of feeding Ca and Na salts (1:1, wt/wt) of propionate and Ca salts of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) on transition cow performance. All cows were fed the same basal diet once daily for ad libitum intake. Treatments (g/d) were 320 cornstarch (CS) as a control, 120 propionate (PRO), 120 propionate and 93 LCFA (PF1), and 178 propionate and 154 LCFA (PF2). Treatments were hand-mixed into the upper one-third of the TMR from 2 wk pre- through 3 wk postpartum. Intakes were recorded from 21 d pre- through 21 d postpartum. Energy density and crude protein were 1.54 and 1.65 Mcal/kg and 14.4 and 18.8% for pre- and postpartum diets, respectively. All cows received a common diet from 22 to 70 days in milk (DIM). Milk composition was analyzed on d 7, 14, and 21. Blood was sampled at 14, 7, and 2 d prepartum and 2, 7, 14, and 21 DIM. Pre- and postpartal dry matter intake (DMI) averaged 11.9 and 16.4 kg/d, respectively, and did not differ among treatments. A diet x week interaction for postpartal DMI was observed as cows fed PF2 consumed 2 kg/d less DM during wk 2 relative to other treatments. Milk yields from 22 to 70 DIM were 48.8, 48.5, 47.8, and 51.3 kg/d for CS, PRO, PF1, and PF2, respectively, and were not significantly affected by treatments. Milk true protein (3.32 vs. 3.16%) was increased and MUN (12.5 vs. 14.4 mg/dL) was decreased for CS relative to other treatments. Milk fat yield from cows fed PRO tended to be greater than those fed PF1 (1.58 vs. 1.29 kg/d). Plasma glucose, insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate were not affected by treatments. The PF2 treatment tended to decrease NEFA in plasma relative to PF1 over all times measured (492 and 670 muEq/L) and significantly decreased plasma NEFA relative to those fed PF1 postpartum (623 and 875 muEq/L). Relative to PF1, feeding propionate and LCFA at the higher level in this experiment improved energy balance postpartum as evidenced by decreased concentrations of plasma NEFA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72766-1DOI Listing
March 2005

Feeding glycerol to transition dairy cows: effects on blood metabolites and lactation performance.

J Dairy Sci 2004 Dec;87(12):4195-206

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007, USA.

Glycerol can alleviate the symptoms of ketosis when delivered as an oral drench. The addition of glycerol to the diet would eliminate the need for restraining cows for drenching yet deliver a glucogenic substrate, alleviate the fatty liver-ketosis complex, and improve lactational performance. For this study, 21 multiparous and 9 primiparous Holstein cows blocked by parity and expected calving date were used in a randomized block design to evaluate the effects of feeding glycerol from 14 d prepartum to 21 d in milk (DIM). Treatments (kg/d dry matter basis) were 0.86 of cornstarch (control), 0.43 cornstarch + 0.43 glycerol (LG), or 0.86 glycerol (HG), topdressed and hand-mixed into the upper one-third of the daily ration. All cows were fed a common diet from 22 to 70 DIM. Prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) was greater for cows fed the control diet compared with LG or HG (13.3, 10.8, and 11.3 +/- 0.50 kg/d, respectively). Prepartum plasma glucose, insulin, beta-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, and ruminal profiles were not affected by treatments. Rumen fluid collected postpartum from cows fed LG and HG had greater total volatile fatty acids, greater molar proportions of propionate, and a decreased ratio of acetate to propionate. Furthermore, concentrations of butyrate tended to be greater in rumens of cows fed LG and HG. Postpartum concentrations of glucose in plasma were greatest for cows fed the control diet relative to LG and HG (66.0 vs. 63.1 and 58.4 mg/dL, respectively) and decreased sharply at 21 DIM, after treatments ended, for cows fed HG (diet x day interaction). Body weight and condition loss, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, and liver lipids during the first 21 DIM were similar among treatments. Postpartum DMI was not affected by treatments; however, a tendency was observed for a diet x day interaction for body weight, as cows fed LG gained more body weight from 21 to 70 DIM relative to cows fed HG. Yield of energy-corrected milk during the first 70 DIM tended to be greatest for cows fed the control diet. The LG and HG diets decreased urea nitrogen concentrations in milk relative to controls. Based upon prepartum DMI and concentrations of glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate in blood postpartum, feeding glycerol to dairy cows at the levels used in this experiment increased indicators used to gauge the degree of ketosis in dairy cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73564-XDOI Listing
December 2004

Feed efficiency of mid-lactation dairy cows fed yeast culture during summer.

J Dairy Sci 2004 Dec;87(12):4178-81

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007-0647, USA.

Thirty-eight Holstein cows (26 multiparous and 12 primiparous), that averaged 105 d postpartum at the start of the experiment, were used to evaluate the feeding of yeast culture (60 g/cow daily of Diamond V XP) on production efficiency during hot summer weather. From early June until early September and after a 2-wk covariate period, cows were fed a control diet without or with 60 g of yeast culture/cow daily for 12 wk. Weekly daytime high temperatures in the free-stall barn during the 12-wk period averaged 33 degrees C (28 to 39 degrees C). Total mixed diets on a dry matter (DM) basis consisted of corn silage (28%), alfalfa hay (21%), and a concentrate mix (51%) without or with the yeast culture added to the total mixed ration at the time of feeding. Milk production (34.9 and 35.4 kg/d, for control and yeast culture treatment, respectively), 4% fat-corrected milk (31.2 and 32.0 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (ECM; 33.4 and 34.2 kg/d), and DM intake (23.1 and 22.1 kg/d) were similar for cows fed control and yeast culture diets. Percentages of milk fat (3.34 and 3.41) and true protein (2.85 and 2.87) were similar for both diets. Feed efficiency defined as kilogram of ECM/kilogram of DM intake was improved by 7% for cows fed the yeast culture. Body weights and body condition scores were similar for both groups. The results suggest that the yeast culture can improve feed efficiency of heat stressed dairy cows in midlactation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73561-4DOI Listing
December 2004

Conjugated linoleic acid increases in milk when cows fed fish meal and extruded soybeans for an extended period of time.

J Dairy Sci 2004 Jun;87(6):1758-66

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007-0647, USA.

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) stimulating diet for an extended period of time on milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and vaccenic acid (VA) concentrations. Twenty cows (16 Holstein and 4 Brown Swiss) were divided into 2 groups (n = 10 per treatment) for a 10-wk study. Cows in group 1 were fed a traditional corn-soybean-basal diet (control), while those in group 2 were fed a blend of 0.5% fish oil from fish meal and 2% soybean oil from extruded soybeans (FMESB) to achieve higher milk fat cis-9, trans-11 CLA and VA. Diets were formulated to contain 18% CP and were composed (dry matter basis) of 50% concentrate mix, 25% corn silage, and 25% alfalfa hay. Dry matter intake was not affected by diet. Milk production increased in cows fed the FMESB diet. Milk fat and milk protein percentages decreased with the FMESB diet; however, milk fat and protein yields were not affected by treatments. Milk fat cis-9, trans-11 CLA and VA concentration (g/100 of fatty acids) and yield (g/d) were 2.5-fold greater for cows fed the FMESB diet over the 10 wk of fat supplementation. For cows fed the FMESB diet, contents of milk fat cis-9, trans-11 CLA and VA gradually increased from the first week of fat supplementation, reached the highest concentrations in wk 3, then gradually decreased during wk 4 and 5 and then remained relatively constant until wk 10. The concentration of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and VA from the control diet was relatively constant over the 10 wk of fat supplementation. Concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and VA in milk fat can be increased within a week by feeding a blend of fish meal and extruded soybeans, and that increase remains relatively constant after wk 5 of fat supplementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73331-7DOI Listing
June 2004

Feeding lactose increases ruminal butyrate and plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate in lactating dairy cows.

J Dairy Sci 2004 Aug;87(8):2486-94

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007, USA.

Ruminal fermentation of lactose increases molar proportions of butyrate, which is metabolized by the ruminal epithelium to beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA). To determine the effects of dietary whey, and specifically lactose, on concentrations of ruminal and blood volatile fatty acids (VFA) and blood BHBA, 8 Holstein and 4 Brown Swiss multiparous cows (210 +/- 33 d in milk) were blocked by breed and randomly assigned to one of three 4 x 4 Latin squares. Treatments were control (CON; 7.1% of dietary dry matter [DM] as cornstarch), liquid whey (WHEY; 9.4% of diet DM) containing 70% lactose on a DM basis, low lactose (LOLAC; 7.1% lactose), or high lactose (HILAC; 14.3% lactose). Diets contained 53% forage as corn silage, alfalfa hay, and grass hay (DM basis) and a corn and soybean meal-based concentrate. Average dietary percentage of crude protein and energy density (Mcal/kg net energy for lactation) were 16.8 and 1.47, respectively. Feeding lactose increased DM intake. Milk production and composition were not affected by diet with the exception of decreased urea nitrogen in milk from cows fed lactose. Greater proportions of ruminal propionate were observed in cows fed CON relative to those fed WHEY and LOLAC. Increasing dietary lactose increased proportions of ruminal butyrate and decreased acetate and branched-chain VFA. Concurrent with the increase in ruminal butyrate concentrations, there was an increase in plasma BHBA as lactose in the diet increased. Concentrations of VFA in plasma were not affected by diet with the exception of the branched-chain VFA, which were increased in cows fed LOLAC compared with WHEY. These data indicate lactose fermentation increases proportions of ruminal butyrate and plasma BHBA in lactating dairy cows; however, the observed increase in plasma BHBA is not sufficient to subject cows to ketosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73373-1DOI Listing
August 2004

Conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid in rumen, plasma, and milk of cows fed fish oil and fats differing in saturation of 18 carbon fatty acids.

J Dairy Sci 2003 Nov;86(11):3648-60

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007-0647, USA.

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of feeding fish oil (FO) along with fat sources that varied in saturation of 18 carbon fatty acids (high stearic, high oleic, high linoleic, or high linolenic acids) on rumen, plasma, and milk fatty acid profiles. Four primiparous Holstein cows at 85 d in milk (+/- 40) were assigned to 4 x 4 Latin squares with 4-wk periods. Treatment diets were 1) 1% FO plus 2% commercial fat high in stearic acid (HS); 2) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high oleic acid sunflower seeds (HO); 3) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high linoleic acid sunflower seeds (HLO); and 4) 1% FO plus 2% fat from flax seeds (high linolenic; HLN). Diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and were composed of 50% (dry basis) concentrate mix, 25% corn silage, 12.5% alfalfa silage, and 12.5% alfalfa hay. Milk production, milk protein percentages and yields, and dry matter intake were similar across diets. Milk fat concentrations and yields were least for HO and HLO diets. The proportion of milk cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 0.71, 0.99, 1.71, and 1.12 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively), and vaccenic acid (TVA; 1.85, 2.60, 4.14, and 2.16 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively) were greatest with the HLO diet. The proportions of ruminal cis-9, trans-11 CLA (0.09, 0.16, 0.18, and 0.16 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively) were similar for the HO, HLO, and HLN diets and all were higher than for the HS diet. The proportions of TVA (2.85, 4.36, 8.69, and 4.64 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively) increased with the HO, HLO, and HLN diets compared with the HS diets, and the increase was greatest with the HLO diet. The effects of fat supplements on ruminal TVA concentrations were also reflected in plasma triglycerides, (2.75, 4.64, 8.77, and 5.42 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively); however, there were no differences in the proportion of cis-9, trans-11 CLA (0.06, 0.07, 0.06, and 0.07 g/100 g fatty acids, respectively). This study further supports the significant role for mammary delta-9 desaturase in milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73970-8DOI Listing
November 2003
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