Publications by authors named "Kai Liu"

1,794 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Electrically Enhanced Exchange Bias via Solid-State Magneto-ionics.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Physics Department, University of California, Davis, California 95616, United States.

Electrically induced ionic motion offers a new way to realize voltage-controlled magnetism, opening the door to a new generation of logic, sensor, and data storage technologies. Here, we demonstrate an effective approach to magneto-ionically and electrically tune the exchange bias in Gd/NiCoO thin films ( = 0.50 and 0.67), where neither of the layers alone is ferromagnetic at room temperature. The Gd capping layer deposited onto antiferromagnetic NiCoO initiates a solid-state redox reaction that reduces an interfacial region of the oxide to ferromagnetic NiCo. An exchange bias is established after field cooling (FC), which can be enhanced by up to 35% after a voltage conditioning and subsequently reset with a second FC. These effects are caused by the presence of an interfacial ferromagnetic NiCo layer, which further alloys with the Gd layer upon FC and voltage application, as confirmed by electron microscopy and polarized neutron reflectometry studies. These results highlight the viability of the solid-state magneto-ionic approach to achieve electric control of exchange bias, with potential for energy-efficient magneto-ionic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c11126DOI Listing
August 2021

Phosphorus availability increases pathobiome abundance and invasion of rhizosphere microbial networks by Ralstonia.

Environ Microbiol 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China.

Soil disease-suppressiveness depends on complex interactions among pathogens, native microbiota, and physicochemical properties, while these interactions remain understudied. Comparing field and microcosm experiments, we investigated the significance of these interactions in disease emergence or suppression using structural equation modeling (SEM) and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses. We observed significant differences in the relative abundance of pathogenic and beneficial microbes, alpha and beta diversity indices between disease-conducive and -suppressive rhizosphere soils. The pathogenic (Ralstonia) and beneficial (Bacillus) taxa dominated disease-conducive and -suppressive rhizosphere soils, respectively. Moreover, the co-occurrences of Ralstonia with native microorganisms were positive and negative in the disease-conducive and -suppressive soils, respectively. These results suggest the supportive (Rudaea) and suppressive (Enterobacter, Bacillus) role of indigenous microbes in the invasion of soil and plant systems by Ralstonia. The SEM and ROC analysis predicted that Ralstonia invaded rhizospheric microbial networks and caused peanut wilt under high than low soil phosphorus conditions. Our results suggest the importance of soil phosphorus availability in altering the microbial interactions, thus leading to soil invasion by Ralstonia. Thus, we conclude by saying that feeding soil with high amounts of available phosphorus could deplete plant-beneficial microbes and increase the pathobiome abundance that may compromise plant health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15696DOI Listing
August 2021

Bergapten: A review of its pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity.

Phytother Res 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Bergapten is a natural furocoumarin, also known as 5-methoxypsoralen, and its medicinal value has been paid more and more attention. By sorting out the pharmacological literature of bergapten, we found that bergapten has a wide range of pharmacological effects, including neuroprotection, organ protection, anticancer, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, and antidiabetes effects. However,bergapten has complex impacts on the hepatic metabolic enzyme. Moreover, pharmacokinetic studies showed that bergapten has higher absolute bioavailability and can cross the blood-brain barrier and has a great potential for treating brain disease, but the mechanism needs further clarification to make greater use of its ability to treat brain diseases. Furthermore, the phototoxicity of bergapten combined with ultraviolet light has always been mentioned. In view of its wide range of pharmacological activities, bergapten is expected to be a potential drug candidate for the treatment of diabetes and diabetes-induced osteoporosis, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, depression, and cancer. However, further studies are needed to elucidate its molecular mechanisms and targets. The phototoxicity of bergapten as a side effect should be further avoided. On the other hand, the photoactivation of bergapten in the anticancer aspect can be better utilized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7221DOI Listing
August 2021

Bilobalide: A review of its pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and safety.

Phytother Res 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Bilobalide is a natural sesquiterpene trilactone from Ginkgo biloba leaves. It has good water solubility and is widely used in food and pharmaceutical fields. In the last decade, a plethora of studies on the pharmacological activities of bilobalide has been conducted and demonstrated that bilobalide possessed an extensive range of pharmacological activities such as neuroprotective, antioxidative, antiinflammatory, anti-ischemic, and cardiovascular protective activities. Pharmacokinetic studies indicated that bilobalide may have the characteristics of rapid absorption, good bioavailability, wide distribution, and slow elimination. This review aims to summarize the advances in pharmacological, pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and safety studies of bilobalide in the last decade with an emphasis on its neuroprotective and antiinflammatory activities, to provide researchers with the latest information and point out the limitations of relevant research at the current stage and the aspects that should be strengthened in future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7220DOI Listing
August 2021

Assessing urban atmospheric environmental efficiency and factors influencing it in China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

School of Economics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, 250358, China.

With rapid urbanization and industrialization in developing countries, cities have become the major sources of air pollution. Studying urban atmospheric environmental efficiency has an important reference value for the prevention and control of air pollution. This study used data from 267 cities in China between 2001 and 2016 to assess the urban atmospheric environmental efficiency using the super-efficiency slacks-based measure model, to test the spatial characteristics of urban atmospheric environmental efficiency using the spatial autocorrelation method, and to identify factors influencing it using the Geodetector. The results are as follows: (1) The atmospheric environmental efficiency of most cities in China is increasing. The average efficiency in the entire country exhibits an upward "wavy" trend. The average urban atmospheric environmental efficiency in Eastern China is the highest, and that in Western China is the lowest. (2) The urban atmospheric environmental efficiency exhibits the characteristic of global spatial autocorrelation, and high-high and low-low are the main types of efficiency in local spatial autocorrelation. (3) Population density, industrialization, and science and technology are the main factors influencing urban atmospheric environmental efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15692-7DOI Listing
August 2021

Application Research of Individualized Conditional Reprogramming System to Guide Treatment of Gastric Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 16;11:709511. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Jinan, China.

Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common causes of malignant tumors in the world. Due to the high heterogeneity of GC and lack of specificity of available chemotherapy regimens, these tumors are prone to resistance, recurrence, and metastasis. Here, we formulated an individualized chemotherapy regimen for GC using a modified individual conditional reprogramming (i-CR) system. We established a primary tumor cell bank of GC cells and completed drug screening in order to realize individualized and accurate GC treatment.

Methods: We collected specimens from 93 surgical or gastroscopy GC cases and established a primary tumor cell bank using the i-CR system and PDX models. We also completed culture and drug sensitivity screening of the GC cells using the i-CR system. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) of the i-CR cells was performed using P0 and P5. We then chose targeted chemotherapy drugs based on the i-CR system results.

Results: Of the 72 cases that were collected from surgical specimens, 26 cases were successfully cultured with i-CR system, and of the 21 cases collected from gastroscopy specimens, seven were successfully cultured. Among these, 20 cases of the PDX model were established. SRC ± G3 had the highest culture success rate. The i-CR cells of P0 and P5 appeared to be highly conserved. According to drug sensitivity screening, we examined the predictive value of responses of GC patients to chemotherapeutic agents, especially in neoadjuvant patients.

Conclusion: The i-CR system does not only represent the growth characteristics of tumors , but also provides support for clinical drug use. Drug susceptibility results were relatively consistent with clinical efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.709511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322696PMC
July 2021

Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Amino Acid Polyamine Organocation Transporter Family Genes Reveal Their Role in Fecundity Regulation in a Brown Planthopper Species ().

Front Physiol 2021 14;12:708639. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Innovative Institute for Plant Health, College of Agriculture and Biology, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou, China.

The brown planthopper (BPH), Stål (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), is one of the most destructive pests of rice worldwide. As a sap-feeding insect, the BPH is incapable of synthesizing several amino acids which are essential for normal growth and development. Therefore, the insects have to acquire these amino acids from dietary sources or their endosymbionts, in which amino acid transporters (AATs) play a crucial role by enabling the movement of amino acids into and out of insect cells. In this study, a common amino acid transporter gene family of amino acid/polyamine/organocation (APC) was identified in BPHs and analyzed. Based on a homology search and conserved functional domain recognition, 20 putative APC transporters were identified in the BPH genome. Molecular trait analysis showed that the verified BPH APC family members were highly variable in protein features, conserved motif distribution patterns, and exon/intron organization. Phylogenetic analysis of five hemipteran species revealed an evolutionary pattern of interfamily conservation and lineage-specific expansion of this gene family. Moreover, stage- and tissue-specific expression analysis revealed diverse expression patterns in the 20 BPH APC transporter genes. Lastly, a potential BPH fecundity regulatory gene of was identified and shown to participate in the fecundity regulation through the use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and RNA inference experiments. Our results provide a basis for further functional investigations of APC transporters in BPH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.708639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8316623PMC
July 2021

Balanced fertilization over four decades has sustained soil microbial communities and improved soil fertility and rice productivity in red paddy soil.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 24;793:148664. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

The influence of long-term fertilization on soil microbial communities is critical for revealing the association between belowground microbial flora and aboveground crop productivity-a relationship of great importance to food security, environmental protection, and ecosystem functions. Here, we examined shifts in soil chemical properties, microbial communities, and the nutrient uptake and yield of rice subjected to different chemical and organic fertilization treatments over a 40-year period in red paddy soil. Ten different treatments were used: a control without fertilizer, and applications of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), NP, NK, PK, NPK, double NPK, or NPK plus manure. Compared with the effects of withholding one or two nutrients (N, P, or K), the balanced application of chemical NPK and organic fertilizers markedly improved soil nutrient status and rice yield. This improvement of soil fertility and rice yield was not associated with bacterial, archaeal, or fungal alpha diversities. The bacterial abundance and community structure and archaeal abundance effectively explained the variation in rice yield, whereas those of fungi did not. The community structure of bacteria and archaea, but not that of fungi, was correlated with soil properties. Among various soil properties, P was the key factor influencing rice yield and soil microbial communities because of the extremely low content of soil available P. Seven keystones at the operational taxonomic unit level were identified: four archaea (belonging to Thermoplasmata, Methanosaeta, Bathyarchaeia, and Nitrososphaeraceae) and three bacteria (in Desulfobacteraceae and Acidobacteriales). These keystones, which were mainly related to soil C and N transformation and pH, may work cooperatively to influence rice yield by regulating soil fertility. Our results collectively suggest that four decades of balanced fertilization has sustained the bacterial and archaeal abundances, bacterial community structure, and keystones, which potentially contribute to soil fertility and rice yield in red paddy soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148664DOI Listing
June 2021

SAC1 regulates autophagosomal phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate for xenophagy-directed bacterial clearance.

Cell Rep 2021 Jul;36(4):109434

Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; Center for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Klarman Cell Observatory, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Electronic address:

Phosphoinositides are important molecules in lipid signaling, membrane identity, and trafficking that are spatiotemporally controlled by factors from both mammalian cells and intracellular pathogens. Here, using small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases, we screen for regulators of the host innate defense response to intracellular bacterial replication. We identify SAC1, a transmembrane phosphoinositide phosphatase, as an essential regulator of xenophagy. Depletion or inactivation of SAC1 compromises fusion between Salmonella-containing autophagosomes and lysosomes, leading to increased bacterial replication. Mechanistically, the loss of SAC1 results in aberrant accumulation of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate [PI(4)P] on Salmonella-containing autophagosomes, thus facilitating recruitment of SteA, a PI(4)P-binding Salmonella effector protein, which impedes lysosomal fusion. Replication of Salmonella lacking SteA is suppressed by SAC-1-deficient cells, however, demonstrating bacterial adaptation to xenophagy. Our findings uncover a paradigm in which a host protein regulates the level of its substrate and impairs the function of a bacterial effector during xenophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8327279PMC
July 2021

Dual-Mode Learning of Ambipolar Synaptic Phototransistor Based on 2D Perovskite/Organic Heterojunction for Flexible Color Recognizable Visual System.

Small 2021 Jul 28:e2102820. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, P. R. China.

Artificial intelligence vision systems (AIVSs) with information sensing, processing, and storage functions are increasingly gaining attention in the science and technology community. Although synapse phototransistor (SPT) is one of the essential components in AIVSs, solution-processed large-area photonic synapses that can detect and recognize multi-wavelength light are highly desirable. One of the major challenges in this area is the inability of the available materials to distinguish colors from the visible light to the near-infrared (NIR) light for single carrier (hole-only or electron-only) SPTs owing to lack of cognitive elements. Herein, 2D perovskite/organic heterojunction (PEA SnI /Y6) ambipolar SPTs (POASPTs) are developed via solution process. The POASPTs can display dual-mode learning process, which can convert light signals into postsynaptic currents with excitement/inhibition modes (hole-transporting region) or inhibition/excitement (electron-transporting region). The POASPTs exhibit high responsivity to visible light (10 A W ) and NIR light (200 A W ), and effectively perform learning and memory simultaneously. The flexible POASPT arrays can successfully recognize the images of different colors of light. This study reveals that the fabricated POASPTs have great potentials in the development of large-area, high-efficiency, and low-cost AIVSs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202102820DOI Listing
July 2021

Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts the outcome of cerebral venous thrombosis.

Curr Neurovasc Res 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Neurology, Zhengzhou University First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

Background: Increasing evidences suggest that neutrophil-to- lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between NLR and prognosis in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) has not been studied.

Methods: Consecutive CVT patients from November 2011 through April 2019 were retrospectively identified. Poor outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of 3-6. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between total and differential leukocyte counts, NLR and clinical outcome in CVT patients. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was further performed to evaluate the ability to predict mortality and subgroup analysis was conducted to explore the potential interaction effects.

Results: A total of 360 CVT patients were included and the median duration of follow-up was 9.0 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that NLR value, as a continuous variable, was significantly associated with a high risk of poor outcome (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.06, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.01-1.11, P = 0.013) and mortality (adjusted OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.14; P = 0.002). Compared with the total and differential leukocyte counts, the best discriminating variable to predict the risk of mortality was NLR and the area under the receiver operating curve was 0.81. The optimal cut-off value of NLR to predict mortality was 5.6 (sensitivity 84.2%, specificity 69.9%). Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with high NLR level group (>5.6) (adjust hazard ratio=5.65, 95% CI 2.33-12.73, P<0.001). There was no potential heterogeneity in the further subgroup analysis across age (above vs. below 45 years old), sex, history of infections and pregnancy/postpartum, presence of coma and intracerebral hemorrhage.

Conclusion: Elevated NLR value is associated with high risk of poor outcome in CVT patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567202618666210726122310DOI Listing
July 2021

[Roles of ERK/JNK in carbon black induced AP-1 cell signaling pathway changes].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 Jul;50(4):533-538

National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To investigate the role of ERK/JNK in the alteration of activator protein-1(AP-1) signaling pathway in human embryonic lung fibroblasts(HELFs) induced by carbon black.

Methods: HELFs were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium containing 0, 15, 30, 60, 120 or 240 μg/mL carbon black for 24 h, and the appropriate dose of carbon black was determined by MTT assay result. HELFs were divided into three groups: HELFs, HELFs transfected with ERK dominant negative mutant plasmid(DN-ERK) and HELFs transfected with JNK dominant negative mutant plasmid(DN-JNK). 100 μg/mL carbon black was used to treat HELFs(CB), DN-ERK HELFs(CB-DN-ERK), DN-JNK HELFs(CB-DN-JNK), and HELFs without any treatment were considered as control group. At 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 36 h of CB and control groups HELFs, the western blot was used to detect ERK, p-ERK, JNK, p-JNK, p38, p-p38, c-Jun, p-c-Jun, c-Fos, p-c-Fos protein expression levels, and AP-1 activity was detected by luciferase method. Whereas CB-DN-ERK and CB-DN-JNK HELFs were detected only at 24 h.

Results: Compared with the protein expression levels at 0 h, CB group HELFs ERK and p-ERK protein expression increased at each time point, whereas p38 protein expression decreased. AP-1 activity of CB group HELFs was declined to the lowest at 8 h(0.72±0.12), and upregulated to the peak at 36 h(1.38±0.11). CB group HELFs c-Fos, p-c-Fos and c-Jun protein expression levels at each time point from 1 h to 24 h were greater than those of 0 h, and p-c-Jun protein expression levels at 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 36 h were also greater than those of 0 h. CB group HELFs AP-1 activity, ERK, p-ERK, JNK, p-JNK, p38, p-p38, c-Jun, p-c-Jun, c-Fos, p-c-Fos protein expression levels changes followed biphasic patterns. There were no statistically significant differences in AP-1 activity between CB group HELFs(1.03±0.10) and CB-DN-ERK group(1.02±0.04) or CB-DN-JNK group(1.09±0.10) HELFs(t=0.16, P=0.88; t=0.73, P=0.50). However, compared with CB group HELFs, c-Fos(t=5.31, P=0.01), p-c-Fos(t=4.33, P=0.01), p-c-Jun(t=10.95, P& lt; 0.01)in CB-DN-JNK group, and c-Fos protein expression levels in CB-DN-ERK group(t=42.72, P& lt; 0.01)were significantly decreased.

Conclusion: While carbon black induces HELFs increased protein expression levels of ERK, p-ERK, c-Jun, p-c-Jun, c-Fos and p-c-Fos, JNK may upregulate c-Fos, p-c-Fos, p-c-Jun protein expression levels, and ERK may upregulate c-Fos protein expression level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2021.04.001DOI Listing
July 2021

[Responses of Different Degradation Stages of Alpine Wetland on Soil Microbial Community in the Yellow River Source Zone].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Aug;42(8):3971-3984

Qinghai Provincial Grassland Station, Xining 810008, China.

MiSeq sequencing technology was used to analyze the microbial community diversity of soil in alpine wetlands to understand the degradation processes and environmental factors in these areas. The results showed that the severity of soil degradation changed the species diversity of soil microorganisms at the level of OTUs, and grass patches contained more species than frozen-thawing patches. The soil fungi species of OTUs changed significantly. The diversity indexes of bacteria (between the frozen-thawing patches and the grass patches) were higher than that of fungi. The dominant microbial species were consistent among different degradation stages. The dominant species of bacteria and fungi were Proteobacteria and RB41, and Ascomycota and , respectively. The abundance of dominant microorganisms was significantly between un-degraded and heavily degraded areas, except for RB41 (<0.05). The dominant microorganisms in the grass patches were more sensitive than those in the frozen-thawing patches. It was found that the main factors affecting the microbial community structure of soil were water content, organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, and sedge coverage. Microbial diversity may decrease in heavily degraded alpine wetlands. Thus, the frozen-thawing patches and sedge species should be first protected, and the supplements of soil water content, soil organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, and nitrogen should be strengthened for alpine wetland restoration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202011072DOI Listing
August 2021

Environmental effects of prohibiting urban fireworks and firecrackers in Jinan, China.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jul 24;193(8):512. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

College of Geography and Environment, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, 250358, China.

Eight national air quality monitoring stations were selected to examine the environmental effects of prohibiting fireworks and firecrackers since January 1, 2018, in Jinan, China, by using an air quality index (AQI) on three time scales. In 2014-2018, the average annual AQI decreased year on year, but a downward trend in 2018 was only found by applying a Daniel trend test. The change in monthly data for 2016-2018 followed a "W" pattern. The overall AQI value was lower on New Year's Eve than during Spring Festival, and the 2-day AQI in 2018 was lower than that in 2017. The GIS analysis method was used for spatial visualization. The AQI in the built-up part of Jinan was high in the west and low in the east on New Year's Eve and Spring Festival of 2017, being lowest in the Development Zone. The AQI spatial distribution was high in the city core but low in its periphery; in 2018, the high-AQI center appeared near the Provincial Seed Warehouse on New Year's Eve and Spring Festival. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between AQI and pollutants. Six pollutants were found to be positively correlated with the AQI. PM and PM had the strongest correlations on New Year's Eve and Spring Festival, for which the correlations of SO, CO, and NO were significantly weaker in 2018 than in 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-09315-4DOI Listing
July 2021

PLA2G4A promotes right-sided colorectal cancer progression by inducing CD39+γδ Tregs polarization.

JCI Insight 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Colorectal Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, China.

γδ T cell is a promising candidate cell in tumor immunotherapy. However, γδ T cells polarized to CD39+γδ Tregs upon colorectal cancer (CRC) induction and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we discovered that the frequency of CD39+γδ Tregs, which positively correlated with poor prognosis, was significantly higher in right-sided CRC (RSCRC) than in the left-sided CRC (LSCRC). Interestingly, CD39+γδ Tregs from RSCRC showed stronger immunosuppressive phenotype and function than LSCRC. Further, the quantitative mass spectrometry data showed that CD39+γδ Tregs polarization was related to the abnormal activation of the PLA2G4A/AA metabolic pathway in RSCRC. Using an in vitro co-culture system and an orthotopic murine model of CRC, we proved that the overexpression of Pla2g4a in CT26 cells induced CD39+γδ Tregs inhibiting the anti-tumor immune response. Finally, we found that the overall survival of the PLA2G4Ahigh group was significantly shortened compared to PLA2G4Alow RSCRC, while the survival of LSCRC was on the contrary. Collectively, RSCRC with abnormal PLA2G4A expression educates γδ T cells into CD39+γδ Tregs to promote tumor progression and metastasis. Our work highlights the interaction between cancer cells and immune cells by distinguishing the primary tumor site and deepens the understanding of tumor microenvironment and immunosuppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.148028DOI Listing
July 2021

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: an immunotarget for sepsis and COVID-19.

Cell Mol Immunol 2021 08 19;18(8):2057-2058. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-021-00719-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287545PMC
August 2021

Smoking induces the occurrence of colorectal cancer via changing the intestinal permeability.

J BUON 2021 May-Jun;26(3):1009-1015

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Baogang Hospital, Baogang, China.

Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancer. Its occurrence is closely linked to lifestyle and diet habits, such as excessive intake of high-fat food, but their impact on CRC, however, remain unclear.

Methods: Eligible CRC patients were retrospectively analyzed. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in smokers and non-smokers of CRC patients were assessed. APCmin/+ mice were exposed to cigarette smoking, followed by detection of CRC growth and intestinal permeability.

Results: A total of 416 eligible CRC patients were recruited, involving 218 (52.4%) smokers and 198 (47.6%) non-smokers. OS was shorter in CRC smokers than in non-smokers (p=0.005), whereas smoking did not affect RFS in CRC patients (p=0.251). Cigarette smoking increased CRC tumor numbers of CRC in APCmin/+ mice. Proliferation and apoptosis of colorectal epithelial cells, and inflammatory response in mice were changed following smoking. Notably, the treatment of probiotics mixture VSL#3 decreased the number of CRC tissues and intestinal permeability in APCmin/+ mice exposed to cigarette smoking.

Conclusions: Smoking increases the susceptibility to CRC through damaging the intestinal permeability. Protecting the intestinal permeability significantly protects intestinal tracts.
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July 2021

Change in left ventricular velocity time integral during Trendelenburg maneuver predicts fluid responsiveness in cardiac surgical patients in the operating room.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Jul;11(7):3133-3145

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Fluid responsiveness is an important topic for clinicians. We investigated whether changes in left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) velocity time integral (VTI) during a Trendelenburg position (TP) maneuver can predict fluid responsiveness as a non-invasive marker in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients in the operating room.

Methods: This prospective, single-center observational study, performed in the operating room, enrolled 65 elective CABG patients. Hemodynamic data coupled with transesophageal echocardiography monitoring of the LVOT VTI and the peak velocity were collected at each step [baseline 1, TP, baseline 2 and fluid challenge (FC)]. Patients whose VTI increased ≥15% after FC (500 mL of Gelofusine infusion within 30 min) were considered responders.

Results: Twenty-eight (43.1%) patients were responders to fluid administration. VTI changes during the TP maneuver predicted fluid responsiveness with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.90 (95% CI, 0.79-0.96), with a sensitivity of 100%, and a specificity of 70% at a threshold of 10% (gray zone, 8-15%). The increase in VTI during the TP was correlated with the VTI changes induced by FC (r=0.61, P<0.0001). Changes in peak velocity and pulse pressure during the TP were poorly predictive of fluid responsiveness, with an AUC of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.60-0.82) and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.53-0.77), respectively.

Conclusions: An increase in VTI induced by the TP could predict fluid responsiveness in CABG patients in the operating room. However, changes in peak velocity and pulse pressure stimulated by the TP could not reliably predict fluid responsiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8250022PMC
July 2021

Attractive Pickering Emulsion Gels.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 9:e2102362. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

College of Energy Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, P. R. China.

Properties of emulsions highly depend on the interdroplet interactions and, thus, engineering interdroplet interactions at molecular scale are essential to achieve desired emulsion systems. Here, attractive Pickering emulsion gels (APEGs) are designed and prepared by bridging neighboring particle-stabilized droplets via telechelic polymers. In the APEGs, each telechelic molecule with two amino end groups can simultaneously bind to two carboxyl functionalized nanoparticles in two neighboring droplets, forming a bridged network. The APEG systems show typical shear-thinning behaviors and their viscoelastic properties are tunable by temperature, pH, and molecular weight of the telechelic polymers, making them ideal for direct 3D printing. The APEGs can be photopolymerized to prepare APEG-templated porous materials and their microstructures can be tailored to optimize their performances, making the APEG systems promising for a wide range of applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202102362DOI Listing
July 2021

Improvement of dielectric properties and energy storage performance in sandwich-structured P(VDF-CTFE) composites with low content of GO nanosheets.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jul 26;32(42). Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Artificial Intelligence and Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, People's Republic of China.

Polymer-based dielectric capacitors play a notable part in the practical application of energy storage devices. Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets can improve the dielectric properties of polymer-based composites. However, the breakdown strength will greatly reduce with the increase of GO content. Hence, the construction of sandwich structure can enhance the breakdown strength without reducing the dielectric constant. Herein, single-layered and sandwich-structured poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-CTFE)) nanocomposites with low content of GO nanosheets (<1.0 wt%) are prepared via employing a straightforward casting method. Compared with the single-layered composites and pure P(VDF-CTFE), the sandwich-structured composites exhibit comprehensively better performance compared. The sandwich-structured composite with 0.4 wt% GO nanosheets show an excellent dielectric constant of 13.6 (at 1 kHz) and an outstanding discharged energy density of 8.25 J cmat 3400 kV cm. These results demonstrate that the growth of the dielectric properties is owing to 2D GO nanosheets and the enhancement of breakdown strength due to the sandwich structure. The results from finite element simulation provide theoretical support for the design of high energy density composites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac1295DOI Listing
July 2021

Synergistic covalent-and-supramolecular polymers connected by [2]pseudorotaxane moieties.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jul;57(60):7374-7377

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, P. R. China.

Synergistic covalent-and-supramolecular polymers, in which covalent polymers and supramolecular polymers connect with each other through [2]pseudorotaxane moieties, are designed and synthesized. The unique topological structure effectively enhances the synergistic effect between these two polymers, thereby generating a novel class of mechanically adaptive materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc02873aDOI Listing
July 2021

Serum Immunoglobulin G level and Neutrophils to Lymphocytes Ratio Associated with the Prognosis of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder.

Curr Neurovasc Res 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Objective: To investigate the factors related to the prognosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood examination.

Methods: In this study, we collected 111 patients who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between January 2016 and January 2018 and diagnosed with NMOSD. The patients were divided into the relapse group (n=48) and remission group (n=67). Before treatment, all the patients underwent a routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood test on the second morning of admission. The association between laboratory data and disease prognosis was evaluated.

Results: The immunoglobulin G (IgG) level in the serum showed a strong correlation with the relapse of patients, especially in the aquaporin-4-Antibody (AQP4-Ab) positive group (p<0.01). A high level of serum IgG concentration was associated with the relapse of NMOSD, especially in the anti-AQP4 positive group. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of serum IgG level was 0.888 (p<0.001, 95%CI: 0.808-0.968). The ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes (NLR) was associated with the disability degree of NMOSD patients in 3 years. The NLR value was a linear correlation with final Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores. Patients with a high level of NLR value presented an increased degree of disability in the following three years (R2=0.053, p=0.015).

Conclusion: The serum IgG level and NLR of first-attack patients were correlated with the prognosis of NMOSD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567202618666210702113526DOI Listing
July 2021

Endometrial Cancer: genetic, metabolic characteristics, therapeutic strategies and nanomedicine.

Curr Med Chem 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

College of Medical Science, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, China.

Background: Endometrial cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the female population worldwide. It was estimated that 65,620 new cases and 12,590 subsequent deaths occurred in 2020 in the United States. Patients with type II and advanced endometrial cancer do not respond well to the current treatments. Therefore, endometrial cancer should be better understood in order to develop more effective treatments.

Objective: To provide an overview of genetic, metabolic characteristics, therapeutic strategies and current application of nanotechnology surrounding endometrial cancer.

Method: Relevant articles were retrieved from Pubmed and were systematically reviewed.

Results: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and Von Hippel-Lindau factor participated in oncogenesis and progression of endometrial cancer, and Nrf2 was associated with oncogenesis. Various genetic alterations were found in endometrial cancer. The examination of the abnormal X chromosome inactivation may help with the diagnosis of endometrial cancer and its precancerous lesions. Some absent tumor suppressor genes, activated oncogenes were revealed by the genetically modified mouse models. Disorders in glucose and lipid metabolism were found in endometrial cancer. Current therapeutic strategies focused on the HIF-1α pathway, the mTOR pathway as well as immunotherapy. Nanotechnology showed great potential in endometrial cancer's early diagnosis, metastasis determination and treatment.

Conclusion: Endometrial cancer has been understood in various aspects, but the underlying mechanisms still remain relatively unknown, which might be the source of novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets. Nanomedicine in endometrial cancer is poorly studied, but the current researches showed great results in treating endometrial cancer. It needs further researching.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867328666210705144456DOI Listing
July 2021

Hypoxic ADSCs-derived EVs promote the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of cartilage stem/progenitor cells.

Adipocyte 2021 Dec;10(1):322-337

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Shanghai, PR China.

Cartilage tissue engineering is a promising option for repairing cartilage defects, although harvesting a large number of seeding cells remains a major challenge. Cartilage stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs) seem to be a promising cell source. Hypoxic extracellular vesicles (EVs) may play a major role in cell-cell and tissue-tissue communication. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxic adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs)-derived EVs on CSPCs proliferation and differentiation. The characteristics of ADSCs-derived EVs were identified, and proliferation, migration, and cartilage-related gene expression of CSPCs were measured with or without the presence of hypoxic ADSCs-derived EVs. SEM, histological staining, biochemical and biomechanical analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of hypoxic ADSCs-derived EVs on CSPCs in alginate hydrogel culture. The results indicated that the majority of ADSC-derived EVs exhibited a round-shaped or cup-shaped morphology with a diameter of 40-1000 nm and expressed CD9, CD63, and CD81. CSPCs migration and proliferation were enhanced by hypoxic ADSCs-derived EVs, which also increased the expression of cartilage-related genes. The hypoxic ADSCs-derived EVs induce CSPCs to produce significantly more cartilage matrix and proteoglycan. In conclusion, hypoxic ADSCs-derived EVs improved the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of CSPCs for cartilage tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21623945.2021.1945210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259721PMC
December 2021

Control of XY25 Over Clubroot Disease and Its Effect on Rhizosphere Microbial Community in Chinese Cabbage Field Trials.

Front Microbiol 2021 18;12:641556. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Clubroot caused by is one of the most destructive diseases in cruciferous crops. XY25 , a biological control agent, exhibited great ability to relieve clubroot disease, regulate rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities in Chinese cabbage, and promote its growth in greenhouse. Therefore, field experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of XY25 on clubroot and rhizosphere microbial community in Chinese cabbage. Results showed that the control efficiency of clubroot by XY25 was 69.4%. Applying the agent can alleviate soil acidification; increase the contents of soil organic matter, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium; and enhance activities of invertase, urease, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase. During Chinese cabbage growth, bacterial diversity decreased first and then increased, and fungal diversity decreased gradually after inoculation with XY25 . High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that the main bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, and Planctomycetes, and the major fungal phyla were Ascomycota and Basidiomycota in rhizosphere soil. The dominant bacterial genera were , , , , , , and with no significant difference in abundance, and the major fungal genera were , , , , , , , , and . The significant differences were observed among , , , two strains attributed to , and another two unidentified fungi by using XY25 . Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR results indicated that content was significantly decreased after the agent inoculation. In conclusion, XY25 can affect rhizosphere microbial communities; therefore, applying the agent is an effective approach to reduce the damage caused by clubroot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.641556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8253263PMC
June 2021

Grain-Boundary Engineering of Monolayer MoS for Energy-Efficient Lateral Synaptic Devices.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 4:e2102435. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Synaptic devices based on 2D-layered materials have emerged as high-efficiency electronic synapses and neurons for neuromorphic computing. Lateral 2D synaptic devices have the advantages of multiple functionalities by responding to diverse stimuli, but they consume large amounts of energy, far more than the human brain. Moreover, current lateral devices employ several mechanisms based on conductive filaments and grain boundaries (GBs), but their formation is random and difficult to control, also hindering their practical applications. Here, four-terminal, lateral synaptic devices with artificially engineered GBs are reported, which are made from monolayer MoS . With lithography-free, direct-laser-writing-controlled MoS /MoS O GBs, such synaptic devices exhibit short-term and long-term plasticity characteristics that are responsive to electric and light stimulation simultaneously. This enables detailed simulations of biological learning and cognitive processes as well as image perception and processing. In particular, the device exhibits low energy consumption, similar to that of the human brain and much lower than those of other lateral 2D synaptic devices. This work provides an effective way to fabricate lateral synaptic devices for practical application development and sheds light on controllable electrical state switching for neuromorphic computing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202102435DOI Listing
July 2021

Therapeutic potential of catalpol and geniposide in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases: A snapshot of their underlying mechanisms.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Sep 1;174:281-295. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China. Electronic address:

Rehmannia glutinosa, the fresh or dried root of Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertn.) Libosch. ex Fisch. & Mey., and Gardenia, the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis from Rubiaceae, both are famous traditional Chinese medicines that have been traditionally used in China. Catalpol and geniposide, as two kinds of iridoid glycosides with high activities, are the main bioactive components in Rehmannia glutinosa and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, respectively. Over the past few decades, catalpol and geniposide have been widely studied for their therapeutic effects. The preclinical experiments demonstrated that they possessed significant neuroprotective activities against Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, and depression, etc. In this paper, the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of catalpol and geniposide on Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease from 2005 to now were systematically summarized and comprehensively analyzed. At the same time, the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the analyzed compounds were also described, hoping to provide some enlightenment for the design, research, and development of iridoid glycosides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.06.020DOI Listing
September 2021

Combined use of low T3 syndrome and NT-proBNP as predictors for death in patients with acute decompensated heart failure.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Jul 2;21(1):140. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Heart Failure Center, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, 167 Beilishi Road, 100037, Beijing, China.

Background: In patients with established HF, low triiodothyronine syndrome (LT3S) is commonly present, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a useful marker for predicting death. This study was aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of LT3S in combination with NT-proBNP for risk of death in patients with heart failure (HF).

Methods: A total of 594 euthyroid patients hospitalized with acute decompensated HF were enrolled by design. Of these patients, 27 patients died during hospitalization and 100 deaths were identified in patients discharged alive during one year follow-up. Patients were divided into 2 groups on the base of the reference ranges of free T3 (FT3) levels: LT3S group (FT3 < 2.3pg/mL, n = 168) and non-LT3S group (FT3 ≥ 2.3pg/mL, n = 426).

Results: In multivariable Cox regression, LT3S was significantly associated with 1 year all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.85; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 2.82; P = 0.005), but not significant for in-hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.58; 95 % CI, 1.58 to 2.82; P = 0.290) after adjustment for clinical variables and NT-proBNP. Addition of LT3S and NT-proBNP to the prediction model with clinical variables significantly improved the C statistic for predicting 1 year all-cause mortality.

Conclusions: In patients with acute decompensated HF, the combination of LT3S and NT-proBNP improved prediction for 1 year all-cause mortality beyond established risk factors, but was not strong enough for in-hospital mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-021-00801-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8252209PMC
July 2021

[Simultaneous determination of four opioids in urine by solid-phase extraction and derivatization coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

Se Pu 2020 Nov;38(11):1348-1354

Huangshi Public Security Bureau, Huangshi 435000, China.

Police officers currently use the colloidal gold rapid testing method to detect heroin in the urine of drug abusers, but the results are often rendered erroneous due to the presence of antitussive drugs, which contain opioids. The traditional manual liquid-liquid extraction method for urine testing has low efficiency and poor sensitivity, and hence, it fails to meet the requirements of the public security department to crack down on drug abusers. Therefore, to avoid punishment, most rapid-test-positive people make false claims about intaking cough suppressants. It is imperative to establish a highly efficient automatic method for the simultaneous determination of multiple opioids in urine, to rule out the use of heroin. A method based on solid-phase extraction and derivatization coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the simultaneous detection of morphine, -acetylmorphine, codeine, and acetyl codeine in urine. Since these four opioids exists as cations in acidic aqueous solution, the urine samples collected from dead bodies or drug addicts were adjusted to pH 6 by using phosphate buffer, enriched, and purified by MCX-SPE columns. Then, morphine, -acetylmorphine, and codeine were derivatized by -methyl--(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) for GC-MS testing. The effects of sample loading and elution flow rate, percentage of formic acid in the wash solvent (methanol), percentage of ammonia in the eluent (methanol), volume of the wash solvent, and drying time of the cartridge on the extraction efficiency were investigated in detail. The best results were obtained under the following conditions:sample loading and elution flow rate, 1.0 mL/min; volume fraction of formic acid in the wash solvent, 3%; volume fraction of ammonia in the eluent solvent, 5%; volume of 3% (v/v) formic acid in methanol (eluent), 1 mL; and drying time of the cartridge, 1 min. The GC-MS results showed good linearity in the range of 0.02-0.8 μg/mL with correlation coefficients () ≥ 0.998. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.0016-0.0039 μg/mL and 0.0054-0.0128 μg/mL, respectively. The recoveries of the target analytes were between 93.0% and 110.3% at spiked levels of 0.02, 0.1, and 0.2 μg/mL. As opposed to similar reported methods, our method showed high sensitivity and recovery; furthermore, the matrix interference was eliminated, and the chromatographic peaks of the analytes were completely separated from the impurity peaks at the level of 0.2 μg/mL. The automatic solid-phase extraction equipment is convenient to operate and allows one to process samples in batches. The conditions for solid-phase extraction can be precisely controlled, and the detection accuracy is greatly improved. In addition, a large number of sample tests can be performed by a few experimenters. Hence, this method facilitates simple and rapid forensic toxicology testing and drug abuse monitoring on a large scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1123.2020.06002DOI Listing
November 2020

Long-Term Tri-Modal In Vivo Tracking of Engrafted Cartilage-Derived Stem/Progenitor Cells Based on Upconversion Nanoparticles.

Biomolecules 2021 Jun 29;11(7). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China.

Cartilage-derived stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs) are a potential choice for seed cells in osteal and chondral regeneration, and the outcomes of their survival and position distribution in vivo form the basis for the investigation of their mechanism. However, the current use of in vivo stem cell tracing techniques in laboratories is relatively limited, owing to their high operating costs and cytotoxicity. Herein, we performed tri-modal in vivo imaging of CSPCs during subcutaneous chondrogenesis using upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) for 28 days. Distinctive signals at accurate positions were acquired without signal noise from X-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and upconversion luminescence. The measured intensities were all significantly proportional to the cell numbers, thereby enabling real-time in vivo quantification of the implanted cells. However, limitations of the detectable range of cell numbers were also observed, owing to the imaging shortcomings of UCNPs, which requires further improvement of the nanoparticles. Our study explores the application value of upconversion nanomaterials in the tri-modal monitoring of implanted stem cells and provides new perspectives for future clinical translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11070958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8301782PMC
June 2021
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