Publications by authors named "Kaijun Niu"

191 Publications

Handgrip strength as a predictor of incident hypertension in the middle-aged and older population: The TCLSIH cohort study.

Maturitas 2021 Aug 11;150:7-13. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, China; Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China; Health Management Centre, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environment, Nutrition and Public Health, Tianjin, China; Center for International Collaborative Research on Environment, Nutrition and Public Health, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: The independent role of muscular strength in the prevention of chronic disease is increasingly being recognized. However, no cohort study has assessed the relationship between handgrip strength and the incidence of hypertension among the middle-aged and older population. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether handgrip strength is related to incident hypertension among people aged 40 years and over.

Study Design: This prospective cohort study (n = 8,480) was performed between 2013 and 2019 as part of the Tianjin Chronic Low-grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIH) Cohort Study, Tianjin, China.

Main Outcome Measures: Participants without baseline hypertension were followed up for ~6 years (median 4.0 years). Hypertension was defined according to the JNC7 criteria. Handgrip strength was measured using a hydraulic handheld dynamometer. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the relationships between weight-adjusted handgrip strength and the risk of incident hypertension.

Results: The incidence rate of hypertension per 1000 person-years was 70. The fully adjusted hazards ratios (95% confidence interval) of the incidence of hypertension for increasing quartiles of weight-adjusted handgrip strength were: 1.00(reference), 0.84 (0.75-0.95), 0.78 (0.69-0.88), and 0.66 (0.58-0.75) (P for trend<0.0001). Moreover, the adjusted hazards ratio (95% confidence interval) of incident hypertension for per unit increase in weight-adjusted handgrip strength was 0.17 (0.10-0.27) (P<0.0001). Similar results were observed in males and females.

Conclusions: The present cohort study is the first to find that high weight-adjusted handgrip strength, but not absolute handgrip strength, is significantly and independently related to low risk of incident hypertension among the middle-aged and older population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2021.06.002DOI Listing
August 2021

Association of Appendicular Skeletal Muscle to Trunk Fat Ratio with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults.

Gerontology 2021 Jun 30:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Introduction: Mounting evidence has demonstrated that skeletal muscle and visceral adiposity play crucial roles in glucose metabolism. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) to trunk fat mass (TFM) ratio (ASMI/TFM) is a more specific and identifiable factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in older adults than conventional anthropometric measures.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,370 older adults from the Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIH) cohort. ASMI and TFM were measured by using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer, and T2DM was defined with the criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Odds ratios (ORs) were evaluated using multivariable logistic analysis.

Results: The prevalence of T2DM is 20.0% in this study. The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% confidence interval) of T2DM for increasing categories of ASMI/TFM, BMI, and waist circumference (WC) were 1.00 (reference), 0.70 (0.49, 1.02), 0.61 (0.42, 0.89), and 0.45 (0.30, 0.67; p for trend <0.0001); 1.00 (reference), 1.15 (0.83, 1.60), and 1.37 (0.94, 2.01; p for trend = 0.10); and 1.00 (reference) and 1.78 (1.19, 2.74; p < 0.01), respectively.

Conclusions: Higher ASMI/TFM was associated with a lower prevalence of T2DM in this study of older adults. The T2DM predictive value of ASMI/TFM may be stronger than BMI and WC in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000516076DOI Listing
June 2021

Environmental and Genetic Determinants of Major Chronic Disease in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region: Protocol for a Community-Based Cohort Study.

Front Public Health 2021 4;9:659701. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Personal lifestyle and air pollution are potential risk factors for major non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, these risk factors have experienced dramatic changes in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region in recent years, and few cohorts have focused on identifying risk factors for major NCDs in this specific region. The current study is a large, prospective, long-term, population-based cohort study that investigated environmental and genetic determinants of NCDs in BTH areas. The results of this study may provide scientific support for efforts to develop health recommendations for personalized prevention. About 36,000 participants 18 years or older would be obtained by multistage, stratified cluster sampling from five cities for the baseline assessment. Participants underwent seven examinations primarily targeting respiratory and circulatory system function and filled out questionnaires regarding lifestyle behavior, pollutant exposure, medical and family history, medication history, and psychological factors. Biochemistry indicators and inflammation markers were tested, and a biobank was established. Participants will be followed up every 2 years. Genetic determinants of NCDs will be demonstrated by using multiomics, and risk prediction models will be constructed using machine learning methods based on a multitude of environmental exposure, examination data, biomarkers, and psychosocial and behavioral assessments. Significant spatial and temporal differentiation is well-suited to demonstrating the health determinants of NCDs in the BTH region, which may facilitate public health strategies with respect to disease prevention and survivorship-related aspects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.659701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212971PMC
June 2021

Low dietary quercetin intake by food frequency questionnaire analysis is not associated with hypertension occurrence.

Clin Nutr 2021 Jun 12;40(6):3748-3753. Epub 2021 May 12.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Quercetin is one of the most abundant flavonoids in plant kingdom. Because of its strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect, it is of potential in anti-hypertension. The objective of the present study was to explore the relationship between dietary quercetin and hypertension incidence in a Chinese population.

Methods: Participants aged 17-87 years were recruited at baseline. Those people who did not have hypertension, cardiovascular disease or cancer and finished physical checkup were included in this prospective cohort study. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was performed. Follow-up was conducted once a year. The intake of quercetin was calculated based on FFQ and Chinese food composition table. Three Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to investigate the relationship between quercetin intake and incidence of hypertension.

Results: The data of 15,662 participants, including 7340 males and 8322 females, were analyzed. The median follow-up period was 3.0 year and the follow-up rate is 85.2%. A total of 2463 subjects developed hypertension during the follow-up period. The mean of daily quercetin intake was 24.7 ± 13.8 mg/day in this population. In the multivariate adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression model, the hazard ratios (95% CI) for hypertension across the ascending quartiles of quercetin intake were: 1.00 (reference), 1.04 (0.92, 1.17), 0.99 (0.87, 1.12), and 1.06 (0.92, 1.21). No significant association was observed between quercetin intake and the incidence of hypertension.

Conclusion: The dietary intake of quercetin alone does not reach a level sufficient to affect the incidence of hypertension in Chinese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.04.047DOI Listing
June 2021

Association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and hyperuricemia: TCLSIH prospective cohort study.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Jun 7;31(7):1993-2003. Epub 2021 May 7.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China; Health Management Centre, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environment, Nutrition and Public Health, Tianjin, China; Center for International Collaborative Research on Environment, Nutrition and Public Health, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Emerging evidence suggests that consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) plays a role in the development of chronic diseases, but evidence of their influence on hyperuricemia is limited. We therefore designed a cohort study to examine whether UPF consumption increase the risk of hyperuricemia in adults.

Methods And Results: This was a prospective study (n = 18,444) performed in Tianjin, China from 2013 to 2019. Participants that were aged 18 years and over and with no history of hyperuricemia, were followed up for 1-6 years (median follow-up duration = 4.2 years). UPF consumption was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid levels ≥7.0 mg/dL in males and ≥ 6 mg/dL in females. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association between UPF consumption and the risk of hyperuricemia. Restricted cubic spline regression was used to estimate the dose-response association between UPF consumption and risk of hyperuricemia. During follow-up period, the incidence of hyperuricemia was 20.3% in general population (27.7% in males and 13.2% in females). In the final multivariate models, the hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for hyperuricemia across energy adjusted UPF consumption quartiles were 1.00 (reference), 1.04 (0.94, 1.14), 1.11 (1.01, 1.23), 1.16 (1.05, 1.28) (p for trend = 0.02) in general population.

Conclusions: This population-based prospective cohort study suggests that increased consumption of UPF is independently associated the risk of hyperuricemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.04.001DOI Listing
June 2021

Saltwater fish but not freshwater fish consumption is positively related to handgrip strength: The TCLSIH Cohort Study.

Nutr Res 2021 06 25;90:46-54. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environment, Nutrition and Public Health, Tianjin, China; Center for International Collaborative Research on Environment, Nutrition and Public Health, Tianjin, China; Health Management Centre, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Fish contain many important nutrients and are primarily known for high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) content. Studies have shown that supplementation of fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA improves muscle mass and strength. Here, we hypothesized that fish consumption might improve muscle strength. To test this hypothesis, we performed this cross-sectional study (n = 29,084) in Tianjin, China. The frequency of fish consumption was assessed using a valid self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Handgrip strength (HGS) was used as the indicator of muscle strength, and was measured using a handheld digital dynamometer. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the relationship between fish consumption and HGS. In men, after adjusted potential confounding factors, the least square means (95% confidence intervals) of HGS across saltwater fish consumption categories were 41.5 (41.1, 43.7) kg for <1 time/week, 44.6 (43.2, 45.8) kg for 1 time/week, and 44.7 (43.3, 46.1) kg for ≥2 to 3 times/week (P for trend <0.001). In men, the least square means (95% confidence intervals) of HGS across the ascending quartiles of dietary n-3 PUFA intake were 43.6 (43.2, 44.4) kg, 43.7 (43.2, 44.6) kg, 44.4 (43.0, 45.8) kg, and 44.6 (43.1, 46.0) kg (P for trend <0.01). The results showed that saltwater fish consumption was positively related to HGS in men, but not in women, suggesting that saltwater fish contain nutrients that may be used to improve HGS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2021.04.002DOI Listing
June 2021

Consumption of Preserved Egg Is Associated with Modestly Increased Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Adults.

J Nutr 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Background: Although preserved egg is a traditional Chinese delicacy widely consumed in China and Southeast Asian countries, whether habitual preserved egg consumption is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unknown.

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the association between preserved egg consumption and risk of NAFLD in a cohort of Chinese adults.

Methods: This prospective cohort study included 15,883 participants aged 19-88 y (58% women) from the TCLSIH (Tianjin Chronic Low-grade Systemic Inflammation and Health) cohort study who were free of liver diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular disease at baseline. Preserved egg consumption was assessed using an FFQ at baseline. NAFLD was diagnosed by transabdominal sonography during an annual health examination. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs across categories of preserved egg consumption.

Results: During 56,002 person-years of follow-up, 3683 first incident cases of NAFLD were recorded. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, total energy intake, egg intake, and eating patterns, the multivariable HRs (95% CIs) of incident NAFLD according to categories of preserved egg consumption were 1.00 (reference) for never, 1.05 (0.98, 1.14) for <1 time/wk, 1.09 (0.96, 1.24) for 1 time/wk, and 1.26 (1.09, 1.46) for ≥2 times/wk (P-trend < 0.01). The results were robust to a series of sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions: Habitual preserved egg consumption is associated with a modestly higher risk of NAFLD among the Chinese adult population. The mechanism underlying this association warrants further research.This trial was registered at www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ as UMIN000027174.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxab163DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of long-term exposure to ambient particulate pollution with stage 1 hypertension defined by the 2017 ACC/AHA Hypertension Guideline and cardiovascular disease: The CHCN-BTH cohort study.

Environ Res 2021 08 26;199:111356. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, And Beijing Municipal Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Evidence regarding the effects of ambient air pollution on new stage 1 hypertension defined by the 2017 ACC/AHA Hypertension Guideline remains sparse.

Objectives: To investigate the association of long-term exposure to ambient PM with stage 1 hypertension and to explore the mediating and modifying effects of PM on cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods: A total of 32,135 participants aged 18-80 years were recruited in 2017. The three-year (2014-2016) average PM concentrations were assessed by a spatial statistical model. Blood pressure (BP) was divided into four categories according to the 2017 ACC/AHA Hypertension Guideline: normal BP (SBP<120 mmHg and DBP<80 mmHg), elevated BP (SBP 120-129 mmHg and DBP<80 mmHg), stage 1 hypertension (SBP 130-139 mmHg or DBP 80-89 mmHg), and stage 2 hypertension (SBP≥140 mmHg or DBP≥90 mmHg or taking antihypertensive medications). The associations of PM with BP categories were estimated by two-level generalized linear mixed models. Analyses stratified by age, mediation and interaction analyses of PM and stage 1 hypertension with CVD were performed.

Results: We detected a positive significant association between long-term exposure to PM and stage 1 hypertension. Compared to normal BP, the OR was 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.08) per 10 μg/m increase in PM. The association was stronger than that of elevated BP but weaker than that of stage 2 hypertension. Stage 1 hypertension only partially mediated the association between PM and CVD, and the mediation proportions ranged from 1.55% to 11.00%. However, it modified the association between PM and CVD, which was greater in participants with stage 1 hypertension (OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.43, 1.93) than in participants with normal BP (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.57), with P<0.001. In the analysis stratified by age, the above associations were age-specific, and significant associations were only observed in the young and middle-aged (<60 years) groups.

Conclusions: Long-term exposure to ambient PM was significantly associated with stage 1 hypertension. This earlier stage of hypertension may be a trigger BP range for adverse effects of air pollution in the development of hypertension and CVD, especially in young and middle-aged individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111356DOI Listing
August 2021

The consumption of wholegrain is related to depressive symptoms among Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Background: Wholegrains contribute a range of beneficial nutrients, such as dietary fiber and several minerals and vitamins, that are beneficial to depressive symptoms. However, there are a few studies aimed at exploring whether a wholegrain diet is related to depressive symptoms. We conducted this study to investigate the relationship between wholegrains consumption and depressive symptoms.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included a total of 24,776 (mean age: 39.9 years, age range: 18.1-91.3 years; males, 54.1%) inhabitants living in Tianjin, China. Wholegrains consumption was assessed using a valid self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Chinese version of Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and the cutoff point was set at 45. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the relationship between wholegrains consumption and depressive symptoms.

Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 19.1% and 22.4% in males and females, respectively. After adjustments for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of depressive symptoms across wholegrains consumption were 0.77 (0.65-0.91) for <1 time/week, 0.73 (0.62-0.86) for 1 time/week and 0.68 (0.59-0.79) for ≥2 time/week in males compared with the control group (almost never). In females, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.86 (0.71-1.04) for <1 time/week, 0.94 (0.78-1.13) for 1 time/week, and 0.76 (0.65-0.91) for ≥2 time/week. Similar results were observed when we use other cut-offs (SDS ≥ 40 and 50) to define depressive symptoms.

Conclusion: This study first demonstrated that the higher consumption of wholegrains might have effects on the prevention and improvement of depressive symptoms. Prospective or intervention studies are needed to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-021-00917-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Light-To-Moderate Raw Garlic Consumption Frequency Is Inversely Associated With Thickened Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Population-Based Study.

Front Nutr 2021 31;8:648821. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Previous animal and clinical studies have reported beneficial effects of garlic preparations on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). However, no epidemiological study has yet investigated the association between dietary raw garlic consumption and cIMT in the general population. The objective of this study was investigating the association between dietary raw garlic consumption and thickened cIMT in Chinese adults. This cross-sectional study used data from the Tianjin Chronic Low-grade Systemic Inflammation and Health Cohort Study. A total of 4,329 general adults from 2015 to 2017 were included in this study. Frequency of consumption of raw garlic was summarized as four categories for analysis: < 1 time/week, 1 time/week, 2-3 times/week, ≥4 times/week with a validated food frequency questionnaire. The thickened cIMT was defined as common carotid artery IMT ≥ 1.0 mm or a carotid bifurcation IMT ≥ 1.2 mm by ultrasonography. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between frequency of raw garlic consumption and thickened cIMT. The prevalence of thickened cIMT is 22.9% among these participants. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) associated with the different frequencies were 1.00 (reference) for < 1 time/week, 0.74 (0.59, 0.94) for 1 time/week, 0.71 (0.55, 0.92) for 2-3 times/week, and 0.94 (0.71, 1.25) for ≥ 4 times/week. Light-to-moderate raw garlic consumption was inversely associated with thickened cIMT, whereas greater raw garlic consumption (i.e., ≥4 times/week) was not associated with thickened cIMT. Future longitudinal studies should be conducted to test these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.648821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044311PMC
March 2021

Does a high intake of green leafy vegetables protect from NAFLD? Evidence from a large population study.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 06 2;31(6):1691-1701. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China; Health Management Centre, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environment, Nutrition and Public Health, Tianjin, China; Center for International Collaborative Research on Environment, Nutrition and Public Health, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Results of in vitro and in vivo studies showed that green leafy vegetables (GLV) could attenuate liver steatosis. However, little is known regarding the association between GLV intake and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in human. We examined the association of GLV intake with NAFLD in a large-scale adult population.

Methods And Results: This cross-sectional study investigated 26,891 adults in China who participated in health examinations from 2013 to 2017. Newly diagnosed NAFLD was detected by liver ultrasonography. Dietary intake was assessed by using a validated and standardized food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across categories of GLV intake. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and other dietary intakes, the OR (95% CI) for comparing the highest vs. lowest GLV intake categories (≥7 times/week vs. almost never) was 0.72 (0.59, 0.90) (P < 0.0001). In addition, a linear inverse association was demonstrated between GLV intake and NAFLD in women (P for trend = 0.04), but ORs for any intake category did not reach significance. Stratified analyses suggested a potential effect modification by obesity status; the ORs (95% CIs) for comparing the highest vs. lowest GLV intake categories was 0.72 (0.54, 0.97) in normal/overweight individuals and 1.04 (0.65, 1.65) in obese individuals (P-interaction < 0.0001).

Conclusion: This large population-based study shows that high GLV intake is inversely associated with NAFLD, particularly in women and non-obese participants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.01.009DOI Listing
June 2021

Higher plain water intake is related to lower newly diagnosed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease risk: a population-based study.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Health Management Centre, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Background/objectives: High plain water intake (PWI) lowered body weight, reduced total energy intake, and increased fat oxidation and energy consumption. Because such factors are closely linked to metabolic disorders, which are the main risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) onset, it was speculated that higher PWI was associated with a lower risk of NAFLD. However, no prior human studies have examined such relationship. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PWI and newly diagnosed NAFLD in a large-scale adult population.

Subjects/methods: A total of 16,434 participants from 2010 to 2019 in Tianjin, China, were included in this cross-sectional study. PWI was assessed by using a validated self-administered food frequency questionnaire, and it was categorized into three subgroups for analysis: ≤3 cups/day, 4-7 cups/day, and >7 cups/day. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relationship between PWI and NAFLD.

Results: Among 16,434 participants, 20.5% (3,364) had newly diagnosed NAFLD. After controlling for demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, and dietary intake, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for having NAFLD across PWI categories were 1.00 (reference) for ≤3 cups/day, 0.84 (0.72, 0.97) for 4-7 cups/day, and 0.77 (0.63, 0.94) for >7 cups/day in males and 1.00 (reference) for ≤3 cups/day, 1.02 (0.81, 1.27) for 4-7 cups/day, and 1.08 (0.78, 1.49) for >7 cups/day in females, respectively.

Conclusions: This study is the first to show that higher PWI is independently related to lower newly diagnosed NAFLD among males, but not females. Further studies are needed to explore the causal relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-021-00891-9DOI Listing
April 2021

Consumption of chilies and sweet peppers is associated with lower risk of sarcopenia in older adults.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 03 26;13(6):9135-9142. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Background: Sarcopenia is an aging-related loss of muscle mass and function, which induces numerous adverse outcomes. Capsaicin and capsiate, separately extracted from chilies and sweet peppers, have the potential to induce muscle hypertrophy via activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1. The present study aimed to investigate whether chili and sweet pepper consumption are related to sarcopenia in the elderly general population.

Methods: A cross-sectional study with 2,451 participants was performed. Dietary chili and sweet pepper consumption were assessed using a validated self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Sarcopenia was defined according to the consensus of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Logistic regressions were performed to measure the effect of chili and sweet pepper consumption on sarcopenia.

Results: The prevalence of sarcopenia was 16.1%. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for sarcopenia across chili and sweet pepper consumption categories were 1.00 (reference) for almost never, 0.73 (0.55, 0.97) and 0.73 (0.56, 0.96) for ≤1 time/week, 0.60 (0.39, 0.90) and 0.66 (0.45, 0.95) for ≥2-3 times/week (both for trend <0.01), respectively.

Conclusion: The present study showed that higher consumption of chilies and sweet peppers was related to a lower risk of sarcopenia in older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.104168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034967PMC
March 2021

Relationship between seaweeds consumption and hyperuricaemia in general adults: a Population-based study from the Tianjin Chronic Low-grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIH) cohort study.

Br J Nutr 2021 Mar 15:1-8. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, 22 Qixiangtai Road, Heping District, Tianjin300070, People's Republic of China.

Seaweeds have numerous biologically active ingredients, such as polysaccharides, polyphenols and carotenoids, that are beneficial to human health. Although these benefits might be related to the synthesis, secretion or reabsorption of uric acid, no studies have explored the relationship between seaweeds consumption and hyperuricaemia (HUA) in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate whether seaweeds consumption is related to HUA in a large-scale adult population. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 32 365 adults (17 328 men and 15 037 women) in Tianjin, People's Republic of China. Frequency of seaweeds consumption was assessed by a validated self-administered FFQ. HUA was defined as serum uric acid levels >420 μmol/L in men and >350 μmol/L in women. The association between seaweeds consumption and HUA was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Restricted cubic spline functions were used for non-linearity tests. The prevalence of HUA in men and women was 21·17 % and 5·93 %, respectively. After adjustments for potential confounding factors, the OR (95 % CI) for HUA across seaweed consumption (g/1000 kcal per d) were 1·00 (reference) for level 1, 0·91 (95 % CI 0·81, 1·02) for level 2; 0·90 (95 % CI 0·81, 1·01) for level 3; 0·86 (95 % CI 0·78, 0·97) for level 4 in men and 0·90 (95 % CI 0·73, 1·10) for level 2; 0·82 (95 % CI 0·67, 1·00) for level 3; 0·84 (95 % CI 0·68, 1·03) for level 4 in women, respectively. A negative correlation between seaweeds consumption and HUA in males but not in females was observed. Further studies are needed to explore the causal relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521000891DOI Listing
March 2021

Association of chronic diseases with depression, anxiety and stress in Chinese general population: The CHCN-BTH cohort study.

J Affect Disord 2021 03 14;282:1278-1287. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University and Beijing Municipal Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Beijing, 100069, China.. Electronic address:

Background Large-scale epidemiological surveys focusing on characteristic differences in psychological and physical health conditions in Chinese adults are lacking. Objective To investigate the association of noncommunicable chronic diseases (NCDs) with depression, anxiety and stress in the Chinese general population. Methods A total of 13784 participants were recruited from the baseline survey of the Cohort Study on Chronic Disease of Communities Natural Population in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei (CHCN-BTH) from 2017 to 2019. Sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle and NCDs were assessed via questionnaire. Stress, anxiety and depression were assessed by the Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale (DASS-21). The relationship of NCDs with psychological symptoms was determined through logistic regression analysis. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of stress (OR = 1.640; 95% CI: 1.381-1.949), anxiety (OR = 1.654; 95% CI: 1.490-1.837) and depression (OR = 1.460; 95% CI: 1.286-1.658) symptoms were all significantly higher in patients with NCDs. Multimorbidities were associated with a higher risk of stress (OR = 2.310; 95% CI: 1.820-2.931), anxiety (OR = 2.119; 95% CI: 1.844-2.436) and depression (OR = 2.785; 95% CI: 1.499-2.126) than single NCDs. A course of disease within 1 year or more than 5 years also was associated with a higher risk. Limitations The cross-sectional design could not examine the causal link between psychological symptoms and NCDs. Conclusion Psychological symptoms were more prevalent among individuals with NCDs in the Chinese general population. This study suggests that more attention should be paid to the mental health problems of patients with NCDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.01.040DOI Listing
March 2021

Soft drink consumption and risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results from the Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIH) cohort study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 05;113(5):1265-1274

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Background: Epidemiological evidence for the association of soft drink consumption with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is inconsistent, and such association has not been prospectively examined in the general adult population.

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the prospective association between soft drink consumption and the risk of NAFLD in a Chinese adult population.

Methods: This prospective cohort study investigated 14,845 participants [mean age: 39.3 y; 6203 (41.8%) men] who were free of liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Soft drink consumption (mainly sugar-containing carbonated beverages) was measured at baseline using a validated FFQ. NAFLD was diagnosed based on abdominal ultrasound without significant alcohol consumption and other causes of liver disease. Hepatic steatosis index (HSI) was calculated based on sex, BMI, and blood transaminase levels. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the association of soft drink consumption with incident NAFLD.

Results: A total of 2888 first-incident cases of NAFLD occurred during 42,048 person-years of follow-up (median follow-up: 4.2 y). After adjusting for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, dietary intake, and inflammatory markers, the multivariable HRs (95% CIs) for incident NAFLD were 1.00 (reference) for <1 serving/wk, 1.18 (1.03, 1.34) for 1 serving/wk, 1.23 (1.08, 1.40) for 2-3 servings/wk, and 1.47 (1.25, 1.73) for ≥4 servings/wk, respectively (P for trend < 0.0001). Further sensitivity analysis showed that the corresponding multivariable HRs (95% CIs) for incident HSI-defined NAFLD were 1.00 (reference), 0.96 (0.70, 1.31), 1.16 (0.83, 1.62), and 1.59 (1.07, 2.37), respectively (P for trend < 0.0001).

Conclusions: The results from our prospective study indicate that soft drink consumption is associated with an increased risk of NAFLD in Chinese adults. This study was registered at UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000027174.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa380DOI Listing
May 2021

Elevated lipoprotein(a) and risk of coronary heart disease according to different lipid profiles in the general Chinese community population: the CHCN-BTH study.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jan;9(1):26

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University and Beijing Municipal Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Beijing, China.

Background: To evaluate the contributions of elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] to the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in the general Chinese community population according to different lipid profiles.

Methods: We recruited individuals aged over 18 years from the baseline survey of the Cohort Study on Chronic Disease of Communities Natural Population in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei (CHCN-BTH) using a stratified, multistage cluster sampling method. Data were collected through questionnaire surveys, anthropometric measures and laboratory tests. Restricted cubic spline (RCS) functions, multivariate logistic regression, sensitivity analyses and stratified analyses were used to evaluate the association between Lp(a) and CHD.

Results: A total of 25,343 participants were included, with 1,364 (5.38%) identified as having CHD. Elevated Lp(a) levels were linearly related to an increased risk of CHD (P<0.0001 and P=0.8468). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that subjects with Lp(a) ≥300 mg/L had a higher risk of CHD [OR (95% CI): 1.36 (1.17, 1.57)] than did individuals with Lp(a) <300 mg/L. Compared with individuals with Lp(a) <119.0 mg/L (<50th percentile), the ORs (95% CI) for CHD in the 51st-80th, 81st-95th and >95th percentiles were 1.07 (0.93, 1.23), 1.26 (1.07, 1.50) and 1.68 (1.30, 2.17), respectively (P for trend <0.0001). This association was also found among the subgroup of subjects without dyslipidemia, including those with normal total cholesterol (TC) (<6.2 mmol/L), triglycerides (TG) (<2.3 mmol/L), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (≥1.0 mmol/L) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (<4.1 mmol/L). Elevated Lp(a) and dyslipidemia significantly contributed to a higher risk of CHD with synergistic effects. Stratified analyses showed that elevated Lp(a) concentrations were significantly associated with an increased risk of CHD in the subgroups of individuals who were noncurrent drinkers, overweight individuals, individuals with hypertension, individuals who engaged in moderate physical activity, those without diabetes mellitus and individuals in Beijing and Tianjin.

Conclusions: Elevated Lp(a) concentrations were linearly associated with a higher risk of CHD in the general Chinese community population, especially in normolipidemic subjects. Both dyslipidemia and elevated Lp(a) independently or synergistically contributed to the risk of CHD. Our results suggest that more attention should be paid to the levels of Lp(a) in normolipidemic subjects, which may be an early predictor of CHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-3899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859748PMC
January 2021

High-normal thyroid function predicts incident non-alcoholic fatty liver disease among middle-aged and elderly euthyroid subjects.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Background: Thyroid hormones (THs) influence hepatic lipid homeostasis through multiple pathways, suggesting that THs may predict the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, prospective studies on the association between THs levels and incident NAFLD in euthyroid subjects are limited. This prospective cohort study aimed to explore whether THs were associated with the development of NAFLD in middle-aged and elderly euthyroid subjects.

Methods: A total of 6,462 subjects without baseline NAFLD were included in the cohort study (~6-year follow-up period, median: 4.2 years). Chemiluminescence immunoassay was used to measure serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association between baseline THs, TSH, and the risk of NAFLD.

Results: During the follow-up period, 1,675 subjects developed NAFLD. The incidence rate of NAFLD was 85.0 per 1000 person-years. Compared with the lowest FT3, FT4, and TSH quartiles, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of incident NAFLD for highest quartiles were 1.30 (1.12, 1.51), 1.07 (0.93, 1.23), 0.82 (0.71, 0.95) (P <0.001, =0.56, =0.01, respectively), respectively.

Conclusions: In middle-aged and elderly euthyroid subjects, high-normal FT3 and low-normal TSH are independently associated with a higher incidence of NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glab037DOI Listing
February 2021

Predictive Value of Thyroid Hormones for Incident Hyperuricemia in Euthyroid Subjects: The Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health Cohort Study.

Endocr Pract 2021 Apr 30;27(4):291-297. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China; Health Management Centre, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environment, Nutrition and Public Health, Tianjin, China; Center for International Collaborative Research on Environment, Nutrition and Public Health, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Thyroid hormones (THs) play an important role in both serum uric acid (SUA) excretion and purine nucleotide metabolism. Past research mainly focused on the relationships between thyroid dysfunction and hyperuricemia. Although most subjects at risk for hyperuricemia are euthyroid, few studies have investigated the predictive values of THs on incident hyperuricemia in euthyroid adults. This study aimed to examine how free triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone are related to incident hyperuricemia in euthyroid subjects.

Methods: Participants without baseline hyperuricemia were recruited from Tianjin Chronic Low-grade Systemic Inflammation and Health Cohort Study and followed up for ∼6 years. Thyroid function was determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay methods. Hyperuricemia was defined as SUA ≥416.5 μmol/L for males and ≥357.0 μmol/L for females. Thyroid function and SUA were assessed yearly during follow-up. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the relationship between thyroid function and hyperuricemia.

Results: The incidence rates of hyperuricemia were 109 and 50 per 1000 person-years in males and females, respectively. In males, compared with the lowest quartile, the multivariable-adjusted hazards ratios for hyperuricemia in the highest quartiles of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone were 0.57 (0.50-0.66), 0.63 (0.54-0.73), and 1.03 (0.90-1.19) (P for trend < .0001, < .0001, and .51), respectively. However, no statistically significant correlations between thyroid function and incident hyperuricemia in females were found.

Conclusion: This cohort study is the first to demonstrate that higher THs are related to lower risk of incident hyperuricemia in a male population with euthyroid status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eprac.2020.10.009DOI Listing
April 2021

The association between longitudinal trends of thyroid hormones levels and incident hypertension in a euthyroid population.

J Hum Hypertens 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Thyroid hormones, including free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), have well-recognized effects on the cardiovascular system. However, the evidence is lacking regarding the relationship between repeated FT3, FT4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) measurements and incident hypertension. The aim of this cohort study was to examine how longitudinal trends of serum FT3, FT4, and TSH levels are related to the development of hypertension in a euthyroid population. A prospective study (n = 5926) was performed in Tianjin, China. Participants without a history of hypertension were followed up for ~4 years (median: 3 years). Hypertension was defined according to the criteria of JNC7. FT3, FT4, and TSH were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay methods. FT3, FT4, TSH, and blood pressure were assessed yearly during follow-up. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the relationships between baseline, means, and annual changes in FT3, FT4, TSH, and hypertension. The incidence rate of hypertension per 1000 person-years was 73. Compared with the lowest quartile, the multivariable-adjusted hazards ratios (95% confidence interval) for hypertension in the highest quartiles of changes in FT3, FT4, and TSH were 1.51 (1.23-1.84), 2.04 (1.67-2.48), and 1.20 (0.99-1.45), respectively. Similar relationships were observed between the means of FT3, FT4, TSH, and hypertension. However, we found no correlations between baseline FT3, FT4, TSH, and incident hypertension. The present study is the first to demonstrate that the annual changes and means, but not baseline FT3 and FT4 values are independently related to the risk of incident hypertension in the euthyroid general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-020-00474-4DOI Listing
January 2021

A meta-analysis of the reproducibility of food frequency questionnaires in nutritional epidemiological studies.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2021 01 11;18(1):12. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Present address: Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Reproducibility of FFQs measures the consistency of the same subject at different time points. We performed a meta-analysis to explore the reproducibility of FFQs and factors related to reproducibility of FFQs.

Methods And Findings: A systematic literature review was performed before July 2020 using PubMed and Web of Science databases. Pooled intraclass and Spearman correlation coefficients (95% confidence interval) were calculated to assess the reproducibility of FFQs. Subgroup analyses based on characteristics of study populations, FFQs, or study design were performed to investigate factors related to the reproducibility of FFQs. A total of 123 studies comprising 20,542 participants were eligible for the meta-analysis. The pooled crude intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.499 to 0.803 and 0.499 to 0.723 for macronutrients and micronutrients, respectively. Energy-adjusted intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.420 to 0.803 and 0.507 to 0.712 for macronutrients and micronutrients, respectively. The pooled crude and energy-adjusted Spearman correlation coefficients ranged from 0.548 to 0.851 and 0.441 to 0.793, respectively, for macronutrients; and from 0.573 to 0.828 and 0.510 to 0.744, respectively, for micronutrients. FFQs with more food items, 12 months as dietary recall interval (compared to less than 12 months), and a shorter time period between repeated FFQs resulted in superior FFQ reproducibility.

Conclusions: In conclusion, FFQs with correlation coefficients greater than 0.5 for most nutrients may be considered a reliable tool to measure dietary intake. To develop FFQs with higher reproducibility, the number of food items and dietary recall interval should be taken into consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-01078-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802360PMC
January 2021

The relationship between dietary patterns and grip strength in the general population: the TCLSIH cohort study.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Aug 1;60(5):2409-2421. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, 22 Qixiangtai Road, Heping District, Tianjin, 300070, China.

Purpose: Previous studies have shown that many nutrients play an essential role in maintaining skeletal muscle strength. Hand grip strength (HGS) is frequently used as an objective and reliable method to evaluate overall body muscle strength and physical function. Some studies have demonstrated that some specific single nutrients such as PUFA, fiber, vitamin C, fruits and vegetables are associated with muscle strength. However, few studies have explored the relationship between dietary patterns and HGS in the adult population. The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary patterns are related to HGS in a large-scale Chinese population.

Methods: A cross-sectional study (n = 35,175) was performed in Tianjin, China. Adherence to dietary patterns was measured by a valid self-administered food frequency questionnaire with 81 food items. Principal-components analysis was used to derive three major dietary patterns: "sweet", "healthy" and "animal food". HGS was measured using a handheld digital dynamometer. Analysis of covariance and multiple logistic regression were employed to explore the relationship between dietary patterns and HGS.

Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, the means (95% confidence interval) of HGS for increasing quartile of dietary patterns were as follows: "sweet", 0.50 (0.49-0.51), 0.50 (0.49-0.51), 0.50 (0.49-0.51), 0.50 (0.48-0.51) (P value = 0.07); "healthy" 0.50 (0.49-0.51), 0.50 (0.49-0.51), 0.50 (0.49-0.51), 0.50 (0.49-0.51) (P value < 0.0001); "animal food" 0.51(0.50-0.52), 0.50 (0.49-0.51), 0.50 (0.49-0.51), 0.49 (0.48-0.51) (P value < 0.0001), respectively.

Conclusions: The present study demonstrated a slight improvement between healthy dietary pattern and HGS across the quartiles. On the contrary, this study also showed higher adherence to the animal food dietary pattern (i.e., higher quartile) had lower grip strength. A long-term prospective study or randomized trials are required to clarify this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02385-zDOI Listing
August 2021

Complex Dietary Topologies in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Network Science Analysis.

Front Nutr 2020 29;7:579086. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Previous studies have explored the associations between nutrition (food groups, nutrients, and dietary patterns) and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, it remains unclear whether how foods are consumed together is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The present study aims to construct dietary networks from network science and to explore the associations between complex dietary networks and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The present case-control study generated 2,043 multivariate matched controls for 2,043 newly diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease cases. Mutual information, which represents both linear and non-linear dependencies among food groups, was used to construct the network topologies. The dietary topologies in the studied case and control groups were different despite the fact that only few food groups show differences in absolute intake. The dietary structure of the case group focused on two major components with more cohesion among food groups, while contrarily the control group had one major component with higher diversity of food groups. The dietary topology of the case group showed equality in connections among beneficial and detrimental food groups, whereas the control group focused more on healthier food choices. This study suggests how foods are consumed, besides the absolute intake, could be an important determinant of the occurrence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A diverse diet that focuses on whole grain, tubers, and vegetables could yield beneficial effects regarding non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Network science could offer a complementary tool in nutritional epidemiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.579086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7557363PMC
September 2020

Soy Food Intake Is Inversely Associated with Newly Diagnosed Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in the TCLSIH Cohort Study.

J Nutr 2020 12;150(12):3280-3287

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Background: Animal studies have shown that soy protein and isoflavones can increase antioxidant capacity and improve insulin resistance, and thus ameliorate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, only limited epidemiological studies have examined the association of soy food intake with NAFLD.

Objectives: We investigated the association between soy food intake and NAFLD in a Chinese cohort.

Methods: A total of 24,622 participants aged 20-90 y were included in the study. Diet information was collected using a validated 100-item FFQ. NAFLD was defined as having fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonography and excluding men and women who consumed >210 g alcohol/wk and >140 g/wk, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of soy food intake with NAFLD.

Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, and taking those with <1 time/wk soy food intake as the reference group, the ORs for NAFLD across soy food intake frequency were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.83, 1.07) for 1 time/wk, 0.88 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.99) for 2-3 times/wk, and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.87) for ≥4 times/wk (P-trend <0.0001). The results were similar when participants were categorized by the energy-adjusted soy food intake (grams per 1000 kilocalories) quartiles (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.91; comparing extreme quartiles).

Conclusions: Higher soy food intake was associated with a lower prevalence of NAFLD in Chinese adults. Further prospective studies and randomized clinical trials are necessary to confirm if soy food intake is inversely related to the risk of NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa297DOI Listing
December 2020

Grip strength and depressive symptoms in a large-scale adult population: The TCLSIH cohort study.

J Affect Disord 2021 01 14;279:222-228. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, China; Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China; Health Management Centre, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Background: Previous studies suggest that muscle-derived cytokines (myokines) are linked with brain function. Although muscle strength measured by handgrip strength is a prognostic indicator of functional decline, epidemiological studies directly examining the association between grip strength and mental health remain scarce. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between grip strength and depressive symptoms in the general adult population.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 24,109 Chinese adults (41. 5  ± 11.9 years; 46.0% females). Grip strength was measured by dynamometer and the greatest force was normalized to body weight (NGS, kg/kg). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). Models of logistic regression were conducted to assess the association between NGS and depressive symptoms, with adjustment for established confounding factors.

Results: Of the 24,109 participants, the prevalence of depressive symptoms (SDS ≥45) was 16.8% (males 15.7%, females 18.0%). After adjusting for multiple confounding factors, the odds ratios and 95% confidence interval for depressive symptoms in the quartiles of NGS were 1.00, 0.96 (0.84-1.10), 0.91 (0.79-1.05), and 0.91 (0.78-1.07) (P = 0.03) in males; 1.00, 0.92 (0.80-1.06), 0.90 (0.77-1.04), and 0.80 (0.69-0.94) (P = 0.0002) in females, respectively.

Limitations: This cross-sectional study cannot determine causality.

Conclusions: Grip strength was inversely associated with depressive symptoms, with stronger association observed among females than males.  Further prospective studies or randomized trials are required to clarify these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.08.023DOI Listing
January 2021

Associations between different types and sources of dietary fibre intake and depressive symptoms in a general population of adults: a cross-sectional study.

Br J Nutr 2021 Jun 14;125(11):1281-1290. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110004, People's Republic of China.

This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the associations between dietary fibre (DF) intake and depressive symptoms in a general adult population in Tianjin, China. A total of 24 306 participants (mean age 41 years; range 18-91 years) were enrolled. DF intake was assessed using a validated self-administered FFQ. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Associations between DF intake and depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Socio-demographic, behavioural, health status and dietary factors were adjusted. In men, compared with participants in the lowest quartiles for total, soluble, vegetable and soya DF, OR for depressive symptoms in the highest were 0·83 (95 % CI 0·69, 0·99), 0·74 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·87), 0·79 (95 % CI 0·65, 0·96) and 0·69 (95 % CI 0·60, 0·81), respectively. In women, compared with participants in the lowest quartiles for vegetable and soya DF, the OR for depressive symptoms in the highest were 0·77 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·93) and 0·82 (95 % CI 0·70, 0·95), respectively. No association was found between total or soluble DF intake and depressive symptoms in women. No association was found between insoluble, cereal, fruit or tuber DF intake and depressive symptoms in men and women. Linear associations between DF intake and depressive symptoms were only detected for soya DF (men, β = -0·148, P < 0·0001; women, β = -0·069, P = 0·04). Results suggest that intake of soluble, vegetable and soya DF was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. These results should be confirmed through prospective and interventional studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114520003566DOI Listing
June 2021

Association between consumption of edible seaweeds and newly diagnosed non-alcohol fatty liver disease: The TCLSIH Cohort Study.

Liver Int 2021 02;41(2):311-320

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Background & Aims: Seaweeds are rich sources of anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory properties, which are beneficial to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, whether seaweed consumption is associated with NAFLD is unknown. We investigated the association of seaweed consumption with newly diagnosed NAFLD in a large-scale adult population.

Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 24 572 participants aged over 18 years. NAFLD was diagnosed by results of liver ultrasonography and alcohol intake. Dietary information was assessed using a validated and standardized 100-item food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to evaluate the association between seaweed consumption and NAFLD.

Results: The prevalence of newly diagnosed NAFLD was 20.1%. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and other dietary intakes, the multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of newly diagnosed NAFLD across seaweed consumption were 1.00 (reference) for almost never, 1.03 (0.93, 1.15) for <1 time/wk, 1.01 (0.90, 1.13) for 1 time/wk, and 0.84 (0.73, 0.96) for >1 times/wk (P for trend < .001). Stratified analyses suggested a potential effect modification by obesity status; the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) across extreme quartiles was 0.77 (0.66, 0.91) in non-obese participants and 1.02 (0.79, 1.33) in obese participants (P for interaction < .001).

Conclusion: Seaweed consumption is negatively associated with NAFLD, especially in non-obese participants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14655DOI Listing
February 2021

The Effects of Mobile-App-Based Low-Carbohydrate Dietary Guidance on Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Adults with Prediabetes.

Diabetes Ther 2020 Oct 1;11(10):2341-2355. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences Affiliated Zhoupu Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: Postprandial hyperglycemia is independently associated with many adverse complications, while diets with a low glycemic load are beneficial in improving post-meal glucose levels. This study aims to determine if mobile-app-based low-carbohydrate dietary guidance will reduce exposure to postprandial hyperglycemia in adults with prediabetes.

Methods: This single-blind, randomized controlled pilot study included 100 participants (39 men; mean age 53.6 ± 11.9 years) and was performed in the PKU Care CNOOC Hospital, China. The intervention group (n = 57) received low-carbohydrate dietary guidance through a moblie app (CAReNA) for 3 months, while the control group (n = 43) only received health education on a diabetic diet. The primary outcome was change in time of postprandial hyperglycemia between baseline and 3 months.

Results: The study revealed that the mean time in postprandial hyperglycemia (> 7.8 mmol/l [140 mg/dl]) monitored by flash glucose monitoring changed from 3.27 h/day at baseline to 2.34 h/day at 3 months in the intervention group and from 3.08 h/day to 2.96 h/day in the control group, with a between-group difference of - 0.81 h/day (P < 0.05). Fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the intervention group decreased significantly, although no significant difference was seen between the two groups. Compared with the control group, the intervention group had a significant decrease in anthropometric and body composition measurements as well as triglycerides.

Conclusion: The mobile-app-based low-carbohydrate dietary guidance effectively reduced the time spent in postprandial hyperglycemia in adults with prediabetes. This new type of nutritional management has beneficial effects on people with prediabetes and needs further research.

Clinical Trial Registration: ChiCTR1900024880.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13300-020-00906-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7509028PMC
October 2020

Association between consumption frequency of honey and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: results from a cross-sectional analysis based on the Tianjin Chronic Low-grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIH) Cohort Study.

Br J Nutr 2021 Mar 17;125(6):712-720. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Nutritional Epidemiology Institute and School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin300070, People's Republic of China.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Recent evidence has suggested the protective effects of honey consumption against the metabolic syndrome, but the association between honey intake and NAFLD is still unclear. We investigated how the consumption frequency of honey was associated with NAFLD in the general population. This was a cross-sectional study of 21 979 adults aged 20-90 years. NAFLD was diagnosed based on the ultrasound-diagnosed fatty liver without significant alcohol intake and other liver diseases. Diet information, including consumption frequency of honey, was assessed by a validated 100-item FFQ. OR with 95 % CI were calculated by the binary logistic regression model, adjusting for confounding factors identified by the directed acyclic graph. Overall, 6513 adults (29·6 %) had NAFLD. Compared with participants consuming ≤1 time/week of honey, the multivariable OR of NAFLD were 0·86 (95 % CI 0·77, 0·97) for 2-6 times/week and 1·10 (95 % CI 0·95, 1·27) for ≥1 times/d (Pfor trend = 0·90). The results were generally similar in subgroups of BMI at a cut-point of 24·0 kg/m2 (Pfor interaction = 0·10). In this large-scale study, consuming honey 2-6 times/week was inversely associated with NAFLD, whereas consuming honey ≥1 times/d had no association with NAFLD. These results need replication in other large-scale prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114520003190DOI Listing
March 2021