Publications by authors named "Kai Lin"

202 Publications

Dual-construct fixation is recommended in ipsilateral femoral neck fractures with infra-isthmus shaft fracture: A STROBE compliant study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(17):e25708

Department of Orthopedic, Kaohsiung veteran general hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors related to osteosynthesis failure in patients with concomitant ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures, including old age; smoking habit; comminuted fragments; infra-isthmus fracture; angular malreduction; unsatisfactory reduction (fracture gap >5 mm); and treatment with single construct.Patients over the age of 20 with concomitant ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures diagnosed at a level one medical center between 2003 and 2019 were included. Treatment modalities included single construct with/without an antirotational screw for the neck and dual constructs. Radiographic outcomes were assessed from anteroposterior and lateral hip radiographs at follow-up. Fisher exact test was used to analyze categorical variables. The presence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head, delayed union, atrophic or hypertrophic nonunion of the femoral shaft fracture, and loss of reduction were identified as factors related to treatment failure.A total of 22 patients were included in this study. The average age was 58.5 years, and the majority was male (68.2%). The minimum radiographic follow-up duration was 12 months, and the median follow-up time was 12 (interquartile range 12-24) months.Femoral neck osteosynthesis failed in 3 patients, whereas femoral shaft osteosynthesis failed in 12 patients. Fisher exact test demonstrated the failure of femoral shaft osteosynthesis was significantly more frequent in the single-construct cohort in 16 infra-isthmus femoral fracture cases (P = .034).In ipsilateral femoral neck and infra-isthmus shaft fractures, it is better to treat the neck and shaft fractures with separate implants (dual constructs).In a dual-construct cohort, separate plate fixation of the femoral shaft achieved a better result in terms of bone union than retrograde nailing of the shaft (bone union rate: 4/8 vs 0/2).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084000PMC
April 2021

Auto-classification of biomass through characterization of their pyrolysis behaviors using thermogravimetric analysis with support vector machine algorithm: case study for tobacco.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 Apr 27;14(1):106. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, Fujian, China.

Background: During the biomass-to-bio-oil conversion process, many studies focus on studying the association between biomass and bio-products using near-infrared spectra (NIR) and chemical analysis methods. However, the characterization of biomass pyrolysis behaviors using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with support vector machine (SVM) algorithm has not been reported. In this study, tobacco was chosen as the object for biomass, because the cigarette smoke (including water, tar, and gases) released by tobacco pyrolysis reactions decides the sensory quality, which is similar to biomass as a renewable resource through the pyrolysis process.

Results: SVM algorithm has been employed to automatically classify the planting area and growing position of tobacco leaves using thermogravimetric analysis data as the information source for the first time. Eighty-eight single-grade tobacco samples belonging to four grades and eight categories were split into the training, validation, and blind testing sets. Our model showed excellent performances in both the training and validation set as well as in the blind test, with accuracy over 91.67%. Throughout the whole dataset of 88 samples, our model not only provides precise results on the planting area of tobacco leave, but also accurately distinguishes the major grades among the upper, lower, and middle positions. The error only occurs in the classification of subgrades of the middle position.

Conclusions: From the case study of tobacco, our results validated the feasibility of using TGA with SVM algorithm as an objective and fast method for auto-classification of tobacco planting area and growing position. In view of the high similarity between tobacco and other biomasses in the compositions and pyrolysis behaviors, this new protocol, which couples the TGA data with SVM algorithm, can potentially be extrapolated to the auto-classification of other biomass types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-021-01942-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8077845PMC
April 2021

Caspase-11-Mediated Hepatocytic Pyroptosis Promotes the Progression of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Pathology, Affiliated Wuxi No.2 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, China. Electronic address:

Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an inflammatory disease with severe outcomes. Hepatocyte death, including apoptosis, necrosis, and pyroptosis, has been implicated in pathophysiology of NASH. Pyroptosis is mediated by inflammasome activation pathways including caspase-1-mediated canonical signaling pathway and caspase-11-mediated noncanonical signaling pathway. Until now, the precise role of caspase-11 in NASH remains unknown. In the present study, the potential roles of caspase-11 in NASH were explored.

Methods: We established methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD)-induced NASH mice model using wild-type caspase-11-deficient mice. The expression of caspase-11, liver injury, fibrosis, inflammation, and activation of gasdermin D and interleukin-1β were evaluated.

Results: Upregulated caspase-11 was detected in liver of mice with NASH. MCD-treated caspase-11-deficient mice had significantly decreased liver injury, fibrosis, and inflammation. The activation of gasdermin D and interleukin-1β was inhibited in caspase-11-deficient mice after MCD treatment. Overexpression of caspase-11 promoted steatohepatitis.

Conclusions: Caspase-11-mediated hepatocytic pyroptosis promotes the progression of NASH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2021.04.009DOI Listing
April 2021

Cine MRI characterizes HFpEF and HFrEF in post-capillary pulmonary hypertension.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Jun 26;139:109679. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, 737 N Michigan Avenue, Suite 1600, Chicago, IL, 60611, United States.

Purpose: To test the hypothesis that cine MRI can be used to characterize features of left and right ventricles in post-capillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) caused by heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).

Methods: With the approval of institution review board (IRB), 28 consecutive post-capillary PH patients (11 males, 62.1 ± 13.4 years old, range 39-89 years old) underwent cine MRI scans. Cine MRI-derived left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) and other function, motion, and deformation indices (acquired with heart deformation analysis [HDA]) were compared between PH-HFpEF (defined as LVEF ≥ 50 %]) and PH-HFrEF (LVEF < 50 %) patients and were related with right ventricular (RV) indices and right heart catheterization (RHC)-derived pulmonary artery measurements.

Results: Totally 19 patients (68 %, 95 % confident interval [CI] 49 %-86 %) were assigned to PH-HFpEF group while 9 (32 %) was assigned to the PH-HFrEF group. There were differences of LV and right ventricular (RV) global functional indices, LV mass, LV displacement, velocity, strain and strain rate between the two patient groups. Cine MRI-derived LV indices had broad associations with RV indices and RHC measurements. LVEF was negatively correlated with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) (r = -0.5, p = 0.007). LV cardiac index (LVCI) was associated with systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) (r = 0.443, p = 0.018).

Conclusions: PH-HFpEF and PH-HFrEF patients present dissimilar function, motion and deformation features in LV and RV. Cine MRI-derived LV measures are correlated with hemodynamic abnormalities of PH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2021.109679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167925PMC
June 2021

Psychological Distress Reported by Primary Care Physicians in China During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Psychosom Med 2021 05;83(4):380-386

From the Department of General Practice (Zeng, Peng, Hao, Zou), Chengdu Fifth People's Hospital, Chengdu University of TCM, Chengdu; Family Medicine Centre (Lin), The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou; The Department of General Practice (Liao), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu; The Department of Geriatric Medicine (Chen), Chengdu Fifth People's Hospital, Chengdu University of TCM, Chengdu, China; and The Department of Primary Care and Public Health (Hayhoe), Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Objective: Primary care physicians (PCPs) play a key role in responding to the COVID-19 epidemic. The objective of this study was to explore the influencing factors associated with self-reported psychological distress among a sample of PCPs in China in relation to COVID-19.

Methods: An online survey was distributed to a sample of PCPs in Chengdu city between February 10 and February 13, 2020. The survey consisted of three sections: demographic characteristics, COVID-19-related questions, and the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). After 5 months, a follow-up survey investigating the change of the GHQ-12 was conducted.

Results: A total of 712 PCPs completed the baseline survey (11.8% of those invited), 55.6% were female and 74.4% were aged between 30 and 49 years. High levels of psychological distress (GHQ-12 ≥3) were observed in 29.2% and were associated with low preparedness, high work impact, working with infected residents, personal life impact, and concerns, as well as older age and being married (p values < .05). Logistic regression analysis showed that psychological distress was associated with low preparedness (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.87-0.96), high work impact (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.03-1.20), personal life impact (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.07-1.17), and safety-related concerns (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02-1.16). At the 5-month assessment point, high psychological distress was less frequent (21.8%).

Conclusions: COVID-19 has resulted in high levels of distress in approximately 30% of PCPs in China. Factors associated with high psychological distress levels include low preparedness and high levels of work impact, personal life impact, and concerns. These findings highlight the importance of enhancing psychological health throughout the course of infectious pandemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000939DOI Listing
May 2021

EDP-938, a novel nucleoprotein inhibitor of respiratory syncytial virus, demonstrates potent antiviral activities in vitro and in a non-human primate model.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Mar 15;17(3):e1009428. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Enanta Pharmaceuticals Inc., Watertown, Massachusetts, United States of America.

EDP-938 is a novel non-fusion replication inhibitor of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). It is highly active against all RSV-A and B laboratory strains and clinical isolates tested in vitro in various cell lines and assays, with half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50s) of 21, 23 and 64 nM against Long (A), M37 (A) and VR-955 (B) strains, respectively, in the primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). EDP-938 inhibits RSV at a post-entry replication step of the viral life cycle as confirmed by time-of-addition study, and the activity appears to be mediated by viral nucleoprotein (N). In vitro resistance studies suggest that EDP-938 presents a higher barrier to resistance compared to viral fusion or non-nucleoside L polymerase inhibitors with no cross-resistance observed. Combinations of EDP-938 with other classes of RSV inhibitors lead to synergistic antiviral activity in vitro. Finally, EDP-938 has also been shown to be efficacious in vivo in a non-human primate model of RSV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993833PMC
March 2021

Cine MRI detects elevated left heart pressure in pulmonary hypertension.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Jul 9;54(1):275-283. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an emerging modality for evaluating left ventricular (LV) motion/deformation patterns, which may have potential to identify LV dysfunctions underlying postcapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that cine MRI-derived LV motion/deformation indices can be used to identify an elevated left heart pressure in PH. This was a retrospective study, which included 26 precapillary and 28 postcapillary PH patients (23 males, 58.9 ± 13.5 years old). All patients underwent right heart catheterization (the "reference standard") and cardiac MRI. Balanced steady-state free precession cine sequence acquired at 1.5 T was used. Cine MRI datasets were analyzed by using heart deformation analysis. LV motion/deformation indices were measured through 25 phases within a cardiac cycle. Peak LV displacement, velocity, strain, and strain rates at systole, early and late diastole were compared between the two patient groups using t-tests. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to investigate the association between cine MRI-derived indices and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were applied to assess the ability of MRI-derived parameters to predict PCWP and postcapillary PH. Compared to 26 precapillary PH patients, the 28 postcapillary PH patients had lower peak late radial diastolic displacement (0.43 ± 0.19 cm vs. 0.64 ± 0.18 cm) and velocity (12.2 ± 5.8 mm/s vs. 18.9 ± 5.6 mm/s) and peak late radial (52.1 ± 32.7%/s vs. 97.1 ± 38%/s) and circumferential (38 ± 19.8%/s vs. 63.1 ± 22.9%/s) strain rates. PCWP was correlated with peak late radial diastolic displacement (r = -0.54) and velocity (r = -0.57) and peak late radial (r = -0.63) and circumferential diastolic (r = -0.63) strain rates. Peak late radial strain rate could predict PCWP (β = -0.09) and postcapillary PH (β = -0.036). All p < 0.05. Cine MRI-derived LV late diastolic motion/deformation properties can be used to estimate elevated left heart pressure in PH. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27504DOI Listing
July 2021

Autonomous, Real-Time Monitoring Electrochemical Aptasensor for Circadian Tracking of Cortisol Hormone in Sub-microliter Volumes of Passively Eluted Human Sweat.

ACS Sens 2021 01 31;6(1):63-72. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, Texas 75080, United States.

The proposed work involves the development of an autonomous, label-free electrochemical sensor for real-time monitoring of cortisol levels expressed naturally in sub-microliter sweat volumes, for prolonged sensing periods of ∼8 h. Highly specific single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamer is used for affinity capture of cortisol hormone eluted in sweat dynamically. The cortisol present in sweat binds to the aptamer capture probe that changes conformation and modulates electrochemical properties at the electrode-buffer interface, which was studied using dynamic light scattering studies for the entire physiological sweat pH. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to optimize the binding chemistry of the elements of the sensor stack. Nonfaradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to calibrate the sensor for a dynamic range of 1-256 ng/mL. An of 0.97 with an output signal range of 20-50% was obtained. Dynamic cortisol level variation tracking was studied using continuous dosing experiments to calibrate the sensor for temporal variation. The sensor did not show significant susceptibility to noise due to cross-reactive interferents and nonspecific buffer constituents. The performance of the developed aptasensor was compared with the previously established cortisol immunosensor in terms of surface charge behavior and nonfaradaic biosensing. The aptamer sensor shows a higher signal-to-noise ratio, better resolution, and has a larger output range for the same input range as the cortisol immunosensor. The feasibility of deploying the developed aptasensing scheme as continuous lifestyle and performance monitors was validated through human subject studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.0c01754DOI Listing
January 2021

Bleeding of two lumbar arteries caused by one puncture following percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2020 Nov;8(22):5790-5794

Urology, Hanchuan People's Hospital, Hanchuan 432300, Hubei Province, China.

Background: Lumbar artery bleeding is an uncommon complication of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). This report presents a rare complication where two lumbar arteries were injured by a single puncture following PCNL. Only scarce reports of this complication have been reported.

Case Summary: A 24-year-old man presented with a 2.2 cm right renal calculus, which was managed by PCNL. During nephrostomy tube removal on the 6 postoperative day, intense bleeding was observed in the fistula and the catheter. Renal angiography was undertaken immediately; however, an initial selective renal angiogram revealed no evidence of renal vascular injury. One of these injuries involved a pseudoaneurysm from a peripheral branch in the first right lumbar artery, while the other involved an arteriovenous fistula from a peripheral branch in the second right lumbar artery. Subsequently, coil embolization was performed successfully.

Conclusion: This case is being reported to inform clinicians that lumbar artery damage is one of the causes of severe bleeding after PCNL and could involve damage of more than one artery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v8.i22.5790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716318PMC
November 2020

Global emergence and evolutionary dynamics of bluetongue virus.

Sci Rep 2020 12 10;10(1):21677. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

VISAVET Health Surveillance Centre and Animal Health Department, Veterinary School, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Bluetongue virus (BTV) epidemics are responsible for worldwide economic losses of up to US$ 3 billion. Understanding the global evolutionary epidemiology of BTV is critical in designing intervention programs. Here we employed phylodynamic models to quantify the evolutionary characteristics, spatiotemporal origins, and multi-host transmission dynamics of BTV across the globe. We inferred that goats are the ancestral hosts for BTV but are less likely to be important for cross-species transmission, sheep and cattle continue to be important for the transmission and maintenance of infection between other species. Our models pointed to China and India, countries with the highest population of goats, as the likely ancestral country for BTV emergence and dispersal worldwide over 1000 years ago. However, the increased diversification and dispersal of BTV coincided with the initiation of transcontinental livestock trade after the 1850s. Our analysis uncovered important epidemiological aspects of BTV that may guide future molecular surveillance of BTV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78673-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7729867PMC
December 2020

Female Same-Sex Bidirectional Intimate Partner Violence in China.

J Interpers Violence 2020 Oct 22:886260520959624. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Although there exists a growing body of research on female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) as well as bidirectional intimate partner violence (BIPV) among lesbian women, much of this literature focuses on the IPV experience of women living in Western societies such as the United States. The current study represents the very first to explore BIPV among lesbian women in China. In this study, we analyze a survey sample of 225 self-identified lesbian women in China to examine FSSBIPV patterns, pattern-specific rates, and risk factors of FSSBIPV. Using the Latent Class Analysis technique, we discover three main patterns of partner abuse, including bidirectional psychological violence (60%), bidirectional violence multiple types with physical abuse (79.1%), and minimal violence (20.9%). Logistic regressions show that there is no significant demographic, socioeconomic, or attitudinal difference between the bidirectional psychological violence group and the minimal violence group while being younger, cohabitating, and holding pro-IPV attitudes significantly predicted higher odds of experiencing multiple types of bidirectional violence. Contributions to the literature, as well as policy implications, are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260520959624DOI Listing
October 2020

Uncovering the protective mechanism of Taohong Siwu decoction against diabetic retinopathy via HIF-1 signaling pathway based on network analysis and experimental validation.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 Oct 6;20(1):298. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

The Seventh People's Hospital of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 358 Datong Road, Pudong, Shanghai, 200137, China.

Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common and serious microvascular complication of diabetes. Taohong Siwu decoction (THSWD), a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, has been proved to have a good clinical effect on DR, whereas its molecular mechanism remains unclear. Our study aimed to uncover the core targets and signaling pathways of THSWD against DR.

Methods: First, the active ingredients of THSWD were searched from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) Database. Second, the targets of active ingredients were identified from ChemMapper and PharmMapper databases. Third, DR associated targets were searched from DisGeNET, DrugBank and Therapeutic Target Database (TTD). Subsequently, the common targets of active ingredients and DR were found and analyzed in STRING database. DAVID database and ClueGo plug-in software were used to carry out the gene ontology (GO) and KEGG enrichment analysis. The core signaling pathway network of "herb-ingredient-target" was constructed by the Cytoscape software. Finally, the key genes of THSWD against DR were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR).

Results: A total of 2340 targets of 61 active ingredients in THSWD were obtained. Simultaneously, a total of 263 DR-associated targets were also obtained. Then, 67 common targets were found by overlapping them, and 23 core targets were identified from protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Response to hypoxia was found as the top GO term of biological process, and HIF-1 signaling pathway was found as the top KEGG pathway. Among the key genes in HIF-1 pathway, the mRNA expression levels of VEGFA, SERPINE1 and NOS2 were significantly down-regulated by THSWD (P < 0.05), and NOS3 and HMOX1 were significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: THSWD had a protective effect on DR via regulating HIF-1 signaling pathway and other important pathways. This study might provide a theoretical basis for the application of THSWD and the development of new drugs for the treatment of DR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-03086-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7542117PMC
October 2020

Cardiac MRI Reveals Late Diastolic Changes in Left Ventricular Relaxation Patterns During Healthy Aging.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 03 2;53(3):766-774. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Cardiac MRI is an emerging modality for evaluating left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction (LVDD), a pathological condition that is prevalent in aging populations. However, there is a lack of reports of MRI-derived LV diastolic properties in late diastole.

Purpose: To test the hypothesis that cine MRI-derived motion/deformation indices can be used to characterize age-related changes on LV relaxation patterns in late diastole.

Study Type: Retrospective.

Population: In all, 412 participants (72.5 ± 4.6 years old, range 65-84) without a documented history of cardiovascular diseases.

Field Strength/sequence: Balanced steady-state free precession(bSSFP) acquired at 1.5T.

Assessment: Participants were divided into younger (65-74 years old, n = 275) and older (75-84 years old, n = 137) groups. Status of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), and lipid disorders were recorded for each participant. Cine MRI datasets were analyzed by using heart deformation analysis (HDA). LV motion/deformation indices (displacement, velocity, strain, and strain rate) were measured through 22 phases within a cardiac cycle.

Statistical Tests: The prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk conditions, LV ejection fraction (LVEF), peak LV regional displacement, velocity, and strain rates at early and late diastole were compared between two participant groups using chi-square tests or t-tests.

Results: Older participants had a significantly lower peak early radial displacement (0.797 ± 0.249 cm vs. 0.876 ± 0.286 cm), radial velocity (19.3 ± 6.3 mm/s vs. 17.5 ± 5.2 mm/s), and circumferential strain rate (64.6 ± 15.7%/s vs. 70.1 ± 17%/s) but a higher peak late circumferential strain rate (69.8 ± 16.3 %/s vs. 66 ± 15.8 %/s) than their younger counterparts.

Data Conclusion: Cine MRI can be used to characterize age-related LV relaxation patterns in late diastole.

Level Of Evidence: 3.

Technical Efficacy Stage: 1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27382DOI Listing
March 2021

Pharmacophore hybridisation and nanoscale assembly to discover self-delivering lysosomotropic new-chemical entities for cancer therapy.

Nat Commun 2020 09 15;11(1):4615. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, 95817, USA.

Integration of the unique advantages of the fields of drug discovery and drug delivery is invaluable for the advancement of drug development. Here we propose a self-delivering one-component new-chemical-entity nanomedicine (ONN) strategy to improve cancer therapy through incorporation of the self-assembly principle into drug design. A lysosomotropic detergent (MSDH) and an autophagy inhibitor (Lys05) are hybridised to develop bisaminoquinoline derivatives that can intrinsically form nanoassemblies. The selected BAQ12 and BAQ13 ONNs are highly effective in inducing lysosomal disruption, lysosomal dysfunction and autophagy blockade and exhibit 30-fold higher antiproliferative activity than hydroxychloroquine used in clinical trials. These single-drug nanoparticles demonstrate excellent pharmacokinetic and toxicological profiles and dramatic antitumour efficacy in vivo. In addition, they are able to encapsulate and deliver additional drugs to tumour sites and are thus promising agents for autophagy inhibition-based combination therapy. Given their transdisciplinary advantages, these BAQ ONNs have enormous potential to improve cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18399-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7493904PMC
September 2020

A proton-coupled folate transporter mutation causing hereditary folate malabsorption locks the protein in an inward-open conformation.

J Biol Chem 2020 11 6;295(46):15650-15661. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA; Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA.

The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT, SLC46A1) is required for folate intestinal absorption and transport across the choroid plexus. Recent work has identified a F392V mutation causing hereditary folate malabsorption. However, the residue properties responsible for this loss of function remains unknown. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we observed complete loss of function with charged (Lys, Asp, and Glu) and polar (Thr, Ser, and Gln) Phe-392 substitutions and minimal function with some neutral substitutions; however, F392M retained full function. Using the substituted-cysteine accessibility method (with -biotinyl aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate labeling), Phe-392 mutations causing loss of function, although preserving membrane expression and trafficking, also resulted in loss of accessibility of the substituted cysteine in P314C-PCFT located within the aqueous translocation pathway. F392V function and accessibility of the P314C cysteine were restored by insertion of a G305L (suppressor) mutation. A S196L mutation localized in proximity to Gly-305 by homology modeling was inactive. However, when inserted into the inactive F392V scaffold, function was restored (mutually compensatory mutations), as was accessibility of the P314C cysteine residue. Reduced function, documented with F392H PCFT, was due to a 15-fold decrease in methotrexate influx , accompanied by a decreased influx K (4.5-fold) and (3-fold). The data indicate that Phe-392 is required for rapid oscillation of the carrier among its conformational states and suggest that this is achieved by dampening affinity of the protein for its folate substrates. F392V and other inactivating Phe-392 PCFT mutations lock the protein in its inward-open conformation. Reach (length) and hydrophobicity of Phe-392 appear to be features required for full activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.014757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7667981PMC
November 2020

Heterocyclic N-Oxides as Small-Molecule Fluorogenic Scaffolds: Rational Design and Applications of Their "On-Off" Fluorescence.

Anal Chem 2020 09 25;92(18):12282-12289. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California 95817, United States.

Small-molecule fluorescent probes are powerful tools in chemical analysis and biological imaging. However, as the foundation of probe design, the meager existing set of core fluorophores have largely limited the diversity of current probes. Consequently, there is a high demand to discover fluorophores with new scaffolds and optimize the existing fluorophores. Here, we put forward a facile strategy of heterocyclic N-oxidation to address these challenges. The introduced N-O bond reconstructs the electron "push-pull" system of heterocyclic scaffolds and dramatically improves their photophysical properties by red-shifting the spectra and increasing the Stokes shift. Meanwhile, the heterocyclic N-O bond also enables a function of the fluorescence switch. It can turn on the fluorescence of pyridine and increase the fluorescence of quinoline and, conversely, decrease the fluorescence of acridines and resorufin. As a further practical application, we successfully utilized the quinoline N-oxide scaffold to design fluorogenic probes for HS () and formaldehyde (FA, ). Given their ultraviolet-visible spectra, both probes with high selectivity and sensitivity could be conveniently used in the naked eye detection of target analytes under illumination with a portable UV lamp. More interestingly, the probes could be effectively used in the imaging of nuclear and cytoplasmic HS or nuclear and perinuclear FA. This potentially overcomes the weaknesses of existing HS or FA probes that can only work in the cytoplasm. These interesting findings demonstrate the ability to rapidly expand and optimize the existing fluorophore library through heterocyclic N-oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c01918DOI Listing
September 2020

A strategy to prevent complications of hyperextension type tibial plateau fracture.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 Jan 26;31(1):71-78. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, 386 Ta-Chung 1st Road, Kaohsiung, 813, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Background: Tibial plateau fractures (TPFs) are the most common among periarticular fractures. Mechanism of injuries is most from varus/valgus and flexion injury. Hyperextension type injuries are rare and easily to be overlooked. We reported 12 cases of this fracture type. Complications of early cases were reported, and treatment strategies of late cases were suggested.

Materials And Methods: From 2010 to 2016, we performed a retrospective analysis of 248 cases of TPFs in our institute and 12 cases of hyperextension bicondylar TPFs were diagnosed. Diagnostic method is from both plain films and CT scans. The features of this injury included sagittal plane malalignment with loss of the normal posterior slope of the tibial plateau, tension failure of the posterior cortex, and compression of the anterior cortex. Surgical approach is predominantly via an anterolateral and/or posteromedial double incision at the first. Then anteromedial with adequate grafting to support the bone defect was modified. Postoperative radiographic analysis, physical examination findings, and complications were reported. Patient reported outcome scores from the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) were recorded.

Results: Twelve patients were followed up for a mean period of 16.6 months (range 12-26 months). The mean time to radiographic bony union was 3.6 months (range 3-9 months, SD 8.5). About complications, the incidence of popliteal artery occlusion received PTA was 8% (1/12). And 3/12 (25%) patients had either partial or complete peroneal nerve injury. 2/12 (16%) patients developed a leg compartment syndrome. 33% (4/12) demonstrated associated injuries including posterolateral complex injuries mostly and posterior cruciate ligament avulsion fracture in one case. The average range of motion of the affected knees was 3.4-130° postoperatively. Analysis of complication about surgery included inadequate reduction and fixation in two cases, insufficient bone grafting in one case. The mean mPTA was significantly improved after fixation (preoperative 82° postoperative 3 months 86°). The mean posterior slope (PTA) was preoperative  - 3° and postoperative 3 months 3°. And mean KOOS was 80.

Conclusions: Hyperextension bicondylar tibial plateau fractures show a special characteristic of changes in posterior tibial slope angle and are easy to be overlooked. Complication rate is high after injury and after ineffective fixation. Choosing correct approach with sufficient grafting and stable fixation for treatment of hyperextension bicondylar tibial plateau fractures should be used to improve patients' outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-020-02739-7DOI Listing
January 2021

Chinese University Students' Attitudes Toward Rape Myth Acceptance: The Role of Gender, Sexual Stereotypes, and Adversarial Sexual Beliefs.

Authors:
Jia Xue Kai Lin

J Interpers Violence 2020 Jul 10:886260520938507. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

California State University, Sacramento, USA.

The present study constructs and tests models that examine the relations between variables of "gender," "sex role stereotyping," and "adversarial sexual beliefs" on rape myth acceptance. The sample is 975 Chinese university students from seven universities in China. Measures include Chinese Rape Myth Acceptance (CRMA), Sex Role Stereotyping (SRS) Scale, and Adversarial Sexual Beliefs (ASB). We use structural equation modeling to investigate whether gender directly affects the acceptance of rape myth, or that these influences are mediated by SRS and ASB, after controlling for several demographic characteristics. Results suggest that SRS and ASB have a direct effect on rape myth acceptance. Gender has no direct effect on rape myth acceptance in three out of the four models, but it significantly (β = -.02, < .05) predicts the . We also discuss the implications and limitations of the study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260520938507DOI Listing
July 2020

Safety and Efficacy of Prophylactic Closed Incision Negative Pressure Therapy after Acute Fracture Surgery.

Injury 2020 Aug 23;51(8):1805-1811. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Orthopaedics, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, 386, Da-Chung 1st Road, Kaohsiung City, 813, Taiwan, ROC; Department of Orthopaedics, National Defense Medical Center, 161, Section 6, Minquan E Rd, Neihu District, Taipei City, Taiwan 114 Taipei city, Taiwan Republic of China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Soft tissue swelling after acute fracture surgery is a challenge which may increase wound dehiscence, delay early range of motion, and increase infection rate postoperatively. This study investigates closed incision negative pressure therapy (ciNPT) using wide-range cover over the incision site and the peripheral swelling trauma zone to promote early active motion and to mitigate joint stiffness, bulla formation, and tendon adhesion.

Methods: Twenty-nine patients were enrolled between January 2018 and December 2018. Patients with high-energy soft tissue trauma and comminuted fractures over distal end of limbs (hand and foot; wrist and ankle) or muscle scarcity areas (tibial shaft or patella) were included. ciNPT was applied over closed incisions in the operating room and subatmospheric pressure (-125 mmHg) initiated continuously for 5~7 days.

Results: In hand and foot patients (n= 8), active motion over all fingers or toes occurred after post-operative Day 2. Mild swelling without any bullous formation was observed over the dorsal aspect of hand. In wrist and ankle patients (n= 16), flexion angle over the finger joints over 90 degrees was observed after 5 days post-surgery. For patients with tibial shaft comminuted fractures with impending compartment syndrome, early active motion of knee and ankle joint was observed as soft tissue swelling and distension pain had subsided after surgery.

Conclusion: The prophylactic ciNPT use in the trauma area after surgery reduced postoperative distension pain and improved early range of motion of the tendon and joint in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2020.05.032DOI Listing
August 2020

Letter: Advances in the Understanding of Meningiomas Involving the Superior Sagittal Sinuses.

Neurosurgery 2020 07;87(1):E74-E76

Department of Neurosurgery 900th Hospital Fujian Medical University Fuzong Clinical College Fuzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa087DOI Listing
July 2020

Beneficial consequences of Lupeol on middle cerebral artery-induced cerebral ischemia in the rat involves Nrf2 and P38 MAPK modulation.

Metab Brain Dis 2020 06 24;35(5):841-848. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Liaocheng people's hospital, No. 67 Dongchang West Road, Liaocheng City, Shandong Province, 252000, People's Republic of China.

Lupeol has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities in many diseases, but its potential effects in cerebral ischemia injury have not been studied to date. In this work we present evidence for a beneficial effect of lupeol in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion (MCAO/R) injury and provide some histological and biochemical evidence for its mechanism of action. A cerebral MCAO rat model was established by vascular occlusion for 2 h, followed by 24 h reperfusion period. The infarct volume, neurological deficits, and brain water content were compared with animals treated during reperfusion with different concentrations of lupeol. Macroscopic parameters, cell viability, pro-inflammatory factors generation, as well as oxidative stress parameters and associated apoptotic signaling cascades were evaluated. Treatment with lupeol significantly reduced the cerebral infarct volume and water content and recovered neuro behavioral functions in affected rats. Lupeol treatment down-regulated the expression of oxidative stress and inflammation factors. In addition, lupeol activated Nrf2, suppressed caspase-3 activity, reduced BAX/Bcl-2 ratio and inhibited phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. The data suggest that lupeol may exert protective effects against cerebral ischemia by suppressing oxidative stress and reduction of inflammation factors possible via activation of nuclear transcription factors and inhibition of cell death pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-020-00565-8DOI Listing
June 2020

Feasibility of bile duct as venous graft for venous reconstruction in pancreatic surgery: An animal experimental study.

Vascular 2020 Aug 2;28(4):450-456. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Pancreas Center, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Objective: Pancreatic cancer is a kind of high malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. The aim is to determine whether the dilated bile duct can be used to reconstruct the vessels.

Methods: An animal model of jugular vein and portal vein reconstruction was established using the bile duct. A total of 20 landrace pigs were selected to undergo jugular vein reconstruction or portal vein reconstruction using the bile duct as a patch or bridge. The patency was evaluated by color Doppler, the reconstructed segments were removed and examined macroscopically and histologically at specified intervals, and the results were compared with synthetic vessels (IMPRA straight, 10s03-19).

Results: The lumen was patent, although a low level thrombosis was observed when jugular or portal vein patching was used. For bridging, stenosis of the lumen was observed, and necrosis appeared when the bile duct was used for bridging, indicating that it is feasible to reconstruct the jugular vein and portal vein with a bile duct patch. However, the bridge was not feasible possibly due to loss of blood supply, and consequent necrosis and fibrosis.

Conclusion: The bile duct is technically feasible, but the outcomes are unsatisfactory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1708538120902653DOI Listing
August 2020

Combined surgical and interventional treatment of tandem carotid artery and middle cerebral artery embolus: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2020 Feb;8(3):630-637

Department of Neurosurgery, Liaocheng Brain Hospital, Liaocheng 252000, Shandong Province, China.

Background: The 2018 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association guidelines for early management of acute ischemic stroke recommend the use of retrievable stents for mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery M1 occlusion that can be treated within 6 h from onset. For cases of carotid artery with ipsilateral middle cerebral artery tandem embolization, the operation is more complicated and challenging. We here report a case of a tandem embolism, and the anatomy of the aortic arch was complex. Direct carotid artery incision and thrombectomy can not only prevent the escape of the carotid embolus but also save time during establishment of the thrombectomy access.

Case Summary: The patient was a 70-year-old man. He was admitted to hospital due to sudden inability to speak and inability to move his right limb for 3 h. Imaging confirmed a diagnosis of a tandem embolism in the left carotid artery with left M1 occlusion. Carotid artery incision thrombectomy combined with stent thrombectomy was performed. The operation was successful, and 24 h later the patient was conscious and mentally competent but had motor aphasia. His bilateral limb muscle strength level was 5, and his neurologic severity scores score was 2.

Conclusion: Carotid artery incision thrombectomy combined with stenting for carotid artery plus cerebral artery tandem embolization is clinically feasible. For patients with a complicated aortic arch and an extremely tortuous carotid artery, carotid artery incision can be chosen to establish the interventional path.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v8.i3.630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7031835PMC
February 2020

Deep learning for irregularly and regularly missing data reconstruction.

Sci Rep 2020 Feb 24;10(1):3302. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, DeepResearch Group, Center for Wave Propagation and Imaging, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Deep learning (DL) is a powerful tool for mining features from data, which can theoretically avoid assumptions (e.g., linear events) constraining conventional interpolation methods. Motivated by this and inspired by image-to-image translation, we applied DL to irregularly and regularly missing data reconstruction with the aim of transforming incomplete data into corresponding complete data. To accomplish this, we established a model architecture with randomly sampled data as input and corresponding complete data as output, which was based on an encoder-decoder-style U-Net convolutional neural network. We carefully prepared the training data using synthetic and field seismic data. We used a mean-squared-error loss function and an Adam optimizer to train the network. We displayed the feature maps for a randomly sampled data set going through the trained model with the aim of explaining how the missing data are reconstructed. We benchmarked the method on several typical datasets for irregularly missing data reconstruction, which achieved better performances compared with a peer-reviewed Fourier transform interpolation method, verifying the effectiveness, superiority, and generalization capability of our approach. Because regularly missing is a special case of irregularly missing, we successfully applied the model to regularly missing data reconstruction, although it was trained with irregularly sampled data only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-59801-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040000PMC
February 2020

Semi-quantitative myocardial perfusion MRI in heart transplant recipients at rest: repeatability in healthy controls and assessment of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

Clin Imaging 2020 May 19;61:62-68. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, 737 N. Michigan Avenue Suite 1600, Chicago, IL 60611, USA; Northwestern University McCormick School of Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Evanston, IL 60208, USA.

Background: Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy (CAV) is a major cause of chronic cardiac allograft failure. Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) are the current diagnostic methods. Myocardial perfusion MRI has become a promising non-invasive method to evaluate myocardial ischemia, but has not been thoroughly validated in CAV. Our objective was to assess the repeatability of myocardial rest-perfusion MRI in healthy volunteers and its feasibility in detecting CAV in transplant patients (Tx).

Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers and twenty transplant patients beyond the first year post- transplant underwent cardiac MRI at 1.5 T at rest including first-pass perfusion imaging in short axis (base, mid, apex) after injection of gadolinium. Volunteers underwent repeated cardiac MRI on different days (interval = 15.6 ± 2.4 days) to assess repeatability. Data analysis included semi-automatic contouring of endocardial and epicardial borders of the left ventricle (LV) and quantification of peak perfusion, time-to-peak (TTP) perfusion, and upslope of the perfusion curve.

Results: Between scans and re-scans in healthy volunteers, peak signal intensity, slope, and TTP demonstrated moderate agreement (ICC = 0.53, 0.48, and 0.59, respectively; all, p < .001). Peak signal intensity, slope, and TTP were moderately variable with COV values of 23%, 42%, and 35%, respectively. Peak perfusion was significantly reduced in CAV positive (n = 9 Tx patients) compared to CAV negative (n = 11 Tx patients) groups (90.7 ± 27.0 vs 139.5 ± 30.2, p < .001).

Conclusion: Cardiac MRI is a moderately repeatable method for the semi-quantitative assessment of first-pass myocardial perfusion at rest. Semi-quantitative surrogate markers of LV perfusion could play a role in CAV detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2019.12.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085974PMC
May 2020

Enhancing spray drying tolerance of Lactobacillus bulgaricus by intracellular trehalose delivery via electroporation.

Food Res Int 2020 01 8;127:108725. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China. Electronic address:

Spray-drying is an efficient drying technique for preparing probiotic powders, but the high temperatures employed during the process results in low survival rates of lactic acid bacteria. This study aimed to enhance spray-drying tolerance of lactic acid bacteria by intracellular delivery of trehalose via electroporation. Diverse electroporation conditions were applied to Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus sp1.1 cells exposed to 10% trehalose prior to spray drying with 30% re-constituted skimmed milk. Survival rates of spray-dried bacteria increased with an intracellular trehalose content of ≥3.5 µg/10 colony-forming units (CFU) and reached 100% with intracellular trehalose content of 10.1 µg/10 CFU. The application of two electroporation pulses at 2.5 kV/cm helped increase the survival rate of L. bulgaricus from 38% to 61% after spray drying. Membrane damage and pore formation caused by excessive pulsed electric field treatment resulted in cell death after spray drying. Sufficient intracellular trehalose protected cell walls and membranes from further damage by spray drying. Multi-pulse electroporation of trehalose into lactic acid bacteria prior to spray drying can potentially increase cell viability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.108725DOI Listing
January 2020

Bidirectional Intimate Partner Violence Among Chinese Women: Patterns and Risk Factors.

J Interpers Violence 2019 Dec 3:886260519888523. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Beijing Normal University, China.

Bidirectional intimate partner violence (BIPV) refers to the co-occurrence of violence perpetration by both partners. BIPV has been analyzed using samples from different sociodemographic contexts but has yet to be fully explored in China. The present study employed a latent class approach to identify BIPV patterns, rates of prevalence, and associated risk factors among a sample of 1,301 heterosexual adult women in mainland China. Five distinct patterns of BIPV were identified, including (a) , (b) , (c) , (d) , and (e) . Marital status, education, employment status, acceptance of male dominance, and justification of intimate partner violence (IPV) were found to be predictive of different types of BIPV. Our findings suggest a need for a conceptual recognition of the heterogeneity and bidirectionality of IPV among Chinese women. Future research should extend to other diverse populations and sociocultural or clinical contexts in China. IPV assessments, research, and social programs ought to recognize the complexity of IPV and consider various IPV patterns specific to heterosexual women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260519888523DOI Listing
December 2019

Association of Long-Term Risk Factor Levels With Carotid Atherosclerosis: The Chicago Healthy Aging Magnetic Resonance Imaging Plaque Study (CHAMPS).

Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2019 09 16;12(9):e009226. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Department of Preventive Medicine (D.M.L.-J.), Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL.

Background: Absence of cardiovascular risk factors (RF) in young adulthood is associated with a lower risk for cardiovascular disease. However, it is unclear if low RF burden in young adulthood decreases the quantitative burden and qualitative features of atherosclerosis.

Methods: Multi-contrast carotid magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 440 Chicago Healthy Aging Study participants in 2009 to 2011, whose RF (total cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and smoking) were measured in 1967 to 1973. Participants were divided into 4 groups: low-risk (with total cholesterol <200 mg/dL and no treatment, blood pressure <120/80 mm Hg and no treatment, no smoking, and no diabetes mellitus), 0 high RF but some RF unfavorable (≥1 RF above low-risk threshold but below high-risk threshold), 1 high RF (total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL or treated, blood pressure ≥140/90 or treated, diabetes mellitus, or smoking), and 2 or more high RF. Association of baseline RF status with carotid atherosclerosis (overall mean carotid wall thickness and lipid-rich necrotic core) at follow-up was assessed.

Results: Among 424 participants with evaluable carotid magnetic resonance images, the mean age was 32 years at baseline and 73 years at follow-up; 67% were male, 86% white, and 36% were low-risk at baseline. Two or more high RF status was associated with higher carotid wall thickness (0.99±0.11 mm) and lipid-rich necrotic core prevalence (30%), as compared with low-risk group (0.94±0.09 mm and 17%, respectively). Each increment in baseline RF status was associated with higher carotid wall thickness (β-coefficient, 0.015; 95% CI, 0.004-0.026) and with higher lipid-rich necrotic core prevalence at older age (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.00-1.58) in models adjusted for baseline RF and demographics.

Conclusions: RF status in young adulthood is associated with the burden and quality of carotid atherosclerosis in older age suggesting that the decades-long protective effect of low-risk status might be mediated through a lower burden of quantitative and qualitative features of atherosclerotic plaque.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.119.009226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7099844PMC
September 2019

[Characteristics of soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and its seasonal dynamics in four mid-subtropical forests].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2019 Jun;30(6):1901-1910

College of Forestry, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China.

Taking evergreen broad-leaved forest in mid-subtropical areas, and its converted Phoebe bournei, Phyllostachys heterocycla and Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations as research objects, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) in the surface (0-10 cm) and deep soil layer (40-60 cm) were measured by chloroform fumigation and extraction method, with their seasonal dynamics and the relationships with soil physicochemical properties in four types of forests being investigated. The results showed that the MBC and MBN in the surface soil was the highest in the evergreen broad-leaved forest, followed by P. bournei, P. heterocycla and C. lanceolata plantations, with that in the former three being significantly higher than in C. lanceolata plantion. There was no significant difference in the MBC and MBN contents in the deep soil layer among the four types of forests, while those in surface soil were significantly higher than in the deep soil layer. The MBC and MBN contents showed obvious seasonal dynamics, with highest values in summer and lowest in winter presenting a single peak change pattern. MBC and MBN had significantly positive correlations with soil total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN) and temperature, but significantly negative correlation with soil bulk density. The conversion of evergreen broad-leaved forest to the three plantation resulted in lower MBC and MBN in the surface soil to some degree, with C. lanceolata plantation being the first to be affected, but little change occurred in the deep soil layer. The quantity and quality of litter, contents of TC, TN and soil temperature were the key factors driving the differences of MBC and MBN contents and their seasonal dynamics of the four types of forests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.201906.028DOI Listing
June 2019