Publications by authors named "Kai Zhu"

494 Publications

Clinical evaluation of preoperative embolization, vertebroplasty, and decompression in the treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas.

J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) 2021 Jan-Apr;29(1):2309499021993997

Department of Spine Surgery, 235960The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, China.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative embolization and vertebroplasty in the treatment of aggressive hemangioma.

Methods: A retrospective clinical review of patients diagnosed with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas was conducted. All the patients were assigned to three groups according to the treatment strategies: patients in Group A underwent embolization and decompression with internal fixation, patients in Group B underwent vertebroplasty and decompression with internal fixation, patients in Group C received all three treatments. Clinical indexes were compared within three groups.

Results: There were 16 patients received embolization and decompression (Group A), 19 patients underwent decompression with vertebroplasty (Group B) and 16 patients in Group C. The operative duration of patients in group A (198.33 ± 38.43 min) were less than another two groups ( = 0.001). The intraoperative blood loss of patients in group C was 713.33 ± 165.13 mL, which was significantly less than group A and group B ( = 0.045). Patients in group C exhibited the lowest volume of drainage on POD 1 (178.33 ± 66.76 mL), which showed significant difference compared with group A (368.33 ± 191.15 mL, = 0.01). There was no significant difference of preoperative and postoperative VAS and JOA score among three groups, as well as drainage on POD 2, total volume and hospital duration.

Conclusion: Both embolization and vertebroplasty are efficient and safe measures to reduce blood loss in the surgical treatment of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, combination of all three methods is also competent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2309499021993997DOI Listing
March 2021

Continent-wide tree fecundity driven by indirect climate effects.

Nat Commun 2021 02 23;12(1):1242. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Geography Department and Russian and East European Institute, Bloomington, IN, USA.

Indirect climate effects on tree fecundity that come through variation in size and growth (climate-condition interactions) are not currently part of models used to predict future forests. Trends in species abundances predicted from meta-analyses and species distribution models will be misleading if they depend on the conditions of individuals. Here we find from a synthesis of tree species in North America that climate-condition interactions dominate responses through two pathways, i) effects of growth that depend on climate, and ii) effects of climate that depend on tree size. Because tree fecundity first increases and then declines with size, climate change that stimulates growth promotes a shift of small trees to more fecund sizes, but the opposite can be true for large sizes. Change the depresses growth also affects fecundity. We find a biogeographic divide, with these interactions reducing fecundity in the West and increasing it in the East. Continental-scale responses of these forests are thus driven largely by indirect effects, recommending management for climate change that considers multiple demographic rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20836-3DOI Listing
February 2021

Urinary SARS-CoV-2 RNA is An Indicator For The Progression and Prognosis of COVID-19 Disease.

Res Sq 2021 Feb 18. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

We aimed to analyse clinical characteristics and find potential factors predicting poor prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We analyzed the demographic and clinical data of COVID-19 patients and detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in urine sediments collected from 53 COVID-19 patients enrolled in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 31, 2020 to February 18, 2020 with qRT-PCR analysis, and then classified those patients based on clinical conditions (severe or non-severe syndrome) and urinary SARS-CoV-2 RNA (U or U ). We found that COVID-19 patients with severe syndrome (severe patients) showed significantly higher positive rate (11 of 23, 47.8%) of urinary SARS-CoV-2 RNA than non-severe patients (4 of 30, 13.3%, p = 0.006). U patients or severe U subgroup exhibited higher prevalence of inflammation and immune discord, cardiovascular diseases, liver damage and renal disfunction, and higher risk of death than U patients. To understand the potential mechanisms underlying the viral urine shedding, we performed renal histopathological analysis on postmortems of patients with COVID-19 and found that severe renal vascular endothelium lesion characterized by increase of the expression of thrombomodulin and von Willebrand factor, markers to assess the endothelium dysfunction. We proposed a theoretical and mathematic model to depict the potential factors determining the urine shedding of SARS-CoV-2. This study indicated that urinary SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected in urine specimens can be used to predict the progression and prognosis of COVID-19 severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-203728/v1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899468PMC
February 2021

Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes ameliorate HaCaT cell photo-aging.

Rejuvenation Res 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Yan'an Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650051, Yunnan, People's Republic of China, Kunming, China, 650051;

Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) have been identified as a potentially ideal cell type for use in regenerative therapeutic contexts owing to their excellent paracrine secretory abilities and other desirable properties. Previous work has shown that stem cell-derived exosomes can effective reduce skin aging, but few studies have specifically focused on the role of UCMSC-derived exosomes in this context. In the present study, we isolated exosomes derived from UCMSCs grown in a 3D culture system and explored their ability to modulate the photo-aging of HaCaT keratinocytes. Cell viability and proliferation was assessed via CCK8 assay, whereas wound healing and transwell assays were used to assess cell migratory capabilities. UVB irradiation (60mJ/cm2) was used to induce photo-aging of HaCaT cells. TUNEL and SA-β-Gal staining were used to explore HaCaT cell apoptosis and senescence respectively, while qPCR was used to assess the expression of relevant genes at the mRNA level. We found that UCMSC-derived exosomes were able to enhance normal HaCaT cell proliferation and migration, while also inhibiting UVB-induced damage to these cells. These exosomes also reduced HaCaT cell apoptosis and senescence, increasing collagen type I expression and reducing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP1) expression in photo-aged HaCaT cells. Together, these findings indicate that UCMSC-derived exosomes have the potential to be used therapeutically to suppress skin aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/rej.2020.2313DOI Listing
February 2021

Dietary pectic substances enhance gut health by its polycomponent: A review.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Intelligent Food Technology and Equipment, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agro-Food Processing, Integrated Research Base of Southern Fruit and Vegetable Preservation Technology, Zhejiang International Scientific and Technological Cooperation Base of Health Food Manufacturing and Quality Control, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Pectic substances, one of the cell wall polysaccharides, exist widespread in vegetables and fruits. A surge of recent research has revealed that pectic substances can inhibit gut inflammation and relieve inflammatory bowel disease symptoms. However, physiological functions of pectins are strongly structure dependent. Pectic substances are essentially heteropolysaccharides composed of homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan backbones substituted by various neutral sugar sidechains. Subtle changes in the architecture of pectic substances may remarkably influence the nutritional function of gut microbiota and the host homeostasis of immune system. In this context, developing a structure-function understanding of how pectic substances have an impact on an inflammatory bowel is of primary importance for diet therapy and new drugs. Therefore, the present review has summarized the polycomponent nature of pectic substances, the activities of different pectic polymers, the effects of molecular characteristics and the underlying mechanisms of pectic substances. The immunomodulated property of pectic substances depends on not only the chemical composition but also the physical structure characteristics, such as molecular weight (M ) and chain conformation. The potential mechanisms by which pectic substances exert their protective effects are mainly reversing the disordered gut microbiota, regulating immune cells, enhancing barrier function, and inhibiting pathogen adhesion. The manipulation of pectic substances on gut health is sophisticated, and the link between structural specificity of pectins and selective regulation needs further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12723DOI Listing
February 2021

Concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting during surgical repair of acute type A aortic dissection affects operative mortality rather than midterm mortality.

Asian J Surg 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, and Beijing Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood Vessel Diseases, Beijing, 100029, China.

Background: In this study, we investigated the impact of concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on operative and midterm mortality in patients with acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) undergoing surgical repair.

Methods: From January 2012 to December 2014, among 489 patients (mean age: 47.6 ± 10.4 years, 77.1% male) with ATAAD who received surgical repair at our institute, 21 patients (4.3%) underwent concomitant CABG. Isolated aortic repair was performed in the remaining 468 cases (95.7%). Coronary dissection was indicated in 15 patients (Neri classification type B in 2, type C in 13), concomitant coronary artery disease in five and coronary artery compression in one. The follow-up time was 97.3% at 44.1 ± 13.9 months.

Results: A total of 44 patients (9%) died from surgery, and operative mortality in the concomitant CABG group was significantly higher than that in the isolated aortic repair group (47.6%, 10/21 vs. 7.3%, 34/468; P < 0.001). Among the 11 survivors in the concomitant CABG group, no deaths occurred during the follow-up. Cox regression indicated that concomitant CABG increased the operative mortality risk by 9.2 times (HR, 9.26; 95% CI, 4.31-19.89; P < 0.001). Although it predicted a 5.2-fold increase in overall mortality (HR, 5.20; 95% CI, 2.55-10.61; P < 0.001), concomitant CABG did not affect midterm death (P = 0.996).

Conclusions: Concomitant CABG carries a significant operative risk in ATAAD patients undergoing surgical repair. However, survivors may benefit from concomitant CABG and had similar midterm mortality compared with the other cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2021.01.031DOI Listing
February 2021

The FTO mA demethylase inhibits the invasion and migration of prostate cancer cells by regulating total mA levels.

Life Sci 2021 Feb 8;271:119180. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Medical Imaging Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China. Electronic address:

Aims: N6-Methyladenosine (mA) is the most frequent posttranscriptional modification and plays important roles in tumorigenesis and metastasis. The roles of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) in metabolic diseases have been widely explored. However, the molecular mechanisms and physiological functions of FTO in prostate cancer remain largely unknown. This study aimed to explore the exact functions of FTO in the progression of prostate cancer metastasis.

Main Methods: Dot blot and mA RNA methylation quantification assays were performed to determine mA levels. The protein and mRNA expression levels were detected using immunoblot (IB) and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analyses. Cell invasion and migration abilities were measured using transwell and wound healing assays. Bioinformatics was used to measure the expression level of FTO and possible correlation between FTO levels and advanced tumor stage. Immunofluorescence (IF) was performed to measure the cellular localization of FTO.

Key Findings: FTO was downregulated in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines, and the mA content was increased. Importantly, patients with lower FTO expression had advanced tumor stage and higher Gleason scores. Gain- and loss-of-function assays revealed that FTO inhibits prostate cancer cell invasion and migration in vitro. Moreover, we confirmed that FTO can decrease the total mA level.

Significance: The present study revealed that the FTO mA demethylase inhibits prostate cancer cell invasion and migration by regulating total mA levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119180DOI Listing
February 2021

Rapid and high-capacity loading of IgG monoclonal antibodies by polymer brush and peptides functionalized microspheres.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Mar 30;1640:461948. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China. Electronic address:

Fast-throughput and cost reduction of current purification platforms are becoming increasing requests during antibody manufacture. The macroporous-matrix absorbents have presented extensive potentiality in improving operational throughput during purification of macromolecule. And meanwhile the peptide ligand has become a promising alternative to recombinant protein ligands for cost reduction of chromatographic purification. Therefore, here we designed a functionalized microspheres resin with both macroporous matrix of polymerized glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PGMA-EDMA) and peptide ligand of hexapeptide (FYEILH). In order to circumvent the steric effect of peptides and amplify the binding sites on macroporous matrix, the peptide ligand was coupled on a liner PGMA polymer brushes grafted on microspheres. Comparing to the conventional agarose-matrix resin and the general peptide-grafted microspheres, the functionalized microspheres presented excellent permeability and high capacity to rapid loading hIgG by maintaining a stable level of dynamic binding capacity at fast flow rate above 110 column volume per hour (cv/h) and very short residence time below 0.5 min. Such functionalized microspheres provide a facile and broadly applicable strategy to develop the attractive candidate for rapid and cost-reduced purification of antibody.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2021.461948DOI Listing
March 2021

Physicochemical and macromolecule properties of RG-I enriched pectin from citrus wastes by manosonication extraction.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Feb 5;176:332-341. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agro-Food Processing, Zhejiang Engineering Laboratory of Food Technology and Equipment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

The properties of pectin extracted from mandarin citrus peels by manosonication extraction (MSp) were systematically studied and compared with pectin obtained by the conventional maceration method (CMp). The yield of MSp (25.5%) was significantly higher than that of CMp (18.3%), while MSp exhibited two Mw fraction distributions. Monosaccharide analysis demonstrated that MSp had more branched RG-I regions (78.3 mol%) than CMp (36.6 mol%) with a high content of arabinose and galactose. The branched-chain morphological characteristics of samples were directly imaged by atomic force microscopy. MSp exhibited a significantly lower degree of methoxylation than CMp by FT-IR and NMR analysis, but X-ray diffraction analysis showed little difference in the level of crystallinity. Moreover, MSp and CMp showed non-Newtonian behaviour, and the increasing order of apparent viscosities was 1.0 w/v% MSp < 1.0 w/v% CMp < 2.0 w/v% CMp < 2.0 w/v% MSp. Thermal analysis and weight loss measurements indicated MSp exhibited greater thermal stability. The results also indicated that both MSp and CMp significantly enhanced the emulsion activity at high concentrations; the emulsions containing 1.5 w/v% pectin showed no phase separation over 21 days, suggesting that MSp could be a potential effective stabiliser in the food and beverage industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.01.216DOI Listing
February 2021

Reconfiguring the band-edge states of photovoltaic perovskites by conjugated organic cations.

Science 2021 02;371(6529):636-640

Department of Materials Science and Engineering and California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

The band edges of metal-halide perovskites with a general chemical structure of ABX (A, usually a monovalent organic cation; B, a divalent cation; and X, a halide anion) are constructed mainly of the orbitals from B and X sites. Hence, the structural and compositional varieties of the inorganic B-X framework are primarily responsible for regulating their electronic properties, whereas A-site cations are thought to only help stabilize the lattice and not to directly contribute to near-edge states. We report a π-conjugation-induced extension of electronic states of A-site cations that affects perovskite frontier orbitals. The π-conjugated pyrene-containing A-site cations electronically contribute to the surface band edges and influence the carrier dynamics, with a properly tailored intercalation distance between layers of the inorganic framework. The ethylammonium pyrene increased hole mobilities, improved power conversion efficiencies relative to that of a reference perovskite, and enhanced device stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abd4860DOI Listing
February 2021

A transcriptomic analysis of sugarcane response to Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli infection.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(2):e0245613. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

College of Agriculture, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

Sugarcane ratoon stunting disease (RSD) caused by Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx) is a common destructive disease that occurs around the world. Lxx is an obligate pathogen of sugarcane, and previous studies have reported some physiological responses of RSD-affected sugarcane. However, the molecular understanding of sugarcane response to Lxx infection remains unclear. In the present study, transcriptomes of healthy and Lxx-infected sugarcane stalks and leaves were studied to gain more insights into the gene activity in sugarcane in response to Lxx infection. RNA-Seq analysis of healthy and diseased plants transcriptomes identified 107,750 unigenes. Analysis of these unigenes showed a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) occurring mostly in leaves of infected plants. Sugarcane responds to Lxx infection mainly via alteration of metabolic pathways such as photosynthesis, phytohormone biosynthesis, phytohormone action-mediated regulation, and plant-pathogen interactions. It was also found that cell wall defense pathways and protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pathways may play important roles in Lxx pathogeneis. In Lxx-infected plants, significant inhibition in photosynthetic processes through large number of differentially expressed genes involved in energy capture, energy metabolism and chloroplast structure. Also, Lxx infection caused down-regulation of gibberellin response through an increased activity of DELLA and down-regulation of GID1 proteins. This alteration in gibberellic acid response combined with the inhibition of photosynthetic processes may account for the majority of growth retardation occurring in RSD-affected plants. A number of genes associated with plant-pathogen interactions were also differentially expressed in Lxx-infected plants. These include those involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis, protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, cell wall biosynthesis, and phagosomes, implicating an active defense response to Lxx infection. Considering the fact that RSD occurs worldwide and a significant cause of sugarcane productivity, a better understanding of Lxx resistance-related processes may help develop tools and technologies for producing RSD-resistant sugarcane varieties through conventional and/or molecular breeding.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245613PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7853508PMC
February 2021

Solid-state redox couple mediated water splitting.

Dalton Trans 2021 Feb 2;50(8):2722-2725. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Nano Technology, Department of Physics, Nanjing University, No. 22, Hankou Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093, P.R. China.

The solid-state redox couple is a vital charge transfer medium for electrochemical water splitting. In this Frontiers article, we summarize the versatile application of redox couples in promoting OER kinetics, in decoupling the HER and OER, and in combined electrochemical-thermochemical water splitting. These new ideas unlock vast potential for applying redox-couple-mediated water splitting to the storage of the intermittent and fluctuating energy derived from renewable sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0dt03893hDOI Listing
February 2021

Massively prolapsed intervertebral disc herniation with interlaminar endoscopic spine system Delta endoscope: A case series.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jan;9(1):61-70

Spinal Department, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266000, Shandong Province, China.

Background: Surgery is often indicated for patients with massively prolapsed intervertebral disc herniation. The interlaminar endoscopic spine system (iLESSYS) Delta 6-mm working channel endoscope has advantages over other systems. The aim of this study was to explore the benefits and complications of using the iLESSYS Delta for the treatment of massively prolapsed intervertebral disc herniation.

Aim: To explore the clinical benefits of treating massively prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc herniation with the iLESSYS Delta endoscope.

Methods: In this study, the data of 37 patients who underwent surgery with the iLESSYS Delta endoscope at The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University were retrospectively analyzed. Intraoperative blood loss, operation time, and complications were collected. The visual analog scale (VAS), oswestry disability index (ODI), and modified MacNab criteria were determined before and at 1 d, 3 mo, and 6 mo after surgery.

Results: The mean intraoperative blood loss was 20.4 ± 1.2 mL. The mean operation time was 97.3 ± 12.4 min. The VAS scores for leg and back pain decreased from 68.0 ± 7.3, 34.4 ± 8.5 before operation to 2.5 ± 1.7, 5.5 ± 1.9 at 6 mo after surgery, respectively. The ODI also decreased from 60.2 ± 7.3 to 17.9 ± 3.4 at 6 mo after surgery. The improvement rate of the MacNab score was 86.4%, which was considered excellent. No spinal dural injury, nerve root injury, secondary protrusion of intervertebral disc, or myeloid hypertension was found during follow-up.

Conclusion: The iLESSYS Delta 6-mm working channel endoscope has several advantages in terms of clinical and functional benefits, complications, and low risk of residual vertebral pulp in treating patients with massively prolapsed intervertebral disc herniation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i1.61DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809682PMC
January 2021

lncRNA MIR4435-2HG promoted clear cell renal cell carcinoma malignant progression via miR-513a-5p/KLF6 axis.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 09 30;24(17):10013-10026. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) take various biological effects in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) mostly through sponging with microRNAs (miRNAs). lncRNA MIR4435-2HG is found to promote tumour progression in gastric cancer, glioblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the role of lncRNA MIR4435-2HG in ccRCC progression remains unknown. The purpose of this research was to investigate the potential molecular mechanism of lncRNA MIR4435-2HG regarding the regulation of ccRCC initiation and progression. In this study, we found the up-regulation of MIR4435-2HG in ccRCC tissues and cell lines. Functionally, overexpression of MIR4435-2HG promoted the proliferation as well as the metastasis in ccRCC cell lines, whereas knockdown of MIR4435-2HG inhibited the above changes. Then, bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assays confirmed the negative regulation effect of MIR4435-2HG on miR-513a-5p. And further investigations showed that KLF6, which collected from the intersection of databases, was the potential conjugated mRNAs of miR-513a-5p. Finally, the rescue experiments revealed the relation among MIR4435-2HG and KLF6, which showed that KLF6 could reverse the promoting effect of MIR4435-2HG on ccRCC in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, our findings provided insight into the mechanisms of MIR4435-2HG in ccRCC and revealed an alternative target for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of ccRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7520272PMC
September 2020

Kai Zhu.

Authors:
Kai Zhu

New Phytol 2020 12;228(6):1719-1720

Environmental Studies at the University of California, Santa Cruz, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.17026DOI Listing
December 2020

A novel STAT3 inhibitor W2014-S regresses human non-small cell lung cancer xenografts and sensitizes EGFR-TKI acquired resistance.

Theranostics 2021 1;11(2):824-840. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of New Drug Design and Evaluation, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a common feature in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). STAT3 plays an important role in cancer progression as a driver oncogene and acquired resistance of targeted therapies as an alternatively activated pathway. W2014-S with pharmacophore structure of imidazopyridine, which was firstly reported to be utilized in STAT3 inhibitor discovery, was screened out as a potent STAT3 inhibitor from a library of small molecules. The aim of this study is to investigate the antitumor activities and mechanisms of W2014-S in NSCLC and effect on epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) resistance and . SPR analysis, Co-immunoprecipitation, confocal microscope imaging, and luciferase report gene assays were utilized to determine the mechanisms. Cell viability, colonial survival, wound healing, cell invasion assay, human cancer cell xenografts and PDX tumor xenografts were used to determine antitumor activities. W2014-S disrupted STAT3 dimerization and selectively inhibited aberrant STAT3 signaling in NSCLC cell line. W2014-S strongly suppressed proliferation, survival, migration and invasion of lung cancer cells with aberrant STAT3 activation and inhibited the growth of human NSCLC cell xenografts and PDX tumor xenografts in mouse model. Furthermore, W2014-S significantly sensitized resistant NSCLC cell line to gefitinib and erlotinib and enhances the anti-tumor effect of gefitinib in TKI-resistant lung cancer xenografts . Our study has provided a novel STAT3 inhibitor with significant anti-tumor activities in NSCLC and suggests that combination of STAT3 inhibitor such as W2014-S with gefitinib could serve as a promising strategy to overcome EGFR-TKIs acquired resistance in NSCLC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.49600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738869PMC
January 2021

Risk Factors for Recurrent L4-5 Disc Herniation After Percutaneous Endoscopic Transforaminal Discectomy: A Retrospective Analysis of 654 Cases.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2020 18;13:3051-3065. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Spinal Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qing'dao, Shandong Province 266000, People's Republic of China.

Background: Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) is an increasingly applied minimally invasive procedure that has several advantages in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). However, recurrent LDH (rLDH) has become a concerning postoperative complication. It remains difficult to establish a consensus and draw reliable conclusions regarding the risk factors for rLDH.

Purpose: This retrospective study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with rLDH at the L4-5 level after percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal discectomy (PETD).

Methods: A total of 654 patients who underwent the PETD procedure at the L4-5 level from October 2013 to January 2020 were divided into a recurrence (R) group (n=46) and a nonrecurrence (N) group (n=608). Demographic and clinical data and imaging parameters were collected and analyzed using univariate and multiple regression analyses.

Results: The current study found a 7% rate of rLDH at the L4/5 level after successful PETD. Univariate analysis showed that older age, high BMI, diabetes mellitus history, smoking, large physical load intensity, moderate disc degeneration, small muscle-disc ratio (M/D), more fat infiltration, large sagittal range of motion (sROM), scoliosis, small disc height index (DHI), small intervertebral space angle (ISA), and small lumbar lordosis (LL) were potential risk factors (P < 0.10) for LDH recurrence after PETD at the L4-5 level. Multivariate analysis suggested that high BMI, large physical load intensity, moderate disc degeneration, small M/D, more fat infiltration, large sROM, small ISA, and small LL were independent significant risk factors for recurrence of LDH after PETD.

Conclusion: Consideration of disc degeneration, M/D, fat infiltration of the paravertebral muscles, sROM, ISA, LL, BMI, and physical load intensity prior to surgical intervention may contribute to the prevention of rLDH following PETD and lead to a more satisfactory operative outcome and the development of a reasonable rehabilitation program after discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S287976DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755338PMC
December 2020

Predictive Risk Factors of Poor Preliminary Postoperative Outcome for Thoracic Ossification of the Ligamentum Flavum.

Orthop Surg 2020 Dec 14. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Spinal Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to ascertain the independent risk factors of poor preliminary outcome and to reveal the value of these factors in predicting the postoperative prognosis.

Methods: A total of 165 patients diagnosed with thoracic myelopathy because of thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum (TOLF) were enrolled in this retrospective study. All of them underwent posterior decompressive laminectomy surgery in our hospital from May 2016 to June 2019. The postoperative improvement of symptoms was evaluated using the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scoring system. Clinical data, such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI), duration of symptoms, history of hypertension and diabetes, tobacco use, history of drinking, symptoms of incontinence, number of compressed segments, and preoperative mJOA score, were respectively recorded. Radiologic features data included sagittal maximum spinal cord compression (MSCC), axial spinal canal occupation ratio (SCOR), grades and extension of increased signal on sagittal T2-weighted images (ISST2I), types of increased signal on axial T2-weighted images (ISAT2I), and the classification of ossification on axial CT scan and sagittal MRI. The t-test, the χ -test, Fisher's exact test, binary logistic regression analyses, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and subgroup analyses were used to evaluate the effects of individual risk predictors on surgical outcomes.

Results: A total of 76 men and 89 women were enrolled in this study. The mean age of all patients was 58.53 years. After comparison between two groups, we found some risk factors that may be associated with postoperative outcomes, such as age, preoperative mJOA score, BMI, history of hypertension, MSCC, SCOR, grade and extension of ISST2I, type of ISAT2I, axial type of ossification, and sagittal type of ossification (P < 0.05, respectively). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.062, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.006-1.121, P = 0.030), number of compressed segments (OR = 1.916, 95% CI = 1.250-2.937, P = 0.003), bilateral and bridged types of ossification (OR = 4 314, 95% CI = 1.454-8.657, P = 0.019; OR = 6.630, 95% CI = 2.580-17.530, P = 0.004), and grade 1 and 2 ISST2I (OR = 8.986, 95% CI =3.056-20.294, P < 0.001; OR = 7.552, 95% CI = 3.529-16.004, P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for a poor preliminary postoperative outcome. ROC curve analysis showed that the grade of ISST2I had an excellent discriminative power (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.817). In addition, risk factors have different values for predicting the clinical outcome in each subgroup.

Conclusion: Age, duration of symptoms, number of compressed segments, SCOR, grade, and extension of ISST2I and classification of ossification were associated with the preliminary prognosis, and the intramedullary increased signal on sagittal T2-weighted MRI was highly predictive of poor postoperative outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.12884DOI Listing
December 2020

Transplantation of Wnt5a-modified NSCs promotes tissue repair and locomotor functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

Exp Mol Med 2020 12 14;52(12):2020-2033. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Spine Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 510080, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Traditional therapeutic strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) are insufficient to repair locomotor function because of the failure of axonal reconnection and neuronal regeneration in the injured central nervous system (CNS). Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation has been considered a potential strategy and is generally feasible for repairing the neural circuit after SCI; however, the most formidable problem is that the neuronal differentiation rate of NSCs is quite limited. Therefore, it is essential to induce the neuronal differentiation of NSCs and improve the differentiation rate of NSCs in spinal cord repair. Our results demonstrate that both Wnt5a and miRNA200b-3p could promote NSC differentiation into neurons and that Wnt5a upregulated miRNA200b-3p expression through MAPK/JNK signaling to promote NSC differentiation into neurons. Wnt5a could reduce RhoA expression by upregulating miRNA200b-3p expression to inhibit activation of the RhoA/Rock signaling pathway, which has been reported to suppress neuronal differentiation. Overexpression of RhoA abolished the neurogenic capacity of Wnt5a and miRNA200b-3p. In vivo, miRNA200b-3p was critical for Wnt5a-induced NSC differentiation into neurons to promote motor functional and histological recovery after SCI by suppressing RhoA/Rock signaling. These findings provide more insight into SCI and help with the identification of novel treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s12276-020-00536-0DOI Listing
December 2020

Learning curve of mitral valve repair: cumulative sum failure analysis from single high-volume center.

J Thorac Dis 2020 Nov;12(11):6563-6572

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Mitral valve (MV) repair has become the gold standard for treating degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR), yet the success rate of MV repair is still low in clinical practice. While studies focused on the learning process of MV repair are scarce, fully understanding the learning curve could provide valuable information for education and the quality control of MV repair, thus benefiting patients. This observational study aimed to evaluate the learning process and performances of individual surgeon for MV repair for degenerative mitral disease using data from a single high-volume center.

Methods: Profiles of patients who underwent MV repair for degenerative MR at our institution from January 2003 to December 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. Overall and individual learning curves for the repair rate and major adverse events were calculated using sequential probability cumulative sum failure analysis. Average learning curves for major adverse events and operative time were also analyzed, by calculating the average incidence of adverse events and operative time of all operations stratified by accumulated operation numbers of individual surgeon. Altogether, we evaluated 2,482 operations performed by 14 surgeons.

Results: There was an obvious learning curve for the repair rate at the institution and individual surgeon levels. Altogether, 50 to 200 operations were needed to overcome the repair rate learning curve, yet wide variation was observed among individual surgeons. The learning process for individual surgeons became faster after the turning point in the institutional learning curve appeared. No obvious learning curve was observed at the institution or individual level for major adverse events and in-hospital mortality.

Conclusions: The number of cases required to overcome the learning curve for repair rate is substantial, although there is marked variation among surgeons. Individuals' learning curves accelerate as the institution accumulates experience. MV repair is safe in experienced high-volume center. Close monitoring is necessary when surgeons begin to practice new techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-1960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711428PMC
November 2020

Cellulose nanocrystals incorporated β-chitosan nanoparticles to enhance the stability and in vitro release of β-galactosidase.

Food Res Int 2020 11 4;137:109380. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

State Key Laboratory of Dairy Biotechnology, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Dairy Biotechnology, Dairy Research Institute, Bright Dairy & Food Co., Ltd, Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Nutrition, Shanghai 200436, China; School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China; College of Food Science and Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China. Electronic address:

Beta-galactosidase (β-gal), catalyzing the transformation of lactose to glucose and galactose, had been encapsulated in β-chitosan nanoparticles (β-CS NPs) in previous work, but they were prone to aggregation and disscociation, resulting in poor bioavailability of β-gal. Herein, we developed cellulose nanocrystals (CNC, as stabilizers and fillers) stabilized β-gal loaded low molecular weight (LMW) β-CS NPs through ionic gelation technology to enhance enzyme activity and further control in vitro release of β-gal. Results showed that particle size and Zeta potential (ZP) of CNCs stabilized β-gal loaded CS NPs were 143.20 nm and -34.70 mV under the optimal conditions, respectively. Structural analysis were employed to study the incorporation of β-gal and CNC into β-CS NPs. In vitro release study conducted at pH 4.5 and 7.4 showed that both β-gal loaded β-CS NPs and CNC stabilized ones retained the release of β-gal for over 12 h. Moreover, CNC stabilized β-gal loaded β-CS NPs retained higher β-gal activity (81.23%) than that of controls (30%) within 2 h. Therefore, it was indicated that CNC incorporated β-CS NPs could serve as non-toxic and effective carriers of β-gal for the treatment of lactose intolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109380DOI Listing
November 2020

Photooxidation of atrazine and its influence on disinfection byproducts formation during post-chlorination: effect of solution pH and mechanism.

Sci Rep 2020 11 23;10(1):20355. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water and Soil Conservation and Environmental Protection, College of Resources and Environment, Linyi University, Linyi, 276000, China.

Partial photooxidation of micropollutants may lead to various degradation intermediates, obviously affecting disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formation during the post-chlorination process. The photooxidation of atrazine (ATZ) in aqueous solutions with low-pressure mercury UV lamps in UV, UV/HO and UV/TiO treatment system and the formation of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during subsequent chlorination processes including dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), 1,1,1-trichloro-2-propanone (TCP), trichloromethane (TCM) and chloropicrin (CHP) were investigated in this study. The effect of solution pH on the oxidation pathway of ATZ in three UV photooxidation treatment process and the impact of photooxidation on the DBPs formations were assessed. Based on UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses, identification of main oxidation intermediates was performed and the plausible degradation pathways of ATZ in photooxidation system were proposed, indicating that photooxidation of ATZ in UV/HO and UV/TiO process system was significantly pH-dependent processes. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), 1,1,1-trichloro-2-propanone (TCP), trichloromethane (TCM) and chloropicrin (CHP) were detected in photooxidized ATZ solutions. Compared to the other three DBPs, TCM and TCP were the main DBPs formed. The DBPs formations were greatly promoted in oxidized ATZ solutions. Solution pH and UV irradiation time exhibited obvious impact on the DBPs formation on the basis of DBP species. The variation tendency of DBPs observed relates to the combustion of ATZ in photooxidation system and the production oxidation intermediates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77006-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7684306PMC
November 2020

Nano-Biomaterials for the Delivery of Therapeutic and Monitoring Cues for Aortic Diseases.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2020 5;8:583879. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The aorta is the largest artery in the body, so any diseases or conditions which could cause damage to the aorta would put patients at considerable and life-threatening risk. In the management of aortic diseases, the major treatments include drug therapy, endovascular treatment, and surgical treatment, which are of great danger or with a poor prognosis. The delivery of nano-biomaterials provides a potential development trend and an emerging field where we could monitor patients' conditions and responses to the nanotherapeutics. One of the putative applications of nanotechnology is ultrasensitive monitoring of cardiovascular markers by detecting and identifying aneurysms. Moreover, the use of nanosystems for targeted drug delivery can minimize the systemic side effects and enhance drug positioning and efficacy compared to conventional drug therapies. This review shows some examples of utilizing nano-biomaterials in organ and cell culture experiments and explains some developing technologies in delivering and monitoring regenerative therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.583879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7674648PMC
November 2020

Synthesis of 2,2'-Dihalobiaryls via Cu-Catalyzed Halogenation of Cyclic Diaryliodonium Salts.

Org Lett 2020 12 20;22(23):9356-9359. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, P. R. China.

We report an efficient method for the preparation of various 2,2'-dihalobiaryls from cyclic diaryliodonium salts. With cheap halogen sources as starting materials, a broad range of 2,2'-diiodobiaryls, 2-bromo-2'-iodobiaryls, and 2-chloro-2'-iodobiaryls were obtained under mild reaction conditions. More importantly, a chiral copper-bisoxazoline catalyst system was further developed for the preparation of axially chiral 2,2'-dihalobiaryls in excellent yields and enantioselectivities, which can serve as versatile precursors for the synthesis of various chiral ligands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c03614DOI Listing
December 2020

Manipulation of pore structure during manufacture of agarose microspheres for bioseparation.

Eng Life Sci 2020 Nov 23;20(11):504-513. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering Institute of Process Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing P. R. China.

Agarose microspheres with a controllable pore structure were manufactured by varying agarose types and crosslinking degrees. Various agarose could tailor the gel formation of microspheres matrix and thus affect the final pore structures. Small pores in microspheres could be fabricated by agarose with a higher molecular weight, which was demonstrated by the packed column with lower distribution coefficient ( ) values measured by gel filtration chromatography. Further, higher values also demonstrated that more and larger pores were formed with increasing the crosslinking degree of agarose microspheres. Either using agarose with a high molecular weight or increasing the crosslinking degree would finally lead to the enhancement of the flow rate during flow performance of packed column as necessary for improving separation efficiency. This provides a foundation for high-resolution chromatography with a controllable separation range as beneficial for downstream process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elsc.202000023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7645642PMC
November 2020

LncRNA HCP5 promotes neuroblastoma proliferation by regulating miR-186-5p/MAP3K2 signal axis.

J Pediatr Surg 2020 Oct 17. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230001, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common solid tumor in children. Studies showed that long-chain noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HCP5 played an important role in tumorigenesis, but its role in NB remained unclear. This study aims to determine the role of HCP5 in NB and its possible molecular mechanism.

Methods: We analyzed the expression levels of miRNA-186-5p and HCP5 in neuroblastoma and neuroblastoma cell lines SHSY-5Y, Kelly, NBL-S and SK-N-AS, and explored their roles.

Results: We found that the HCP5 expression was up-regulated in NB tissues and cells. The higher the HCP5 expression in NB cells, the stronger the ability of clone formation. Down regulation of the HCP5 expression inhibited the proliferation of NB cells and the growth of subcutaneous transplanted tumor in nude mice. HCP5 could competitively bind miR-186-5p, while miR-186-5p could target the 3'-UTR of MAP3K2. The expression level of miR-186-5p was down regulated while the expression level of MAP3K2 was up-regulated in NB tissues. The expression level of HCP5 and miR-186-5p, the expression level of miR-186-5p and MAP3K2 were negatively correlated. The decreased proliferation of NB cells induced by down-regulation of HCP5 expression can be counteracted by miR-186-5p inhibitor or MAP3K2, and vice versa.

Conclusion: This study showed that lncRNA HCP5, as ceRNA, regulated MAP3K2 to promote NB progression through competitive binding of miR-186-5p. We revealed a new signaling pathway that mediates NB, which provided a new target for the diagnosis and treatment of NB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2020.10.011DOI Listing
October 2020

Modeling aortic diseases using induced pluripotent stem cells.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2021 Feb 12;10(2):190-197. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an effective platform for studies of human physiology and have revealed new possibilities for disease modeling at the cellular level. These cells also have the potential to be leveraged in the practice of precision medicine, including personalized drug testing. Aortic diseases result in significant morbidity and mortality and pose a global burden to healthcare. Their pathogenesis is mostly associated with functional alterations of vascular components, such as endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. Drugs that have been proven to be effective in animal models often fail to protect patients from adverse aortic events in clinical studies, provoking researchers to develop reliable in vitro models using human cells. In this review, we summarize the patient iPSC-derived aortic cells that have been utilized to model aortic diseases in vitro. In advanced models, hemodynamic factors, such as blood flow-induced shear stress and cyclic strain, have been added to the systems to replicate cellular microenvironments in the aortic wall. Examples of the utility of such factors in modeling various aortopathies, such as Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and bicuspid aortic valve-related aortopathy, are also described. Overall, the iPSC-based in vitro cell models have shown the potential to promote the development and practice of precision medicine in the treatment of aortic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sctm.20-0322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7848399PMC
February 2021

Choose Your Own Adventure: Fabrication of Monolithic All-Perovskite Tandem Photovoltaics.

Adv Mater 2020 Dec 11;32(50):e2003312. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, 80401, USA.

Metal halide perovskites (MHPs) have transfixed the photovoltaic (PV) community due to their outstanding and tunable optoelectronic properties coupled to demonstrations of high-power conversion efficiencies (PCE) at a range of bandgaps. This has motivated the field to push perovskites to reach the highest possible performance. One way to increase the efficiency is by fabricating multijunction solar cells, which can split the solar spectrum, reducing thermalization loss. Low-cost all-perovskite tandems have a real chance to soon exceed 30% PCE, which could transform the PV industry. Achieving this goal requires the identification of perovskite sub-cells that are both highly efficient and can be effectively integrated. Herein, it is discussed how to navigate the multiple-choice adventure in choosing between the myriad of options and considerations present when deciding what perovskite materials, contact layers, and processing tools to use. Some of the potential fabrication pitfalls often encountered in MHP based tandem PVs are highlighted, so that they can hopefully be avoided in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202003312DOI Listing
December 2020

GBE attenuates arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity by regulating E2F1-autophagy-E2F7a pathway and restoring lysosomal activity.

J Cell Physiol 2021 May 10;236(5):4050-4065. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

The Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Disease Control, Ministry of Education, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, China.

Arsenic is an environmental toxicant. Its overdose can cause liver damage. Autophagy has been reported to be involved in arsenite (iAs ) cytotoxicity and plays a dual role in cell proliferation and cell death. However, the effect and molecular regulative mechanisms of iAs on autophagy in hepatocytes remains largely unknown. Here, we found that iAs exposure lead to hepatotoxicity by inducing autophagosome and autolysosome accumulation. On the one hand, iAs promoted autophagosome synthesis by inhibiting E2F1/mTOR pathway in L-02 human hepatocytes. On the other, iAs blocked autophagosome degradation partially via suppressing the expression of INPP5E and Rab7 as well as impairing lysosomal activity. More importantly, autophagosome and autolysosome accumulation induced by iAs increased the protein level of E2F7a, which could further inhibit cell viability and induce apoptosis of L-02 cells. The treatment of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) effectively reduced autophagosome and autolysosome accumulation and thus alleviated iAs -induced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, GBE could also protect lysosomal activity, promote the phosphorylation level of E2F1 (Ser364 and Thr433) and Rb (Ser780) as well as suppress the protein level of E2F7a in iAs -treated L-02 cells. Taken together, our data suggested that autophagosome and autophagolysosome accumulation play a critical role for iAs -induced hepatotoxicity, and GBE is a promising candidate for intervening iAs induced liver damage by regulating E2F1-autophagy-E2F7a pathway and restoring lysosomal activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30147DOI Listing
May 2021

Modeling Endothelialized Hepatic Tumor Microtissues for Drug Screening.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2020 Nov 21;7(21):2002002. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Institute of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Huaqiao University Xiamen 361021 P. R. China.

Compared to various traditional 2D approaches, the scaffold-based 3D tumor models have emerged as an effective strategy to investigate the complex mechanisms behind cancer progression and responses to drug treatments, by providing biomimetic extracellular matrix and stromal-like microenvironments including the vascular elements. Herein, the development of a 3D endothelialized hepatic tumor microtissue model based on the fusion of multicellular aggregates of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells cocultured in poly(lactic--glycolic acid)-based porous microspheres (PLGA PMs) is reported. In contrast to the conventional 2D culture, the cells within the PLGA PMs exhibit significantly higher half-maximal inhibitory concentration values against anticancer drugs, including doxorubicin and cisplatin. Furthermore, the feasibility of coculturing other cell types, such as fibroblasts (L929) and HepG2 cells, is investigated. Together, the findings emphasize the significance of engineered 3D hepatic tumor microtissue models using PLGA PM-based multicellular aggregates for drug screening applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202002002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610277PMC
November 2020