Publications by authors named "Kaleem Iqbal"

7 Publications

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POLE and POLD1 pathogenic variants in the proofreading domain in papillary thyroid cancer.

Endocr Connect 2020 Oct;9(9):923-932

Human Cancer Genomic Research, Research Centre, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Thyroid cancer is the most frequent endocrine cancer with an increasing incidence rate worldwide and is the second most common malignancy among females in Saudi Arabia. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common subtype. Germline pathogenic variants in the proofreading domain of the POLE and POLD1 genes predispose to several types of cancers. However, the role of pathogenic variants of these two genes in PTC remains unknown. Capture sequencing, Sanger sequencing and immunohistochemistry were performed on 300 PTC cases from the Middle Eastern region. One germline pathogenic variant each of POLE (1/300, 0.33%) and POLD1 (1/300, 0.33%) genes was identified. Low expression of POLD1 was detected in 46.5% (133/286) of cases and was significantly associated with the follicular variant of PTC (P = 0.0006), distant metastasis (P = 0.0033) and stage IV tumours (P = 0.0081). However, no somatic pathogenic variant was detected in POLE gene. Furthermore, low expression of POLE was noted in 61.7% (175/284) of cases with no significant clinicopathological associations. Our study shows that pathogenic variant in the POLE and POLD1 proofreading domain is a cause of PTC and low expression of POLD1 is associated with poor prognostic markers in the Middle Eastern population. Further studies from different geographic populations are needed to determine the frequency and spectrum of proofreading domain pathogenic variants in POLE and POLD1 genes and in PTC from different ethnicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EC-20-0258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7583138PMC
October 2020

POLE and POLD1 germline exonuclease domain pathogenic variants, a rare event in colorectal cancer from the Middle East.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 08 22;8(8):e1368. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, Research Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, iyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality related to cancer. Only ~5% of all CRCs occur as a result of pathogenic variants in well-defined CRC predisposing genes. The frequency and effect of exonuclease domain pathogenic variants of POLE and POLD1 genes in Middle Eastern CRCs is still unknown.

Methods: Targeted capture sequencing and Sanger sequencing technologies were employed to investigate the germline exonuclease domain pathogenic variants of POLE and POLD1 in Middle Eastern CRCs. Immunohistochemical analysis of POLE and POLD1 was performed to look for associations between protein expression and clinico-pathological characteristics.

Results: Five damaging or possibly damaging variants (0.44%) were detected in 1,135 CRC cases, four in POLE gene (0.35%, 4/1,135) and one (0.1%, 1/1,135) in POLD1 gene. Furthermore, low POLE protein expression was identified in 38.9% (417/1071) cases and a significant association with lymph node involvement (p = .0184) and grade 3 tumors (p = .0139) was observed. Whereas, low POLD1 expression was observed in 51.9% (555/1069) of cases and was significantly associated with adenocarcinoma histology (p = .0164), larger tumor size (T3 and T4 tumors; p = .0012), and stage III tumors (p = .0341).

Conclusion: POLE and POLD1 exonuclease domain pathogenic variants frequency in CRC cases was very low and these exonuclease domain pathogenic variants might be rare causative events of CRC in the Middle East. POLE and POLD1 can be included in multi-gene panels to screen CRC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7434734PMC
August 2020

Germline and proofreading domain mutations in endometrial carcinoma from Middle Eastern region.

Cancer Cell Int 2019 11;19:334. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

1Human Cancer Genomic Research, Research Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, MBC#98-16, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh, 11211 Saudi Arabia.

Background: Endometrial carcinoma (EC) accounts for 5.8% of all cancers in Saudi females. Although most ECs are sporadic, 2-5% tend to be familial, being associated with Lynch syndrome and Cowden syndrome. In this study, we attempted to uncover the frequency, spectrum and phenotype of germline mutations in the proofreading domain of and genes in a large cohort of ECs from Middle Eastern region.

Methods: We performed Capture sequencing and Sanger sequencing to screen for proofreading domains of and genes in 432 EC cases, followed by evaluation of protein expression using immunohistochemistry. Variant interpretation was performed using PolyPhen-2, MutationAssessor, SIFT, CADD and Mutation Taster.

Results: In our cohort, four mutations (0.93%) were identified in 432 EC cases, two each in and proofreading domains. Furthermore, low expression of POLE and POLD1 was noted in 41.1% (170/1414) and 59.9% (251/419) of cases, respectively. Both the cases harboring mutation showed high nuclear expression of POLE protein, whereas, of the two mutant cases, one case showed high expression and another case showed low expression of POLD1 protein.

Conclusions: Our study shows that germline mutations in and proofreading region are a rare cause of EC in Middle Eastern population. However, it is still feasible to screen multiple cancer related genes in EC patients from Middle Eastern region using multigene panels including and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-019-1058-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6907229PMC
December 2019

Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations in cancers derived from multiple organ sites among middle eastern population.

Genomics 2020 03 31;112(2):1746-1753. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Sanger Sequencing and immunohistochemistry was employed to investigate the TERT promoter mutations and TERT protein expression with their association to clinicopathological characteristics in over 2200 samples of Middle Eastern origin from 13 different types of cancers. The TERT promoter mutations were most frequently present in bladder cancer (68.6%), followed by central nervous system tumors (28.7%), thyroid cancer (15.4%), prostate cancer (9.3%), endometrial carcinoma (3.7%), rhabdomyosarcoma (1.4%), colorectal cancer (1%), epithelial ovarian carcinoma (0.7%) and breast cancer (0.7%). No mutations were observed in other types of cancers. In bladder cancer, we found significant inverse association with metastasis and a trend to good survival in patients with TERT mutations. In gliomas, TERT promoter mutations predicted poor prognosis. In thyroid cancer, high frequency of TERT mutation was observed in poorly differentiated carcinoma. In addition, TERT promoter mutations were associated with aggressive markers and poor outcome in follicular thyroid carcinomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2019.09.017DOI Listing
March 2020

Prognostic significance of DNMT3A alterations in Middle Eastern papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Eur J Cancer 2019 08 4;117:133-144. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, 11211, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Background: Thyroid cancer is the second most common cancer affecting Saudi women after breast cancer, with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) accounting for 80-90% of thyroid cancers. DNA methyltransferases affect DNA methylation, and it is thought that they play an important role in the malignant transformation of various cancers.

Methods: We sought to evaluate the frequency of DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) alterations in a large cohort of >1000 PTC cases using exome sequencing, capture sequencing, immunohistochemistry and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. We also performed in vitro analysis to investigate the role of DNMT3A methylation in PTC cell lines.

Results: DNMT3A pathogenic mutations were noted in 1.2% (12/1013) of PTC cases. Reduced/loss of DNMT3A expression was seen in 59.8% (579/968) of PTC cases and was significantly associated with the DNMT3A mutation (p = 0.0120). DNMT3A alterations (mutation and/or loss of expression) were associated with aggressive clinical parameters and a poor outcome. The promoter region of the DNMT3A gene was methylated in 57.1% of PTC cases tested and was significantly associated with reduced DNMT3A protein expression (p = 0.0253). Treatment of the methylated PTC cell line with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in demethylation of the DNMT3A gene, leading to restoration of its expression. Demethylation significantly potentiated the TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in PTC cells. Interestingly, silencing of DNMT3A using siRNA suppressed TRAIL-mediated apoptosis.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that DNMT3A alterations play an important role in PTC pathogenesis and demethylation agents can be used to restore the function of DNMT3A in a subset of patients with PTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2019.05.025DOI Listing
August 2019

Prevalence, spectrum, and founder effect of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in epithelial ovarian cancer from the Middle East.

Hum Mutat 2019 06 18;40(6):729-733. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, Research Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 and 2 have previously been estimated to contribute to 13-18% of all epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). To characterize the prevalence and effect of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Middle Eastern EOC patients, BRCA mutation screening was performed in 407 unselected ovarian cancer patients using targeted capture and/or Sanger sequencing. A total of 19 different pathogenic variants (PVs) were identified in 50 (12.3%) women. Nine PVs were recurrent accounting for 80% of cases with PVs (40/50) in the entire cohort. Founder mutation analysis revealed only two mutations (c.4136_4137delCT and c.1140dupG) sharing the same haplotypes thus representing founder mutations in the Middle Eastern population. Identification of the mutation spectrum, prevalence, and founder effect in Middle Eastern population facilitates genetic counseling, risk assessment, and development of a cost-effective screening strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23736DOI Listing
June 2019

CenC, a multidomain thermostable GH9 processive endoglucanase from Clostridium thermocellum: cloning, characterization and saccharification studies.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2015 Nov 7;31(11):1699-710. Epub 2015 Aug 7.

Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, GC University, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan.

The growing demands of bioenergy has led to the emphasis on novel cellulases to improve efficiency of biodegradation process of plant biomass. Therefore, a thermostable cellulolytic gene (CenC) with 3675 bp was cloned from Clostridium thermocellum and over-expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 CodonPlus. It was attested that CenC belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 9 (GH9) with four binding domains, a processive endoglucanase. CenC was purified to homogeneity, producing a single band on SDS-PAGE corresponding to 137.11 kDa, by purification steps of heat treatment combined with ion-exchange chromatography. Purified enzyme displayed optimal activity at pH 6.0 and 70 °C. CenC had a half-life of 24 min at 74 °C, was stable up to 2 h at 60 °C and over a pH range of 5.5-7.5. Enzyme showed high affinity towards various substrates and processively released cellobiose from cellulosic substrates. It efficiently hydrolyzed carboxymethyl cellulose (30 U/mg), β-Glucan Barley (94 U/mg); also showed activity towards p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside (18 U/mg), birchwood xylan (19 U/mg), beechwood xylan (17.5 U/mg), avicel (9 U/mg), whatman filter paper (11 U/mg) and laminarin (3.3 U/mg). CenC exhibited Km, Vmax, Kcat, Vmax Km(-1) and Kcat Km(-1) of 7.14 mM, 52.4 µmol mg(-1) min(-1), 632.85 s(-1), 7.34 min(-1) and 88.63, respectively used CMC as substrate. Recombinant CenC saccharified pretreated wheat straw and bagasse to 5.12 and 7.31%, respectively at pH 7.0 and 45 °C after 2 h incubation. Its thermostability, high catalytic efficiency and independence of inhibitors make CenC enzyme an appropriate candidate for industrial applications and cost-effective saccharification process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11274-015-1920-4DOI Listing
November 2015