Publications by authors named "Kalle M J Aitasalo"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cranioplasty After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects of Trauma and Patient Recovery on Cranioplasty Outcome.

Front Neurol 2018 9;9:223. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Department of Biomaterials Science and Turku Clinical Biomaterials Centre--TCBC, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Background: In patients with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) treated with decompressive craniectomy (DC), factors affecting the success of later cranioplasty are poorly known.

Objective: We sought to investigate if injury- and treatment-related factors, and state of recovery could predict the risk of major complications in cranioplasty requiring implant removal, and how these complications affect the outcome.

Methods: A retrospective cohort of 40 patients with DC following sTBI and subsequent cranioplasty was studied. Non-injury-related factors were compared with a reference population of 115 patients with DC due to other conditions.

Results: Outcome assessed 1 day before cranioplasty did not predict major complications leading to implant removal. Successful cranioplasty was associated with better outcome, whereas a major complication attenuates patient recovery: in patients with favorable outcome assessed 1 year after cranioplasty, major complication rate was 7%, while in patients with unfavorable outcome the rate was 42% ( = 0.003). Of patients with traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) on admission imaging 30% developed a major complication, while none of patients without tSAH had a major complication ( = 0.014). Other imaging findings, age, admission Glasgow Coma Scale, extracranial injuries, length of stay at intensive care unit, cranioplasty materials, and timing of cranioplasty were not associated with major complications.

Conclusion: A successful cranioplasty after sTBI and DC predicts favorable outcome 1 year after cranioplasty, while stage of recovery before cranioplasty does not predict cranioplasty success or failure. tSAH on admission imaging is a major risk factor for a major complication leading to implant removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.00223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5904383PMC
April 2018

A glass fiber-reinforced composite - bioactive glass cranioplasty implant: A case study of an early development stage implant removed due to a late infection.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2015 Mar 7;55:191-200. Epub 2015 Nov 7.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Division of Surgery and Cancer Diseases, Turku University Hospital, PO Box 52, 20521 Turku, Finland; City of Turku Welfare Division, PO Box 670, 20101 Turku, Finland.

This case study describes the properties of an early development stage bioactive glass containing fiber-reinforced composite calvarial implant with histology that has been in function for two years and three months. The patient is a 33-year old woman with a history of substance abuse, who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury later unsuccessfully treated with an autologous bone flap and a custom-made porous polyethylene implant. She was thereafter treated with developmental stage glass fiber-reinforced composite - bioactive glass implant. After two years and three months, the implant was removed due to an implant site infection. The implant was analyzed histologically, mechanically, and in terms of chemistry and dissolution of bioactive glass. Mechanical integrity of the load bearing fiber-reinforced composite part of the implant was not affected by the in vivo period. Bioactive glass particles demonstrated surface layers of hydroxyapatite like mineral and dissolution, and related increase of pH was considerably less after two and three months period than that for fresh bioactive glass. There was a difference in the histology of the tissues inside the implant areas near to the margin of the implant that absorbed blood during implant installation surgery, showed fibrous tissue with blood vessels, osteoblasts, collagenous fibers with osteoid formation, and tiny clusters of more mature hard tissue. In the center of the implant, where there was less absorbed blood, only fibrous tissue was observed. This finding is in line with the combined positron emission tomography - computed tomography examination with (18F)-fluoride marker, which demonstrated activity of the mineralizing bone by osteoblasts especially at the area near to the margin of the implant 10 months after implantation. Based on these promising reactions found in the bioactive glass containing fiber-reinforced composite implant that has been implanted for two years and three months, calvarial reconstruction with the presented material appears to be a feasible method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2015.10.030DOI Listing
March 2015

Outcomes of cranioplasty with synthetic materials and autologous bone grafts.

World Neurosurg 2015 May 11;83(5):708-14. Epub 2015 Feb 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Objective: Using current surgical methods, cranioplasty is associated with a high complication rate. We analyzed if there are preexisting medical conditions associated with complications and compared the effect of different implant materials on the degree of complications.

Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of all patients who underwent cranioplasty for cranial bone defects during the period 2002-2012 was conducted, and 100 consecutive cranioplasty procedures that met eligibility criteria were identified. Patients were analyzed in 4 groups, which were created based on the cranioplasty material: autograft (n = 20), bioactive fiber-reinforced composite (n = 20), hydroxyapatite (n = 31), and other synthetic materials (n = 29). Survival estimates were constructed with Kaplan-Meier curves, and the differences between categorical variable levels were determined using a log-rank test. Multiple comparisons were adjusted using a Šidák correction.

Results: During a median follow-up time of 14 months (interquartile range 3-39 months), 32 of 100 patients (32.0%) developed at least 1 complication. A minor complication occurred in 13 patients (13.0%), whereas 19 patients (19.0%) developed a major complication, which required reoperation or removal of the implant. In the autograft subgroup, 40.0% of patients required removal of the cranioplasty. The 3-year survival of the autograft subgroup was lower compared with other subgroups of synthetic materials. In hydroxyapatite and bioactive fiber-reinforced composite groups, fewer complications were observed compared with the autograft group.

Conclusions: Based on these results, synthetic materials for cranial bone defect reconstruction exhibit more promising outcomes compared with autograft. There were differences in survival rates among synthetic materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2015.01.014DOI Listing
May 2015

Paediatric cranial defect reconstruction using bioactive fibre-reinforced composite implant: early outcomes.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2015 Apr 10;157(4):681-7. Epub 2015 Feb 10.

Division of Surgery and Cancer Diseases, Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Turku University Hospital, PO Box 52, 20521, Turku, Finland,

Background: In children, approximately half of cryopreserved allograft bone flaps fail due to infection and resorption. Synthetic materials offer a solution for allograft bone flap resorption. Fibre-reinforced composite with a bioactive glass particulate filling is a new synthetic material for bone reconstruction. Bioactive glass is capable of chemically bonding with bone and is osteoinductive, osteoconductive and bacteriostatic. Fibre-reinforced composite allows for fabricating thin (0.8 mm) margins for implant, which are designed as onlays on the existing bone. Bioactive glass is dissolved over time, whereas the fibre-reinforced composite serves as a biostable part of the implant, and these have been tested in preclinical and adult clinical trials. In this study, we tested the safety and other required properties of this composite material in large skull bone reconstruction with children.

Method: Eight cranioplasties were performed on seven patients, aged 2.5-16 years and having large (>16 cm(2)) skull bone defects. The implant used in this study was a patient-specific, glass-fibre-reinforced composite, which contained a bioactive glass particulate compound, S53P4.

Results: During follow-up (average 35.1 months), one minor complication was observed and three patients needed revision surgery. Two surgical site infections were observed. After treatment of complications, a good functional and cosmetic outcome was observed in all patients. The implants had an onlay design and fitted the defect well. In clinical and imaging examinations, the implants were in the original position with no signs of implant migration, degradation or mechanical breakage.

Conclusions: Here, we found that early cranioplasty outcomes with the fibre-reinforced composite implant were promising. However, a longer follow-up time and a larger group of patients are needed to draw firmer conclusions regarding the long-term benefits of the proposed novel biomaterial and implant design. The glass-fibre-reinforced composite implant incorporated by particles of bioactive glass may offer an original, non-metallic and bioactive alternative for reconstruction of large skull bone defects in a paediatric population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-015-2363-2DOI Listing
April 2015

Craniofacial bone reconstruction with bioactive fiber-reinforced composite implant.

Head Neck 2014 May 1;36(5):722-8. Epub 2013 Aug 1.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Background: A novel, bioactive, fiber-reinforced composite implant is a solution to address the shortcomings in craniofacial bone reconstruction. A longitudinal clinical investigation with a follow-up time of 4 years was conducted.

Methods: A cranial bone reconstruction with the implant was performed on 12 patients. In these patients, the reasons for craniotomies resulting in craniofacial bone defects were traumatic and spontaneous intracranial bleeding as well as infections to the primary reconstruction material. The implant material consisted of a supporting fiber-reinforced framework, porous inner layers, and a bioactive glass (BG; S53P4) filling. The framework and the porous layers were made of a bisphenol-a-glycidyl methacrylate and triethyleneglycoldi-methacrylate (pBisGMA-pTEGDMA) resin matrix, which was reinforced with silanized E-glass.

Results: In clinical examinations and skull X-rays, the implants were in original positions providing the expected functional and aesthetic outcome at all time points.

Conclusion: The implants functioned appropriately, which would provide a potential solution for craniofacial bone reconstruction in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.23370DOI Listing
May 2014

Novel composite implant in craniofacial bone reconstruction.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2012 Feb 1;269(2):623-8. Epub 2011 Jun 1.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Turku University Hospital, P.O. BOX 52, 20521, Turku, Finland.

Bioactive glass (BAG) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) have been used in clinical applications. Antimicrobial BAG has the ability to attach chemically to surrounding bone, but it is not possible to bend, drill or shape BAG during the operation. PMMA has advantages in terms of shaping during the operation, but it does not attach chemically to the bone and is an exothermic material. To increase the usefulness of BAG and PMMA in skull bone defect reconstructions, a new composite implant containing BAG and PMMA in craniofacial reconstructions is presented. Three patients had pre-existing large defects in the calvarial and one in the midface area. An additive manufacturing (AM) model was used preoperatively for treatment planning and custom-made implant production. The trunk of the PMMA implant was coated with BAG granules. Clinical and radiological follow-up was performed postoperatively at 1 week, and 3, 6 and 12 months, and thereafter annually up to 5 years. Computer tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET-CT) were performed at 12 and 24 months postoperatively. Uneventful clinical recovery with good esthetic and functional outcome was seen. CT and PET-CT findings supported good clinical outcome. The BAG-PMMA implant seems to be a promising craniofacial reconstruction alternative. However, more clinical experience is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-011-1607-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3259392PMC
February 2012

Long-term microscopic and tissue analytical findings for 2 frontal sinus obliteration materials.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2008 Aug;66(8):1699-707

Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2007.11.020DOI Listing
August 2008

Monitoring microvascular free flaps with tissue oxygen measurement and PET.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2008 Jul 30;265 Suppl 1:S105-13. Epub 2008 Jan 30.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Turku University Central Hospital, 20521 Turku, Finland.

Tissue oxygen measurement and positron emission tomography (PET) were evaluated as methods for predicting ischemia in microvascular free flaps of the head and neck. Ten patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer underwent resection of the tumour followed by microvascular reconstruction with a free flap. Tissue oxygenation of the flap (P(ti)O(2)) was continuously monitored for three postoperative (POP) days and the blood flow of the flap was assessed using oxygen-15 labelled water and PET. In three free flaps a perfusion problem was suspected due to a remarkable drop in P(ti)O(2)-values, due to two anastomosis problems and due to POP turgor. No flap losses occurred. During the blood flow measurements with PET [mean 8.5 mL 100 g(-1) min(-1 )(SD 2.5)], the mean P(ti)O(2) of the flaps [46.8 mmHg (SD 17.0)] appeared to correlate with each other in each patient (p<0.05, n=10). Tissue oxygenation measurement is a feasible monitoring system of free flaps. The perfusion-study with PET correlates with P(ti)O(2)-measurement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-008-0585-0DOI Listing
July 2008

Bioactive glass hydroxyapatite in fronto-orbital defect reconstruction.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2007 Dec;120(7):1963-1972

Turku, Finland From the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Turku University Hospital.

Background: Synthetic bioactive ceramics and glasses have osteoconductive properties. These materials are capable of chemically bonding to the bone tissue. In addition, special bioactive glasses do not favor microbial growth. In this study, the clinical outcome of bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite in head and neck surgery was evaluated.

Methods: In a retrospective series of 150 patients, 62 patients underwent reconstruction with frontal sinus obliteration after chronic frontal sinusitis, 65 patients were operated on for fronto-orbital traumas, and 23 patients underwent reconstruction after fronto-orbital tumor resections. These patients were evaluated for surgical procedures, reconstruction materials, complications, and functional outcomes.

Results: Three of the 62 frontal sinus occlusions underwent operation (4.8 percent) during the follow-up of 5 years. The reoperations were caused by a new mucocele. In fronto-orbital reconstructions, we have reoperated on the orbital floor in four cases (7 percent). All 12 benign tumor patients and six of 11 malignant tumor patients survived during a follow-up of 3 years. Two of the 23 (9 percent) complicated tumor and trauma patients underwent reoperation because of a local mucocele.

Conclusions: Treatment of severe head and neck defects with biomaterial is a suitable alternative to conventional methods. Bioactive materials seem to be stable and reliable at clinical follow-up. The reconstructions with bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite are associated with good functional and aesthetic results without donor-site morbidity. However, more long-term outcomes of studied biomaterials are needed to determine whether they are capable of competing with traditional tissue grafts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.prs.0000287319.34425.27DOI Listing
December 2007

Functional evaluation of microvascular free flaps with positron emission tomography.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2006 ;59(2):158-65

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Turku University Central Hospital, FIN-20521 Turku, Finland.

Background: The aim of this study was to assess blood flow (BF) of microvascular free flaps studied with positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) undergoing major radical surgery 3-4 weeks after high-dose radiotherapy.

Methods: Five patients underwent resection of the HNSCC of the oral cavity followed by microvascular reconstruction with a radial forearm flap. Regional BF in oral and neck tissues was measured with PET using radiolabelled water ([15O]H2O) twice (1-2 and 12-14 days, respectively) following radical surgery.

Results: In the first postoperative PET study, the median BF in the cutaneous flap area was 5.1 mL/100 g/min, and in the muscle contra-lateral to the recipient site 19.9 mL/100 g/min. A low flap-to-muscle BF ratio appeared to correlate with circulatory incongruity, and thus with poorer flap success. The follow-up study on the second postoperative week supported the results of the primary PET scan.

Conclusions: This pilot study suggests that PET using [15O]H2O is a feasible method to quantitatively evaluate BF of the whole free flap in patients operated on for oral
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2005.04.016DOI Listing
June 2006

Frontal sinus and skull bone defect obliteration with three synthetic bioactive materials. A comparative study.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2003 Jul;66(1):364-72

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Turku University Hospital, Finland.

Three synthetic bioactive materials were studied in an experimental model to compare their usability in a frontal sinus and a skull bone defect obliteration. Bioactive glass number 9 (BAG(1)), bioactive glass number 13 (BAG(2)), and hydroxyapatite (HA) granules were investigated. BAG(1) and HA granules have been previously tested clinically. The clinical usefulness of BAG(2) granules has not been tested. Upper bony walls of 45 Elco rabbits' frontal sinuses were drilled open from four separate holes with the use of a standard method. The skull bone defects and the sinuses in frontal bone were filled with BAG(1) or BAG(2) on one side, and with HA on the other side. Two parallel posterior defects were covered with a pedicled periosteum flap, and two anterior defects with a free flap. The resorption of materials, new bone, and fibrous-tissue formation were observed with a histomorphometric method at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were done at 6 months. In histomorphometry, the new bone formation increased with all the investigated materials throughout the study (p < 0.001), but the results showed higher new bone formation in the defects filled with BAG(1) than in corresponding BAG(2)- or HA- filled defects. New bone formation and resorption of materials were faster in defects covered by pedicled than by free periosteum flaps (p < 0.001). Intimate contact between the used materials and new bone was confirmed by SEM. FTIR analysis of bone produced by BAG(1) and BAG(2) was of the same type as natural frontal bone. BAG(2) can be manufactured in various shapes, and thus, could possibly be used in clinical conditions requiring a special anatomical implant shape. However, more research is needed regarding this property of BAG(2).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.10023DOI Listing
July 2003