Publications by authors named "Kajal C Banik"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in Bangladesh related to novel coronavirus infection.

IJID Reg 2022 Mar 2;2:198-203. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst household members in 32 districts of Bangladesh to build knowledge about disease epidemiology and seroepidemiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Objective: Antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) were assessed in people between April and October 2020.

Results: The national seroprevalence rates of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM were estimated to be 30.4% and 39.7%, respectively. In Dhaka, the seroprevalence of IgG was 35.4% in non-slum areas and 63.5% in slum areas. In areas outside of Dhaka, the seroprevalence of IgG was 37.5% in urban areas and 28.7% in rural areas. Between April and October 2020, the highest seroprevalence rate (57% for IgG and 64% for IgM) was observed in August. IgM antibody was more prevalent in younger participants, while older participants had more frequent IgG seropositivity. Follow-up specimens from patients with COVID-19 and their household members suggested that both IgG and IgM seropositivity increased significantly at day 14 and day 28 compared with day 1 after enrolment. : SARS-CoV-2 had spread extensively in Bangladesh by October 2020. This highlights the importance of monitoring seroprevalence data, particularly with the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijregi.2022.01.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8809641PMC
March 2022

Hepatitis E as a cause of adult hospitalization in Bangladesh: Results from an acute jaundice surveillance study in six tertiary hospitals, 2014-2017.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 01 21;14(1):e0007586. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

In the absence of reliable data on the burden of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in high endemic countries, we established a hospital-based acute jaundice surveillance program in six tertiary hospitals in Bangladesh to estimate the burden of HEV infection among hospitalized acute jaundice patients aged ≥14 years, identify seasonal and geographic patterns in the prevalence of hepatitis E, and examine factors associated with death. We collected blood specimens from enrolled acute jaundice patients, defined as new onset of either yellow eyes or skin during the past three months of hospital admission, and tested for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against HEV, HBV and HAV. The enrolled patients were followed up three months after hospital discharge to assess their survival status; pregnant women were followed up three months after their delivery to assess pregnancy outcomes. From December'2014 to September'2017, 1925 patients with acute jaundice were enrolled; 661 (34%) had acute hepatitis E, 48 (8%) had hepatitis A, and 293 (15%) had acute hepatitis B infection. Case fatality among hepatitis E patients was 5% (28/589). Most of the hepatitis E cases were males (74%; 486/661), but case fatality was higher among females-12% (8/68) among pregnant and 8% (7/91) among non-pregnant women. Half of the patients who died with acute hepatitis E had co-infection with HAV or HBV. Of the 62 HEV infected mothers who were alive until the delivery, 9 (15%) had miscarriage/stillbirth, and of those children who were born alive, 19% (10/53) died, all within one week of birth. This study confirms that hepatitis E is the leading cause of acute jaundice, leads to hospitalizations in all regions in Bangladesh, occurs throughout the year, and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Effective control measures should be taken to reduce the risk of HEV infections including improvements in water quality, sanitation and hygiene practices and the introduction of HEV vaccine to high-risk groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6994197PMC
January 2020

A Low-Cost, Community Knowledge Approach to Estimate Maternal and Jaundice-Associated Mortality in Rural Bangladesh.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 12;99(6):1633-1638

Australian Centre for Public and Population Health, Research, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

In the absence of a civil registration system, a house-to-house survey is often used to estimate cause-specific mortality in low- and middle-income countries. However, house-to-house surveys are resource and time intensive. We applied a low-cost community knowledge approach to identify maternal deaths from any cause and jaundice-associated deaths among persons aged ≥ 14 years, and stillbirths and neonatal deaths in mothers with jaundice during pregnancy in five rural communities in Bangladesh. We estimated the method's sensitivity and cost savings compared with a house-to-house survey. In the five communities with a total of 125,570 population, we identified 13 maternal deaths, 60 deaths among persons aged ≥ 14 years associated with jaundice, five neonatal deaths, and four stillbirths born to a mother with jaundice during pregnancy over the 3-year period before the survey using the community knowledge approach. The sensitivity of community knowledge method in identifying target deaths ranged from 80% for neonatal deaths to 100% for stillbirths and maternal deaths. The community knowledge approach required 36% of the staff time to undertake compared with the house-to-house survey. The community knowledge approach was less expensive but highly sensitive in identifying maternal and jaundice-associated mortality, as well as all-cause adult mortality in rural settings in Bangladesh. This method can be applied in rural settings of other low- and middle-income countries and, in conjunction with hospital-based hepatitis diagnoses, used to monitor the impact of programs to reduce the burden of cause-specific hepatitis mortality, a current World Health Organization priority.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283507PMC
December 2018

Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Seroprevalence among Prevaccine and Vaccine Era Children in Bangladesh.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 09 12;99(3):764-771. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Bangladesh introduced hepatitis B vaccine in a phased manner during 2003-2005 into the routine childhood vaccination schedule. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine in Bangladesh by comparing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence among children born before and after vaccine introduction and to estimate the risk of vertical transmission of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection from mother to infant. We also evaluated the field sensitivity and specificity of an HBsAg point-of-care test strip. We selected a nationally representative sample of 2,100 prevaccine era and 2,100 vaccine era children. We collected a 5-mL blood sample from each child. One drop of blood was used to perform rapid HBsAg testing. If a child had a positive HBsAg test result with the rapid test, a blood sample was collected from the mother of the HBsAg-positive child and from the mothers of two subsequently enrolled HBsAg-negative children. All samples were tested for serologic markers of HBV infection using standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One (0.05%) child in the vaccine era group and 27 (1.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8-1.7%) children in the prevaccine era group were HBsAg positive. Mothers of HBsAg-positive children were more likely to be HBsAg positive than mothers of HBsAg-negative children (odds ratios = 4.7; 95% CI: 1.0-21.7%). Sensitivity of the HBsAg rapid test was 91.2% (95% CI: 76.6-98.1%) and specificity was 100% (95% CI: 99.9-100%). The study results suggest that even without a birth dose, the hepatitis B vaccine program in Bangladesh was highly effective in preventing chronic HBV infection among children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6169160PMC
September 2018
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