Publications by authors named "Kalappa Muniyappa"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Novel insights into ATP-Stimulated Cleavage of branched DNA and RNA Substrates through Structure-Guided Studies of the Holliday Junction Resolvase RuvX.

J Mol Biol 2021 Jun 30;433(13):167014. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. Electronic address:

Much of our understanding of the homologous recombination (HR) machinery hinges on studies using Escherichia coli as a model organism. Interestingly enough, studies on the HR machinery in different bacterial species casts doubt on the universality of the E. coli paradigm. The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes two Holliday junction (HJ)-resolvase paralogues, namely RuvC and RuvX; however, insights into their structural features and functional relevance is still limited. Here, we report on structure-guided functional studies of the M. tuberculosis RuvX HJ resolvase (MtRuvX). The crystalline MtRuvX is a dimer in the asymmetric unit, and each monomer has a RNAse H fold vis-à-vis RuvC-like nucleases. Interestingly, MtRuvX also contains some unique features, including the residues essential for ATP binding/coordination of Mg ions. Indeed, MtRuvX exhibited an intrinsic, robust ATPase activity, which was further accentuated by DNA cofactors. Structure-guided substitutions of single residues at the ATP binding/Mgcoordination sites while markedly attenuating the ATPase activity completely abrogated HJ cleavage, indicating an unanticipated relationship between ATP hydrolysis and DNA cleavage. However, the affinity of ATPase-deficient mutants for the HJ was not impaired. Contrary to RuvC, MtRuvX exhibits relaxed substrate specificity, cleaving a variety of branched DNA/RNA substrates. Notably, ATP hydrolysis plays a regulatory role, rendering MtRuvX from a canonical HJ resolvase to a DNA/RNA non-sequence specific endonuclease, indicating a link between HJ resolvase and nucleic acid metabolism. These findings provide novel insights into the structure and dual-functional activities of MtRuvX, and suggest that it may play an important role in DNA/RNA metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2021.167014DOI Listing
June 2021

Evidence for functional and regulatory cross-talk between Wnt/β-catenin signalling and Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex in the repair of cisplatin-induced DNA cross-links.

Oncotarget 2020 Nov 3;11(44):4028-4044. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

The canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway plays a crucial role in a variety of functions including cell proliferation and differentiation, tumorigenic processes and radioresistance in cancer cells. The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex has a pivotal role in sensing and repairing DNA damage. However, it remains unclear whether a connection exists between Wnt/β-catenin signalling and the MRN complex in the repair of cisplatin-induced DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs). Here, we report that (1) cisplatin exposure results in a significant increase in the levels of MRN complex subunits in human tumour cells; (2) cisplatin treatment stimulates Wnt/β-catenin signalling through increased β-catenin expression; (3) the functional perturbation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling results in aberrant cell cycle dynamics and the activation of DNA damage response and apoptosis; (4) a treatment with CHIR99021, a potent and selective GSK3β inhibitor, augments cisplatin-induced cell death in cancer cells. On the other hand, inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin signalling with FH535 promotes cell survival. Consistently, the staining pattern of γH2AX-foci is significantly reduced in the cells exposed simultaneously to cisplatin and FH535; and (5) inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signalling impedes cisplatin-induced phosphorylation of Chk1, abrogates the G2/M phase arrest and impairs recombination-based DNA repair. Our data further show that Wnt signalling positively regulates the expression of β-catenin, Mre11 and FANCD2 at early time points, but declining thereafter due to negative feedback regulation. These results support a model wherein Wnt/β-catenin signalling and MRN complex crosstalk during DNA ICL repair, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of genome stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7646826PMC
November 2020

The intrinsic ATPase activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis UvrC is crucial for its damage-specific DNA incision function.

FEBS J 2021 Feb 18;288(4):1179-1200. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, India.

To ensure genome stability, bacteria have evolved a network of DNA repair mechanisms; among them, the UvrABC-dependent nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway is essential for the incision of a variety of bulky adducts generated by exogenous chemicals, UV radiation and by-products of cellular metabolism. However, very little is known about the enzymatic properties of Mycobacterium tuberculosis UvrABC excinuclease complex. Furthermore, the biochemical properties of Escherichia coli UvrC (EcUvrC) are not well understood (compared to UvrA and UvrB), perhaps due to its limited availability and/or activity instability in vitro. In addition, homology modelling of M. tuberculosis UvrC (MtUvrC) revealed the presence of a putative ATP-binding pocket, although its function remains unknown. To elucidate the biochemical properties of UvrC, we constructed and purified wild-type MtUvrC and its eight variants harbouring mutations within the ATP-binding pocket. The data from DNA-binding studies suggest that MtUvrC exhibits high-affinity for duplex DNA containing a bubble or fluorescein-dT moiety, over fluorescein-adducted single-stranded DNA. Most notably, MtUvrC has an intrinsic UvrB-independent ATPase activity, which drives dual incision of the damaged DNA strand. In contrast, EcUvrC is devoid of ATPase activity; however, it retains the ability to bind ATP at levels comparable to that of MtUvrC. The ATPase-deficient variants map to residues lining the MtUvrC ATP-binding pocket. Further analysis of these variants revealed separation of function between ATPase and DNA-binding activities in MtUvrC. Altogether, these findings reveal functional diversity of the bacterial NER machinery and a paradigm for the evolution of a catalytic scaffold in UvrC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.15465DOI Listing
February 2021

The extended N-terminus of Mycobacterium smegmatis RecX potentiates its ability to antagonize RecA functions.

Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom 2020 10 9;1868(10):140468. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560012, India. Electronic address:

The members of the RecX family of proteins have a unique capacity to regulate the catalytic activities of RecA/Rad51 proteins in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. However, our understanding of the functional roles of RecX in pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacteria has been limited by insufficient knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of its activity and regulation. Moreover, the significance of a unique 14 amino acid N-terminal extension in Mycobacterium smegmatis RecX (MsRecX) to its function remains unknown. Here, we advance our understanding of the antagonistic roles of mycobacterial RecX proteins and the functional significance of the extended N-terminus of MsRecX. The full-length MsRecX acts as an antagonist of RecA, negatively regulating RecA promoted functions, including DNA strand exchange, LexA cleavage and ATP hydrolysis, but not binding of ATP. The N-terminally truncated MsRecX variants retain the RecA inhibitory activity, albeit with lower efficiencies compared to the full-length protein. Perhaps most importantly, direct visualization of RecA nucleoprotein filaments, which had been incubated with RecX proteins, showed that they promote disassembly of nucleoprotein filaments primarily within the filaments. In addition, interaction of RecX proteins with the RecA nucleoprotein filaments results in the formation of stiff and irregularly shaped nucleoprotein filaments. Thus, these findings add an additional mechanism by which RecX disassembles RecA nucleoprotein filaments. Overall, this study provides strong evidence for the notion that the N-terminal 14 amino acid region of MsRecX plays an important role in the negative regulation of RecA functions and new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying RecX function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2020.140468DOI Listing
October 2020

Specific stabilization of promoter G-Quadruplex DNA by 2,6-disubstituted amidoanthracene-9,10-dione based dimeric distamycin analogues and their selective cancer cell cytotoxicity.

Eur J Med Chem 2020 Jun 16;195:112202. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012, India; School of Applied & Interdisciplinary Sciences, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata, 700032, India. Electronic address:

We have designed and synthesized anthraquinone containing compounds which have oligopyrrole side chains of varying lengths. These compounds stabilized the G-quadruplex DNA formed in the promoter regions of c-MYC oncogenes selectively over the duplex DNA. These observations were recorded using UV-vis spectroscopic titrations, fluorescence measurements and circular dichroism (CD) spectral titrations. The potency of the compounds to stabilize the G4 DNA has been shown from the thermal denaturation experiments. The compound interacts with c-MYC G-quadruplex DNA through stacking mode as obtained from ethidium bromide displacement assay, cyclic voltammetric titration, and docking experiments. Molecular modeling studies suggested that the stacking of the anthraquinone moiety over the G-tetrad of the G4 structures are responsible for the stability of such quadruplex secondary structure. Furthermore, polymerase stop assay also supported the formation of stable G4 structures in the presence of the above-mentioned compounds. The compounds have shown selective cancer cell (HeLa and HEK293T) cytotoxicity over normal cells (NIH3T3 and HDFa) under in vitro conditions as determined from MTT based cell viability assay. Apoptosis was found to be the mechanistic pathway underlying the cancer cell cytotoxicity as obtained from Annexin V-FITC and PI dual staining assay which was further substantiated by nuclear morphological changes as observed by AO/EB dual staining assay. Cellular morphological changes, as well as nuclear condensation and fragmentation upon treatment with these compounds, were observed under bright field and confocal microscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2020.112202DOI Listing
June 2020

UvrA and UvrC subunits of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis UvrABC excinuclease interact independently of UvrB and DNA.

FEBS Lett 2020 03 24;594(5):851-863. Epub 2019 Nov 24.

Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

The UvrABC excinuclease plays a vital role in bacterial nucleotide excision repair. While UvrA and UvrB subunits associate to form a UvrA B complex, interaction between UvrA and UvrC has not been demonstrated or quantified in any bacterial species. Here, using Mycobacterium tuberculosis UvrA (MtUvrA), UvrB (MtUvrB) and UvrC (MtUvrC) subunits, we show that MtUvrA binds to MtUvrB and equally well to MtUvrC with submicromolar affinity. Furthermore, MtUvrA forms a complex with MtUvrC both in vivo and in vitro, independently of DNA and UvrB. Collectively, these findings reveal new insights into the pairwise relationships between the subunits of the UvrABC incision complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1873-3468.13671DOI Listing
March 2020

Mechanical force antagonizes the inhibitory effects of RecX on RecA filament formation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Nucleic Acids Res 2014 Oct 7;42(19):11992-9. Epub 2014 Oct 7.

Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117411, Singapore Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542, Singapore Centre for Bioimaging Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117557, Singapore

Efficient bacterial recombinational DNA repair involves rapid cycles of RecA filament assembly and disassembly. The RecX protein plays a crucial inhibitory role in RecA filament formation and stability. As the broken ends of DNA are tethered during homologous search, RecA filaments assembled at the ends are likely subject to force. In this work, we investigated the interplay between RecX and force on RecA filament formation and stability. Using magnetic tweezers, at single molecular level, we found that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) RecX could catalyze stepwise de-polymerization of preformed MtRecA filament in the presence of ATP hydrolysis at low forces (<7 pN). However, applying larger forces antagonized the inhibitory effects of MtRecX, and a partially de-polymerized MtRecA filament could re-polymerize in the presence of MtRecX, which cannot be explained by previous models. Theoretical analysis of force-dependent conformational free energies of naked ssDNA and RecA nucleoprotein filament suggests that mechanical force stabilizes RecA filament, which provides a possible mechanism for the observation. As the antagonizing effect of force on the inhibitory function of RecX takes place in a physiological range; these findings broadly suggest a potential mechanosensitive regulation during homologous recombination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4231760PMC
October 2014

Dynamics and Regulation of RecA Polymerization and De-Polymerization on Double-Stranded DNA.

PLoS One 2013 18;8(6):e66712. Epub 2013 Jun 18.

Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore ; Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

The RecA filament formed on double-stranded (ds) DNA is proposed to be a functional state analogous to that generated during the process of DNA strand exchange. RecA polymerization and de-polymerization on dsDNA is governed by multiple physiological factors. However, a comprehensive understanding of how these factors regulate the processes of polymerization and de-polymerization of RecA filament on dsDNA is still evolving. Here, we investigate the effects of temperature, pH, tensile force, and DNA ends (in particular ssDNA overhang) on the polymerization and de-polymerization dynamics of the E. coli RecA filament at a single-molecule level. Our results identified the optimal conditions that permitted spontaneous RecA nucleation and polymerization, as well as conditions that could maintain the stability of a preformed RecA filament. Further examination at a nano-meter spatial resolution, by stretching short DNA constructs, revealed a striking dynamic RecA polymerization and de-polymerization induced saw-tooth pattern in DNA extension fluctuation. In addition, we show that RecA does not polymerize on S-DNA, a recently identified novel base-paired elongated DNA structure that was previously proposed to be a possible binding substrate for RecA. Overall, our studies have helped to resolve several previous single-molecule studies that reported contradictory and inconsistent results on RecA nucleation, polymerization and stability. Furthermore, our findings also provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms of RecA filament formation and stability in vivo.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0066712PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3688958PMC
October 2017

Evidence for the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RecG helicase in DNA repair and recombination.

FEBS J 2013 Apr 21;280(8):1841-60. Epub 2013 Mar 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

In order to survive and replicate in a variety of stressful conditions during its life cycle, Mycobacterium tuberculosis must possess mechanisms to safeguard the integrity of the genome. Although DNA repair and recombination related genes are thought to play key roles in the repair of damaged DNA in all organisms, so far only a few of them have been functionally characterized in the tubercle bacillus. In this study, we show that M. tuberculosis RecG (MtRecG) expression was induced in response to different genotoxic agents. Strikingly, expression of MtRecG in Escherichia coli ∆recG mutant strain provided protection against mitomycin C, methyl methane sulfonate and UV induced cell death. Purified MtRecG exhibited higher binding affinity for the Holliday junction (HJ) compared with a number of canonical recombinational DNA repair intermediates. Notably, although MtRecG binds at the core of the mobile and immobile HJs, and with higher binding affinity for the immobile HJ, branch migration was evident only in the case of the mobile HJ. Furthermore, immobile HJs stimulate MtRecG ATPase activity less efficiently than mobile HJs. In addition to HJ substrates, MtRecG exhibited binding affinity for a variety of branched DNA structures including three-way junctions, replication forks, flap structures, forked duplex and a D-loop structure, but demonstrated strong unwinding activity on replication fork and flap DNA structures. Together, these results support that MtRecG plays an important role in processes related to DNA metabolism under normal as well as stress conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.12208DOI Listing
April 2013