Publications by authors named "Kai Wu"

747 Publications

Vitamin D Reduces the Helper T Cells 17 (Th17) Differentiation in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis by Targeting Long Non-coding RNA (lncRNA) OIP5-AS1/miR-26a-5p/IL-6 axis.

Iran J Immunol 2022 Jun;19(2)

Department of Gastroenterology, Eighth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100091, China.

Background: Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory efficacy against ulcerative colitis (UC), however the mechanism is yet little understood.

Objective: To investigate the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D against the UC, and to explore the potential downstream mechanisms.

Materials And Methods: Serum vitamin D, Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and Interleukin (IL)-17 levels of the patients with UC were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) levels were determined by using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from the healthy control subjects, stimulated with CD4+ T lymphocytes or helper T cells 17(Th17) differentiation conditions, and then exposed to calcitriol (vitamin D active form) or certain lentiviral treatment, followed by subsequent molecular level testing. For in vivo assay, mice were given 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis.

Results: Compared with the control group, vitamin D levels in the UCs were statistically lower, and there was a negative correlation between IL-17 and vitamin D in the UCs. The lncRNA OIP5-AS1 could decrease under calcitriol treatment in both CD4+ T cells and Th17 differentiation. The lncRNA OIP5-AS1 was a microRNA (miR)-26a-5p sponge and therefore modulated the Th17 cells and IL-6 expression. The lncRNA OIP5-AS1/miR-26a-5p/IL-6 axis mediated the regulation of calcitriol induced Th17 differentiation. Calcitriol had therapeutic effects on the UC mouse models by regulating the lncRNA OIP5-AS1 related pathway.

Conclusion: Vitamin D might have anti-inflammatory potential in the treatment of the UC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/iji.2022.90562.2014DOI Listing
June 2022

Observation of Biradical Spin Coupling through Hydrogen Bonds.

Phys Rev Lett 2022 Jun;128(23):236401

Center for Carbon-Based Electronics and Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Investigation of intermolecular electron spin interaction is of fundamental importance in both science and technology. Here, radical pairs of all-trans retinoic acid molecules on Au(111) are created using an ultralow temperature scanning tunneling microscope. Antiferromagnetic coupling between two radicals is identified by magnetic-field-dependent spectroscopy. The measured exchange energies are from 0.1 to 1.0 meV. The biradical spin coupling is mediated through O─H⋯O hydrogen bonds, as elucidated from analysis combining density functional theory calculation and a modern version of valence bond theory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.236401DOI Listing
June 2022

Salvage therapy of osimertinib plus anlotinib in advanced lung adenocarcinoma with leptomeningeal metastasis: A case report.

Respir Med Case Rep 2022 6;38:101682. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Dushu Lake Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is one of the most serious complications of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and lacks standard treatment. Patients with LM often have a poor prognosis. Here, we report a 51-year-old man diagnosed as advanced lung adenocarcinoma and gene sequencing indicated no sensitive driver gene mutation. Pemetrexed and cisplatin plus bevacizumab was administered as first-line therapy. He received pembrolizumab plus nab-paclitaxel as second-line therapy and developed neurological symptoms soon. Later, he was diagnosed LM by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and gene sequencing of lung tissue rebiopsy demonstrated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) sensitive mutation. The patient received high-dose (160mg) osimertinib therapy but still could not tolerate severe neurological symptoms and developed cardiac adverse event. After that, standard-dose (80mg) osimertinib plus anlotinib was administered and this treatment regimen resulted in the alleviation of neurological symptoms. As the recent follow up, the curative effect was evaluated stable disease (SD) and the patient gained a progression-free survival (PFS) of more than 15 months. We report this successful salvage therapy of osimertinib plus anlotinib in an advanced lung adenocarcinoma patient who developed LM after failure on previous treatment until EGFR mutation was confirmed through rebiopsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmcr.2022.101682DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9189884PMC
June 2022

The Metabolic and Non-Metabolic Roles of UCK2 in Tumor Progression.

Front Oncol 2022 20;12:904887. Epub 2022 May 20.

Affiliated Zhoupu Hospital, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Enhanced nucleoside metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Uridine-cytidine kinase 2 (UCK2) is a rate-limiting enzyme of the pyrimidine salvage synthesis pathway to phosphorylate uridine and cytidine to uridine monophosphate (UMP) and cytidine monophosphate (CMP), respectively. Recent studies have shown that UCK2 is overexpressed in many types of solid and hematopoietic cancers, closely associates with poor prognosis, and promotes cell proliferation and migration in lung cancer and HCCs. Although UCK2 is thought to catalyze sufficient nucleotide building blocks to support the rapid proliferation of tumor cells, we and other groups have recently demonstrated that UCK2 may play a tumor-promoting role in a catalytic independent manner by activating oncogenic signaling pathways, such as STAT3 and EGFR-AKT. By harnessing the catalytic activity of UCK2, several cytotoxic ribonucleoside analogs, such as TAS-106 and RX-3117, have been developed for UCK2-mediated cancer chemotherapy. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the concurrent targeting of the catalytic dependent and independent features of UCK2 could synergistically inhibit tumor growth. These findings suggest that UCK2 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In this mini-review, we introduced the genomic localization and protein structure of UCK2, described the role of UCK2 in tumor development, discussed the application of UCK2 in anti-tumor treatment, and proposed concurrent targeting of the catalytic and non-catalytic roles of UCK2 as a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.904887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9163393PMC
May 2022

Acidic open-cage solution containing basic cage-confined nanospaces for multipurpose catalysis.

Natl Sci Rev 2022 May 20;9(5):nwab155. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

MOE Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, Lehn Institute of Functional Materials, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

The nanoscale chemical spaces inherent in porous organic/coordination cages or solid/liquid materials have been continuously explored for their nanoconfinement effect on selective adsorption and reaction of small gas or organic molecules. Herein, we aim to rationalize the unconventional chemical reactivities motivated by the cage-confined nanospaces in aqueous solutions, where the robust yet permeable nanospaces defined by the open cages facilitate dynamic guest exchange and unusual chemical reactions. The high positive charges on [(Pd/Pt)(RuL)] nanocages drive imidazole-proton equilibrium to display a significantly perturbed p shift, creating cage-defined nanospaces in solution with distinct intrinsic basicity and extrinsic acidity. The supramolecular cage effect plays pivotal roles in elaborating robust solution nanospaces, controlling ingress-and-egress molecular processes through open-cage portals and endowing nanocages with transition-state stabilization, amphoteric reactivities and the phase transfer of insoluble molecules, thus promoting chemical transformations in unconventional ways. Consequently, a wide range of application of cage-confined catalysis with anomalous reactivities may be expected based on this kind of open-cage solution medium, which combines cage nanocavity, solution heterogeneity and liquid-phase fluidity to benefit various potential mass transfer and molecular process options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nsr/nwab155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9155638PMC
May 2022

Corrigendum to "Transcriptome Profiling across Five Tissues of Giant Panda".

Biomed Res Int 2022 19;2022:9846545. Epub 2022 May 19.

Farm Animal Genetic Resources Exploration and Innovation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2020/3852586.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/9846545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9136632PMC
May 2022

Structural and biochemical mechanism for increased infectivity and immune evasion of Omicron BA.2 variant compared to BA.1 and their possible mouse origins.

Cell Res 2022 May 31. Epub 2022 May 31.

The CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

The Omicron BA.2 variant has become a dominant infective strain worldwide. Receptor binding studies show that the Omicron BA.2 spike trimer exhibits 11-fold and 2-fold higher potency in binding to human ACE2 than the spike trimer from the wildtype (WT) and Omicron BA.1 strains. The structure of the BA.2 spike trimer complexed with human ACE2 reveals that all three receptor-binding domains (RBDs) in the spike trimer are in open conformation, ready for ACE2 binding, thus providing a basis for the increased infectivity of the BA.2 strain. JMB2002, a therapeutic antibody that was shown to efficiently inhibit Omicron BA.1, also shows potent neutralization activities against Omicron BA.2. In addition, both BA.1 and BA.2 spike trimers are able to bind to mouse ACE2 with high potency. In contrast, the WT spike trimer binds well to cat ACE2 but not to mouse ACE2. The structures of both BA.1 and BA.2 spike trimer bound to mouse ACE2 reveal the basis for their high affinity interactions. Together, these results suggest a possible evolution pathway for Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants via a human-cat-mouse-human circle, which could have important implications in establishing an effective strategy for combating SARS-CoV-2 viral infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-022-00672-4DOI Listing
May 2022

Genome-Wide Identification of the Ginkgo ( L.) Transcription Factor Gene and Characterization of Its Expression.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 May 13;23(10). Epub 2022 May 13.

Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Key Laboratory of Forest Genetics and Biotechnology of Ministry of Education, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.

Lateral organ boundaries domain (LBD) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors involved in various transcriptional regulation processes. We identified a total of 37 genes in ginkgo, and based on gene structure and phylogenetic analysis, the gene family was classified into class I (33, with the largest number of Id genes (16)) and class II (4). The ginkgo gene was also analyzed regarding its chromosomal distributions, gene duplications, promoters, and introns/exons. In addition, gene expression profiling and real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression of 14 genes differed in six different tissues and three developmental stages. The gene of class II were highly expressed relative to the class I gene in all tissues and developmental stages, while class Id gene were generally at low levels or were not expressed, especially in seed developmental stages. The expression pattern analysis of cold/drought treatment and IAA/ABA hormone treatment showed that abiotic stress treatment could significantly induce the expression of gene, of which class II genes played a key role in stress treatment. Our study provides a solid foundation for further evolutionary and functional analysis of the ginkgo gene family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23105474DOI Listing
May 2022

Guest-modulated Circularly Polarized Luminescence by Ligand-to-Ligand Chirality Transfer in Heteroleptic Pd(II) Coordination Cages.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

TU Dortmund University, Faculty for Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Otto-Hahn-Str. 6, 44227, Dortmund, GERMANY.

Multicomponent metallo-supramolecular assembly allows to rationally combine different building blocks. Discrete multifunctional hosts with an accessible cavity can be prepared in a non-statistical fashion. We employ our shape-complementary assembly (SCA) method to achieve for the first time integrative self-sorting of heteroleptic PdII cages showing guest-tunable circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). An enantiopure helicene-based ligand (M or P configuration) is coupled with a non-chiral emissive fluorenone-based ligand (A or B) to form a series of Pd2L2L'2 assemblies. The modular strategy allows to impart the chiral information of the helicenes to the overall supramolecular system, resulting in CPL from the non-chiral component. Guest binding results in a 4-fold increase of CPL intensity. The principle offers potential to generate libraries of multifunctional materials with applications in molecular recognition, enantioselective photo-redox catalysis and information processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202205725DOI Listing
May 2022

A Universal Mechanochemistry Allows On-Demand Synthesis of Stable and Processable Liquid Metal Composites.

Small Methods 2022 May 26:e2200246. Epub 2022 May 26.

College of Polymer Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China.

Gallium-based liquid metal (LM) is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for the new-generation jigsaw of stretchable electronics. Nonetheless, the obstacle for the LM application lies in its high surface tension and easy fluidity which leads to great difficulty in handling and processing. Herein, a cross-mechanochemistry between liquid metal and inorganic solid, mediated via the coordination binding between the empty electronic orbits of the former and the lone electron pair of the latter is reported. The mechanism is validated via density functional theory calculation and electron energy loss spectroscopy, and experimentally proven to be universally applicable for various liquid metals and inorganic solids. With the unique mechanochemistry, simple ball milling allows on-demand transformation of the liquid metal into a low-surface-tension liquid, semi-solid paste, or even solid powder. The overcoming of the intrinsic high surface tension of the liquid metal with this approach unleashes the freedom to easily process the liquid metal composites into polymer composites or as direct molding processable paste and printable electronic ink.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smtd.202200246DOI Listing
May 2022

Chemical characterization, source apportionment, and health risk assessment of PM in a typical industrial region in North China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China.

To clarify the chemical characteristics, source contributions, and health risks of pollution events associated with high PM in typical industrial areas of North China, manual sampling and analysis of PM were conducted in the spring, summer, autumn, and winter of 2019 in Pingyin County, Jinan City, Shandong Province. The results showed that the total concentration of 29 components in PM was 53.4 ± 43.9 μg·m, including OC/EC, water-soluble ions, inorganic elements, and metal elements. The largest contribution was from the NO ion, at 14.6 ± 14.2 μg·m, followed by organic carbon (OC), SO, and NH, with concentrations of 9.3 ± 5.5, 9.1 ± 6.4, and 8.1 ± 6.8 μg·m, respectively. The concentrations of OC, NO, and SO were highest in winter and lowest in summer, whereas the NH concentration was highest in winter and lowest in spring. Typical heavy metals had higher concentrations in autumn and winter, and lower concentrations in spring and summer. The annual average sulfur oxidation rate (SOR) and nitrogen oxidation rate (NOR) were 0.30 ± 0.14 and 0.21 ± 0.12, respectively, with the highest SO emission and conversion rates in winter, resulting in the SO concentration being highest in winter. The average concentration of secondary organic carbon in 2019 was 2.8 ± 1.9 μg·m, and it comprised approximately 30% of total OC. The concentrations of 18 elements including Na, Mg, and Al were between 2.3 ± 1.6 and 888.1 ± 415.2 ng·m, with Ni having the lowest concentration and K the highest. The health risk assessment for typical heavy metals showed that Pb poses a potential carcinogenic risk for adults, whereas As may pose a carcinogenic risk for adults, children, and adolescents. The non-carcinogenic risk coefficients for all heavy metals were lower than 1.0, indicating that the non-carcinogenic risk was negligible. Positive matrix factorization analysis indicated that coal-burning emissions contributed the largest fraction of PM, accounting for 35.9% of the total. The contribution of automotive emissions is similar to that of coal, at 32.1%. The third-largest contributor was industrial sources, which accounted for 17.2%. The contributions of dust and other emissions sources to PM were 8.4% and 6.4%, respectively. This study provides reference data for policymakers to improve the air quality in the NCP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-19843-2DOI Listing
May 2022

Chemical characterization, source apportionment, and health risk assessment of PM in a typical industrial region in North China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China.

To clarify the chemical characteristics, source contributions, and health risks of pollution events associated with high PM in typical industrial areas of North China, manual sampling and analysis of PM were conducted in the spring, summer, autumn, and winter of 2019 in Pingyin County, Jinan City, Shandong Province. The results showed that the total concentration of 29 components in PM was 53.4 ± 43.9 μg·m, including OC/EC, water-soluble ions, inorganic elements, and metal elements. The largest contribution was from the NO ion, at 14.6 ± 14.2 μg·m, followed by organic carbon (OC), SO, and NH, with concentrations of 9.3 ± 5.5, 9.1 ± 6.4, and 8.1 ± 6.8 μg·m, respectively. The concentrations of OC, NO, and SO were highest in winter and lowest in summer, whereas the NH concentration was highest in winter and lowest in spring. Typical heavy metals had higher concentrations in autumn and winter, and lower concentrations in spring and summer. The annual average sulfur oxidation rate (SOR) and nitrogen oxidation rate (NOR) were 0.30 ± 0.14 and 0.21 ± 0.12, respectively, with the highest SO emission and conversion rates in winter, resulting in the SO concentration being highest in winter. The average concentration of secondary organic carbon in 2019 was 2.8 ± 1.9 μg·m, and it comprised approximately 30% of total OC. The concentrations of 18 elements including Na, Mg, and Al were between 2.3 ± 1.6 and 888.1 ± 415.2 ng·m, with Ni having the lowest concentration and K the highest. The health risk assessment for typical heavy metals showed that Pb poses a potential carcinogenic risk for adults, whereas As may pose a carcinogenic risk for adults, children, and adolescents. The non-carcinogenic risk coefficients for all heavy metals were lower than 1.0, indicating that the non-carcinogenic risk was negligible. Positive matrix factorization analysis indicated that coal-burning emissions contributed the largest fraction of PM, accounting for 35.9% of the total. The contribution of automotive emissions is similar to that of coal, at 32.1%. The third-largest contributor was industrial sources, which accounted for 17.2%. The contributions of dust and other emissions sources to PM were 8.4% and 6.4%, respectively. This study provides reference data for policymakers to improve the air quality in the NCP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-19843-2DOI Listing
May 2022

The enrichment of sugars and phenols from fast pyrolysis of bamboo via ethanol-Fenton pretreatment.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Jul 14;356:127315. Epub 2022 May 14.

Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, PR China. Electronic address:

The high-purity compounds (e.g., sugars and phenols) are important raw materials and chemicals, which can be produced by biomass pyrolysis. However, the direct biomass pyrolysis produces complex compounds and thus inhibiting its large-scale utilization. To increase the yield and enrichment of sugars and phenols, a green coupling process based on ethanol-Fenton pretreatment combined with fast pyrolysis is firstly proposed. The bamboo was effectively separated into the ethanol-Fenton pretreated bamboo (EF-bamboo), lignin-rich fractions, and hemicellulose-degradation intermixtures with the massive removal of inorganic metals via this process. Compared with the fast pyrolysis of raw bamboo, the levoglucosan yield of EF-bamboo increased 5.4 times and the enrichment of sugars improved from 7.6% to 59.7%. Similarly, the yield of monophenols from lignin-rich fractions increased around 0.6 times and the enrichment of monophenols increased from 25.7% to 63.5%. This work provides a green and efficient route to produce high-yield and high-enrichment sugars and phenols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2022.127315DOI Listing
July 2022

Local charge transport at different interfaces in epoxy composites.

Nanotechnology 2022 Jun 7;33(34). Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Center of Nanomaterials for Renewable Energy, State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, People's Republic of China.

Charge transport in insulating composites is fundamental to designing high performance in electrical breakdown strength processes. A fundamental understanding of the charge transport at nanoscale in insulating composites remains elusive. Herein, we fabricate two types of interfaces in epoxy (EP) composites (AlO/EP and bubble/EP, respectively). Then the local dynamic charge mobility behavior and charge density are explored usingKelvin probe force microscopy. After the external voltage in the horizontal direction is applied, significant differences are demonstrated in the evolution of charge transport for epoxy matrix, filler/bubble, and their interface, respectively. The interface between AlOand epoxy is easier to accumulate the negative charges and introduce shallow traps. Lots of positive charges are located around a bubble where deeper traps are present and could prevent charge migration. Thus, this work offers extended experimental support to understanding the mechanism of charge transport in dielectric composites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac705fDOI Listing
June 2022

Silencing of histone deacetylase 3 suppresses the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma through regulation of miR-494-mediated TGIF1.

Cancer Cell Int 2022 May 16;22(1):191. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Thyroid Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No. 1, Eastern Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou, 450015, Henan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Deacetylation of histones by histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) acts importantly in modulating apoptosis, DNA damage and cellular progression. Herein, we aimed to unravel the functional role of HDAC3 in a lethal disease, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).

Methods: The expression of HDAC3 in clinically collected ESCC tissues was determined by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. As revealed from bioinformatics analysis, the putative relations between HDAC3 and microRNA-494 (miR-494) and between miR-494 and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-inducing factor 1 (TGIF1) were further verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation and dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. Functional roles of shRNA-mediated depletion of HDAC3, miR-494 mimic and overexpressed TGIF1 were explored by gain- and loss-of-function assays with regard to ESCC cell biological behaviors. A nude mouse model of ESCC was developed for in vivo validation.

Results: HDAC3 was highly expressed in ESCC tissues, suggestive of poor prognosis while TGIF1 was upregulated and miR-494 was downregulated. Mechanistic investigation revealed that HDAC3 inhibited miR-494 expression and TGIF1 was a direct target of miR-494. Furthermore, silencing HDAC3 or overexpressing miR-494 was demonstrated to suppress aggressive phenotypes of ESCC cells both in vitro through the activated TGFβ signaling pathway and in vivo, while TGIF1 overexpression induced opposite results.

Conclusion: Collectively, our findings provided demonstration regarding the oncogenic property of HDAC3 in ESCC via the miR-494/TGIF1/TGFβ axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-022-02581-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9109300PMC
May 2022

Stabilization and Dispersion of OSA Starch-Coated Titania Nanoparticles in Kappa-Carrageenan-Based Solution.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2022 Apr 30;12(9). Epub 2022 Apr 30.

School of Perfume and Aroma Technology, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418, China.

Titania is a white pigment used widely in papermaking, paints and cosmetic industries. Dispersion and stabilization of high concentration titania in water-based system remains a great bottleneck in industry nowadays, because aggregation of titania nanoparticles results in severe adverse effects to gloss, opacity, tint strength, color distribution and storage stability of end products. Because kappa-carrageenan (κ-CG) has excellent rheological properties such as emulsification, gelation, stability and so on, it has the ability to form gel and increase the viscosity of aqueous solution. In this work, Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch was utilized as wall material to encapsulate titania pigments using electrostatic spray drying processing. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that titania pigments were coated by OSA starch, with a final form of nanoparticle. Accelerating stability test found that around 60% OSA starch-titania particles were stably dispersed in κ-CG-based solution. All materials used in this work were natural ingredient, which would be preferred by cosmetic industry and consumers. The technique used in the present study could potentially be extended to other pigments for similar purpose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano12091519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9100989PMC
April 2022

Electrohydrodynamics Analysis of Dielectric 2D Nanofluids.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2022 Apr 27;12(9). Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju-si 28644, Korea.

The purpose of this present study is to prepare a stable mineral-oil (MO)-based nanofluid (NF) for usage as a coolant in a transformer. Nanoparticles (NPs) such as hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and titanium oxide (TiO) have superior thermal and electrical characteristics. Their dispersion into MO is likely to elevate the electrothermal properties of NFs. Therefore, different batches of NFs are prepared by uniformly dispersing the insulating h-BN and semiconducting TiO NP of different concentrations in MO. Bulk h-BN NP of size 1μm is exfoliated into 2D nanosheets of size 150-200 nm, subsequently enhancing the surface area of exfoliated h-BN (Eh-BN). However, from the zeta-potential analysis, NP concentration of 0.01 and 0.1 wt.% are chosen for further study. The thermal conductivity and ACBDV studies of the prepared NF are performed to investigate the cooling and insulation characteristics. The charging-dynamics study verifies the enhancement in ACBDV of the Eh-BN NF. Weibull statistical analysis is carried out to obtain the maximum probability of ACBDV failure, and it is observed that 0.01 wt.% based NF has superior cooling and insulation properties than MO and remaining batches of NFs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano12091489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9106012PMC
April 2022

Whole exome sequencing applied to 42 Han Chinese patients with posterior hypospadias.

Steroids 2022 Aug 10;184:109041. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510282, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Hypospadias, a malformation of male external genitalia, is characterized by an aberrant opening of the urethra on the ventral side of the penis. It is considered a complex disorder with both environmental and genetic factors involved in its pathogenesis. To identify the genetic abnormality involved in the pathogenesis of hypospadias, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis in 42 hypospadias patients with karyotype 46, XY in the Nanhai Meternity&Child Health Hospital of Foshan. All the likely pathogenic variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing and assessed by Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT), PROVEAN, PolyPhen2, ClinPred, LRT, Mutation Assessor, FATHMM, and GERP software. We discovered 27 gene mutations in 20 patients, including eight cases of the SRD5A2 gene, 4 cases of the AR gene, 3 cases of the CYP17A1 gene, 1 case of the WT1 gene, 1 case of the ANOS1 gene, 1 case of the NR5A1 gene, 1 case of the FGFR1 gene, and one case of the DHX37 gene. Our study is the first to describe six novel missense mutations, AR(c.302G > A, c.2593G > T, and c.1705G > T), CYP17A1(c.1298 T > C), FGFR1 (c.995C > T) and DHX37(c.923G > A). In summary, genetic defect detection was useful for early diagnosis of severe hypospadias in the Han Chinese population. Nevertheless, most cases remain unexplained, and the exact pathogenesis of hypospadias still needs further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2022.109041DOI Listing
August 2022

Transport Characteristics of Interfacial Charge in SiC Semiconductor-Epoxy Resin Packaging Materials.

Front Chem 2022 26;10:879438. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

School of Electrical Engineering, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an, China.

The silicon carbide (SiC) wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductor power device has been widely applied for its excellent properties. However, the charge accumulated in the interface of SiC semiconductor-related insulation packaging may lead to serious material performance degradation and failure, threatening the reliability and operation life of power devices. In this research, interface charge accumulation characteristics of SiC-epoxy resin double-layered material were investigated, and space charge injection, transport, and accumulation mechanisms, as well as the related temperature effect for the SiC-epoxy resin under polarization and depolarization conditions, were studied by the pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) technique. The results show that a charge peak appears between the SiC-epoxy resin interface, which shows the same polarity as the SiC side electrode. Charge injects from the SiC electrode, transports along with the SiC semiconductor bulk due to the high mobility, and is blocked by the interface barrier. In addition, under high temperature and high electrical stress conditions, obvious charge accumulation occurs inside the epoxy resin bulk, which was captured by the deep traps. The charge accumulation of the SiC-insulation packaging material can influence the operation of the power device and should attract more attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2022.879438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9086185PMC
April 2022

Urchin-like magnetic microspheres for cancer therapy through synergistic effect of mechanical force, photothermal and photodynamic effects.

J Nanobiotechnology 2022 May 12;20(1):224. Epub 2022 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, P.O. Box 329#, Shanghai, 200237, People's Republic of China.

Background: Magnetic materials mediated by mechanical forces to combat cancer cells are currently attracting attention. Firstly, the magnetic force penetrates deeper into tissues than the NIR laser alone to destroy tumours. Secondly, the synergistic effect of nano-magnetic-material characteristics results in a viable option for the targeted killing of cancer cells. Therefore, mechanical force (MF) produced by magnetic nanomaterials under low frequency dynamic magnetic field combined with laser technology is the most effective, safe and efficient tool for killing cancer cells and tumour growth.

Results: In this study, we synthesized novel urchin-like hollow magnetic microspheres (UHMMs) composed of superparamagnetic FeO. We demonstrated the excellent performance of UHMMs for killing laryngocarcinoma cancer cells through mechanical force and photothermal effects under a vibrating magnetic field and near-infrared laser, respectively. The killing efficiency was further improved after loading the synthesised UHMMs with Chlorin e6 relative to unloaded UHMMs. Additionally, in animal experiments, laryngocarcinoma solid tumour growth was effectively inhibited by [email protected] through magneto-mechanic force, photothermal and photodynamic therapy.

Conclusions: The biocompatibility and high efficiency of multimodal integrated therapy with the UHMMs prepared in this work provide new insights for developing novel nano therapy and drug loading platforms for tumour treatment. In vivo experiments further demonstrated that UHMMs/Ce6 are excellent tools for strongly inhibiting tumour growth through the above-mentioned characteristic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-022-01411-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9097396PMC
May 2022

Effect of e-cigarette refill liquid on follicular development and estrogen secretion in rats.

Tob Induc Dis 2022 8;20:36. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Key Laboratory of Fertility Preservation and Maintenance of Ministry of Education, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, China.

Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently become popular as an alternative to conventional cigarettes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of e-cigarette refill liquid (e-liquid) on follicular development and estrogen secretion in rats and whether it is related to the Hippo signaling pathway, a pathway that can regulate follicle growth.

Methods: Ovaries from 21- and 35-day-old rats were divided into three groups: control (no intervention), 0.05 mg, and 0.5 mg (e-liquids containing 0.5 mg and 5 mg of nicotine/kg). The rates were cultured for three hours . At the end of culture, HE staining was performed to observe the follicle morphology and calculate the percentage of normal follicles, and the expression of Yes-associated protein (YAP, target factors of the Hippo signaling pathway) and CYP19 (aromatase, a key enzyme in estrogen synthesis) were observed by immunohistochemistry. Western blotting was performed to detect the expression levels of CYP19, YAP, phosphorylated YAP (PYAP), large tumor suppressor 2 (LATS2, factors upstream of YAP in the Hippo signaling pathway), and phosphorylated LATS2 (PLATS2). Estrogen concentrations were determined using ELISA.

Results: HE staining showed that the percentage of normal follicles decreased, and immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of CYP19 and YAP significantly decreased after e-liquid intervention. ELISA showed that the estrogen concentration in the ovaries decreased after e-liquid intervention. Western blot results indicated that CYP19, LATS2, and YAP expression, decreased after e-liquid intervention, but PLATS2 and PYAP expression increased.

Conclusions: We found that the e-liquids may impair the development of rat ovarian follicles and reduce estrogen secretion through Hippo signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/tid/146958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8988604PMC
April 2022

MrgprF acts as a tumor suppressor in cutaneous melanoma by restraining PI3K/Akt signaling.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2022 05 4;7(1):147. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052, China.

The incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) has been increasing annually worldwide. In this study, we identify that MrgprF, a MAS related GPR family member, is decreased in cutaneous melanoma tissues and cell lines due to hypermethylation of its promoter region, and show that patients with CM expressing high levels of MrgprF exhibit an improved clinical outcome. We demonstrate that MrgprF forced expression inhibits tumor cell proliferation, migration, xenograft tumor growth, and metastasis. On the contrary, MrgprF knockdown promotes tumor cell proliferation and transformation of immortalized human keratinocyte-HaCaT cells, supporting the inhibitory role of MrgprF during tumor progression. Mechanistic studies reveal that MrgprF reduces the phosphoinositol‑3‑kinase (PI3K) complex formation between p101 and p110γ subunits, the critical step for phosphatidylinositol-(3, 4)-P2 (PIP2) conversion to phosphatidylinositol-(3, 4, 5)-P3 (PIP3), and then reduces the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling. This effect can be reversed by Akt specific agonist SC79. In addition, AMG 706, a previously documented inhibitor for endothelial cell proliferation, is identified as a potential agonist for MrgprF, and can impede tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings suggest that MrgprF, a novel tumor suppressor in cutaneous melanoma, may be useful as a therapeutic target in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-022-00945-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9065076PMC
May 2022

Sequential activation of M1 and M2 phenotypes in macrophages by Mg degradation from Ti-Mg alloy for enhanced osteogenesis.

Biomater Res 2022 Apr 28;26(1):17. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, People's Republic of China.

Background: Even though the modulatory effects of Magnisum (Mg) and its alloys on bone-healing cells have been widely investigated during the last two decades, relatively limited attention has been paid on their inflammation-modulatory properties. Understanding the activation process of macrophages in response to the dynamic degradation process of Mg as well as the relationship between macrophage phenotypes and their osteogenic potential is critical for the design and development of advanced Mg-based or Mg-incorporated biomaterials.

Methods: In this work, a Ti-0.625 Mg (wt.%) alloy fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) and subsequent spark plasma sintering (SPS) was employed as a material model to explore the inflammatory response and osteogenic performance in vitro and in vivo by taking pure Ti as the control. The data analysis was performed following Student's t-test.

Results: The results revealed that the macrophages grown on the Ti-0.625 Mg alloy underwent sequential activation of M1 and M2 phenotypes during a culture period of 5 days. The initially increased environmental pH (~ 8.03) was responsible for the activation of M1 macrophages, while accumulated Mg within cells contributed to the lateral M2 phenotype activation. Both M1 and M2 macrophages promoted osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cell maturation. In vivo experiment further showed the better anti-inflammatory response, regenerative potentiality and thinner fibrous tissue layer for the Ti-0.625 Mg alloy than pure Ti.

Conclusion: The results highlighted the roles of Mg degradation in the Ti-0.625 Mg alloy on the sequential activation of macrophage phenotypes and the importance of modulating M1-to-M2 transition in macrophage phenotypes for the design and development of inflammation-modulatory biomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40824-022-00262-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9052665PMC
April 2022

Anodic Shock-Triggered Exsolution of Metal Nanoparticles from Perovskite Oxide.

J Am Chem Soc 2022 May 26;144(17):7657-7666. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.

Nanoparticles decorated electrodes (NDEs) are useful in fuel cells, electrolyzers, water treatment, and chemical synthesis. Here, we show that by rapidly bringing a mixed ionic-electronic conductor outside its electrochemical stability window, one can achieve uniform dispersion of metallic nanoparticles inside its bulk and at the surface and improve its electrocatalytic performance when back under normal functional conditions. Surprisingly, this can happen under anodic as well as cathodic current/voltage shocks in an ABO perovskite oxide, LaCaTiFeNiO (LCTFN), across a wide range of H/O gas environments at 800 °C. One possible mechanism for bulk Fe/Ni precipitation under anodic shock condition is the incomplete oxygen oxidation (O → O, 0 < α < 2), migration and escape of oxygen to interfaces, and "whiplash" transition-metal reduction due to low electronic conductivity. We show that both cathodic and anodic shocks can produce NDEs to enhance electrocatalytic performance, potentially improving the flexibility of this approach in practical devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c12970DOI Listing
May 2022

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of artemisinin resistance-related pfubp1 and pfap2mu genes in imported Plasmodium falciparum to Wuhan, China.

Infect Genet Evol 2022 Jul 22;101:105286. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan 442000, China; Department of Infectious Diseases, Renmin Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan 442000, China. Electronic address:

Background: Molecular markers for monitoring resistance could help improve malaria treatment policies. Delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum by artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) has been reported in several countries. In addition to PfKelch13 (pfk13), new drug resistance genes, P. falciparum ubiquitin-specific protease 1 (pfubp1) and the eadaptor protein complex 2 mu subunit (pfap2mu), have been identified as being linked to ACTs. This study investigated the prevalence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in clinical P. falciparum isolates pfubp1 and pfap2mu imported from Africa and Southeast Asia (SEA) to Wuhan, China, to provide baseline data for antimalarial resistance monitoring in this region.

Methods: Peripheral venous blood samples were collected in Wuhan, China, from August 2011 to December 2019. The Pfubp1 and pfap2mu SNPs of P. falciparum were determined by nested PCR and Sanger sequencing.

Results: In total, 296 samples were collected. Subsequently, 92.23% (273/296) were successfully amplified and sequenced for Pfubp1. There were 60.07% (164/273) wild-type strains and 39.93% (109/273) mutant strains. The pfap2mu gene was divided into three fragments for amplification, and 82.77% (245/296), 90.20% (267/296) and 94.59% (280/296) were sequenced successfully. Genotypes reportedly associated with ACTs resistance detected in this study included pfubp1 D1525E as well as E1528D and pfap2mu S160N. The mutation prevalence rates were 10.99% (30/273), 13.19% (36/273) and 11.24% (30/267), respectively. These are all focused on Congo, Nigeria and Angola. Known delayed-clearance parasite mutations have also been found in SEA.

Conclusions: The existence of mutation sites of known clearance genes detected in the isolates in this study, including D1525E and E1528D in the pfubp1 gene and S160N in the pfap2mu gene, further proved the risk of ACTs resistance. Constant vigilance is therefore needed to protect the effectiveness of ACTs and to prevent the spread of drug-resistant P. falciparum. Further studies in malaria-endemic countries are needed to further validate potential genetic markers for monitoring parasite populations in Africa and SEA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2022.105286DOI Listing
July 2022

Single-Cation Catalyst: Ni Cation in Monolayered CuO for CO Oxidation.

J Am Chem Soc 2022 May 25;144(19):8430-8433. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

BNLMS, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

It is vital to differentiate catalytic properties between cationic and metallic single atoms at the atomic level. To achieve this, we fabricated well-defined cationic Ni atoms snugged in and metallic Ni atoms supported on monolayered CuO. The Ni cations are chemically inert for CO adsorption even at 70 K but highly active toward O dissociation at room temperature. The adsorbed O atoms are active to oxidize incoming CO molecules from the gas phase into CO, which follows the Eley-Rideal mechanism, in contrast to the Mars-van Krevelen mechanism on CuO-monolayer-supported metallic Ni atoms as well as our previously reported Au and Pt model catalysts. This study helps understand the chemistry of a supported single-metal cation, which is of great importance in heterogeneous catalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c12785DOI Listing
May 2022

Boosting with variant-matched or historical mRNA vaccines protects against Omicron infection in mice.

Cell 2022 Apr 28;185(9):1572-1587.e11. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Pathology & Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA; Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA; Andrew M. and Jane M. Bursky Center for Human Immunology and Immunotherapy Programs, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA; Center for Vaccines and Immunity to Microbial Pathogens, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

The large number of spike substitutions in Omicron lineage variants (BA.1, BA.1.1., and BA.2) could jeopardize the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. We evaluated in mice the protective efficacy of the Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccine against BA.1 before or after boosting. Whereas two doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies against historical WA1/2020 strains, lower levels against BA.1 were associated with breakthrough infection and inflammation in the lungs. A primary vaccination series with mRNA-1273.529, an Omicron-matched vaccine, potently neutralized BA.1 but inhibited historical or other SARS-CoV-2 variants less effectively. However, boosting with either mRNA-1273 or mRNA-1273.529 vaccines increased neutralizing titers and protection against BA.1 and BA.2 infection. Nonetheless, the neutralizing antibody titers were higher, and lung viral burden and cytokines were slightly lower in mice boosted with mRNA-1273.529 and challenged with BA.1. Thus, boosting with mRNA-1273 or mRNA-1273.529 enhances protection against Omicron infection with limited differences in efficacy measured.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2022.03.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8958157PMC
April 2022

mRNA-1273 or mRNA-Omicron boost in vaccinated macaques elicits similar B cell expansion, neutralizing responses, and protection from Omicron.

Cell 2022 Apr 25;185(9):1556-1571.e18. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Bioqual, Inc., Rockville, MD 20850, USA.

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron is highly transmissible and has substantial resistance to neutralization following immunization with ancestral spike-matched vaccines. It is unclear whether boosting with Omicron-matched vaccines would enhance protection. Here, nonhuman primates that received mRNA-1273 at weeks 0 and 4 were boosted at week 41 with mRNA-1273 or mRNA-Omicron. Neutralizing titers against D614G were 4,760 and 270 reciprocal ID at week 6 (peak) and week 41 (preboost), respectively, and 320 and 110 for Omicron. 2 weeks after the boost, titers against D614G and Omicron increased to 5,360 and 2,980 for mRNA-1273 boost and 2,670 and 1,930 for mRNA-Omicron, respectively. Similar increases against BA.2 were observed. Following either boost, 70%-80% of spike-specific B cells were cross-reactive against WA1 and Omicron. Equivalent control of virus replication in lower airways was observed following Omicron challenge 1 month after either boost. These data show that mRNA-1273 and mRNA-Omicron elicit comparable immunity and protection shortly after the boost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2022.03.038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8947944PMC
April 2022

A Rapid and Specific Genotyping Platform for Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistance via Allele-Specific PCR with a Lateral Flow Assay.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 04 13;10(2):e0271921. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, China.

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and genotyping related to genetic detection are several of the focuses of contemporary biotechnology development. Traditional methods are complex, take a long time, and rely on expensive instruments. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a rapid, simple, and accurate method convenient for use in resource-poor areas. Thus, a platform based on allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) combined with a lateral flow assay (LFA) was developed, optimized, and used to detect the genotype of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter gene (). Subsequently, the system was assessed by clinical isolates and compared with Sanger sequencing. The sensitivity and specificity of the AS-PCR-LFA platform were 95.83% (115/120) and 100% (120/120), respectively, based on the clinical isolates. The detection limit of plasmid DNA was approximately 3.38 × 10 copies/μL. In addition, 100 parasites/μL were used for the dried filter blood spots from clinical isolates. The established rapid genotyping technique is not limited to antimalarial drug resistance genes but can also be applied to genetic diseases and other infectious diseases. Thus, it has realized the leap and transformation from scientific research theory to practical application and actively responds to the point-of-care testing policy. Accurate recognition of the mutation and genotype of genes are essential for the treatment of infectious diseases and genetic diseases. Based on the techniques of allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) and a lateral flow assay (LFA), a rapid and useful platform for mutation detection was developed and assessed with clinical samples. It offers a powerful tool to identify antimalarial drug resistance and can support malaria control and elimination globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.02719-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9045167PMC
April 2022

Failure Analysis of a C-276 Alloy Pipe in a Controlled Decomposition Reactor.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Mar 28;15(7). Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Optoelectronics and Materials Technology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan.

Failure analysis was carried out on a ruptured C-276 pipe heated externally at 1050 °C, which had been used for a few months in a controlled decomposition reactor (CDR) system. To catch the decomposed perfluorinated compounds (PFCs, e.g., CF, SF, NF, CF and CF) present in the exhaust gas, the C-276 reactor was periodically purged with water mist, which caused a temperature gradient from the external to the inner surface of the pipe. The precipitation of large amounts of intermetallic compounds along the grain boundaries were found to be corroded preferentially. The internal surface of the used pipe was covered with many fine cracks. The corrosion and cracking of grain boundary precipitates accounted for the short service life of the C-276 pipe. Compositional measurements by electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and phase identification by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) confirmed the presence of δ and μ phases in the ruptured pipe. The coarse intergranular precipitates were the δ phase (MoNi), which were enriched in Mo and Cr. Moreover, the fine precipitates dispersed intergranularly and intragranularly were the μ phase (MoNi), which were abundant in Mo and W. The numerous precipitates present in the matrix and along the grain boundaries were responsible for an obvious loss in the strength and ductility of the used C-276 pipe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15072483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8999651PMC
March 2022
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