Publications by authors named "Kafeel Ahmad"

66 Publications

Chromium accumulation in soil, water and forage samples in automobile emission area.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jun 17;28(6):3517-3522. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Academy of Environmental Health and Ecological Security, Jiangsu University, 301Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013, PR China.

Environmental contamination caused by various pollutants due to automobile emissions is an alarming issue. One important type of the pollutants are heavy metals, including chromium (Cr) added by the exhaust of toxic smoke of vehicles. These pollutants are added to forage crops cultivated near roadsides, soil and irrigation water. However, rare studies have been conducted to infer Cr accumulation near heavy automobile emission areas. This study was conducted to determine Cr concentration in irrigation water, soil and forage. Water, forage and soil samples were collected from area impacted by heavy traffic. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to appraise Cr values in the collected samples. Chromium values ranged from 0.50 to 1.14 mg/kg in water samples and from 0.04 to 2.23 mg/kg in soil samples. It was highest in grown soil, whereas minimum in soil. The Cr values in forages ranged from 0.09 to 1.06 mg/kg. observed the highest Cr accumulation, whereas the lowest Cr accrual was noted for . The pollution load index (PLI) was the highest for , while the lowest for . Bio-concentration factor (BCF) ranged from 0.14 to 8.63. The highest BCF was noted for , while the lowest for . The highest and the lowest daily intake of metal (DIM) was noted for at different sites. Health risk index (HRI) was highest for and lowest for . The results add valuable information on heavy metal accumulation in water, soil and forage samples near to automobile emission area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.03.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176128PMC
June 2021

Molecular characterization of hepatitis B virus basal core promoter and precore region of isolates from chronic hepatitis B patients.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Jun;71(6):1575-1582

Centre of Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Objective: To analyse mutations in precore and core promoter regions of hepatitis B virus genome in chronic hepatitis B patients.

Methods: The cross-sectional prospective study was conducted at the Centre of Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Peshawar and Pakistan Health Research Council (PHRC), Research Centre, Khyber Medical College Peshawar from June 2014 to June 2015, and comprised samples from treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients aged >15 years from three cities of Pakistan. The samples included patients who were both positive and negative for hepatitis B envelope antigen. Viral load, hepatitis B envelope antigen / anti-hepatitis B envelope status, hepatitis B virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and alanine aminotransferase levels were determined. Direct sequencing of basal core promoter and precore regions of hepatitis B virus genome was carried out following a nested polymerase chain reaction approach. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis software version 6.0. Data was analysed using SPSS 16.

Results: Of the 50 patients, 33(66%) were males. The overall mean age was 28.5±11.4 years. Of all the subjects, 25(50%) each were positive and negative for hepatitis B envelope antigen. Precore stop codon mutation G1896A was detected in 19 (38%) isolates; 17(34%) among negative patients and 2(4%) in positive patients. Classic A1762T/G1764A double mutation was noted in 15(30%) isolates. Mutation at position 1764 was observed in 12(48%) samples. A rare G1764T mutation was also detected in 6(12%) isolates. The CG1802-1803 mutation was detected in 47(94%) isolates, while all the 50(100%) isolates had T1858A. The GCAC Kozak sequence was present in 43(86%) isolates; CAA1817-1819 in 49(98%); and G1888 in 49(98%). Overall, 9(18%) isolates had wild-type sequences at all important loci, including positions 1762, 1764 and 1896. The pattern of sequences at genotype specific positions and phylogenetic tree speculates that majority of study isolates belonged to genotype D.

Conclusion: Basal core promoter and precore regions variants along with the preponderances of genotype D-specific mutations suggested a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and poor clinical outcome in such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.47391/JPMA.1254DOI Listing
June 2021

Evaluation of pasture allowance of manganese for ruminants.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing, China.

The aim of this study was to access the Mn contamination in soil, forages, and animals. Heavy metal pollution is a matter of prime significance in natural environment. Through food chain, toxicity of heavy metals and their bioaccumulation potential are transferred into humans. Higher concentrations of metallic compounds are toxic to living organisms but these are essential to maintain body metabolism. Intake of food crops polluted with heavy metals is chief food chain channel for human exposure. Animals are exposed to heavy metal stress by the intake of richly contaminated food crops; those are chief part of food chain. Samples of soil, plant, animal blood, hair, and feces were collected to find contamination through wet digestion process in lab and metal analysis. Different forages were collected to study Mn content that was our major concern in this study. The present findings also emphasized on the assessment of bio-concentration factor (BCF). Other significant indices of mobility and pollution of metal were also calculated, i.e. pollution load index (PLI), daily intake of metal (DIM), health risk index (HRI), and enrichment factor (EF). The experimentation result showed different concentrations of metal in different seasons. The Mn concentration in forages was 20.01-28.29 mg/kg and in soil was 5.27-8.90 mg/kg. Soil samples showed higher level of (PLI) Pollution load index. Bio-concentration of MN was 2.59-4.21 mg/kg. It can be concluded that regular monitoring of the metal is essential to evaluate the contamination status. Mn contents were in the safe limits in soil and plants; however, its toxic level was observed in animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14666-zDOI Listing
June 2021

Transfer of metal element in soil plant chicken food chain: health risk assessment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Botany, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.

This investigation was done for the assurance of potassium amassing in four assortments of maize (grains, shoot and root), soil, and water and in seven tissues of chickens (kidney, liver, heart, bone, gizzard, breast meat). The analysis of variance showed significant differences for potassium concentration in water in all sources of water; however, the season and variety significantly influenced the quantity of potassium in cereals. The corn varieties MMRI, Sadaf, and Pearl behaved differently when treated with water from various sources. Water taken from sewage had a higher concentration of potassium compared to canal and groundwater that is why the maize plants irrigated with this water had a higher grouping. Data regarding potassium concentration in different body parts of chicken showed that season and treatment have a significant effect on the potassium concentration in chicken organs. The variety was non-significant for the potassium concentration only in the bone. Season × Variety interaction was only significant in blood, meat heart, and gizzard. Season × Treatment and Variety × Treatment interactions were significant in the heart, kidney, and gizzard. The potassium contents were higher in the chicken body parts that were reared on grains irrigated with sewage water as compared to other groups. The potassium contents were higher in the chicken meat (96.23 ± 0.00) reared on grains of the Pearl variety raised with the sewage water. In a nutshell, the irrigation of grains with sewage water led to accumulation of nutrients greater than those irrigated with ground or canal water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14021-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Appraisal of iron accumulation in soil, forages, and blood plasma of sheep and goats: a case study in different districts of Punjab, Pakistan.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Institute of Geology, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore, Pakistan.

Minerals are essential for ruminants affecting significantly the production of grazing livestock. Iron level in forages, soil, and blood plasma of the small ruminants (goat and sheep) was investigated in three districts of Punjab. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine the concentration of iron in collected samples. The results revealed that the mean Fe concentrations in soil of districts Sargodha, Mianwali, and Bhakhar were significantly varied and ranged from 21.85 to 23.78, 28.45 to 31.2, and 18.079 to 24.33 mg/kg, respectively. The Fe level in soil of Mianwali significantly varied and was higher than Sargodha and Bhakkar. The mean Fe concentration in forages which were used for feeding purpose were significantly varied and found between 10.95-14.49, 23.63-25.65, and 6.616-9.45 mg/kg for Sargodha, Mianwali, and Bhakhar, respectively. The mean Fe concentrations in blood plasma of goat which consumed the contaminated forages were 8.5026-11.763 mg/L in district Sargodha, 19.77-20.19 mg/L in Mianwali, and 5.508-5.858mg/L in Bhakkar. In blood plasma of sheep, the residual levels of Fe in districts Sargodha, Mianwali, and Bhakhar were ranged from 9.987 to 12.455, 15.8 to 19.785, and 3.425 to 6.383 mg/L, respectively. This study provides the data of metals effected by different sites and also their mobility from low to higher trophic level which enables us to study the iron toxicity in different trophic levels, and we recommend different safe limits and treatment in case of low and high metal profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13471-yDOI Listing
March 2021

2D and 3D mapping of traffic induced noise near major roads passing through densely populated residential area of South Delhi, India.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(3):e0248939. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Noise monitoring and mapping is the critical processes to ensure that the noise level does not reach the harmful levels and provides noise exposure level details. 2-D and 3-D noise mapping has been carried out at pre-selected critical locations of major roads passing through densely populated residential areas, namely, Mathura Road, Lodhi Road, Lala Lajpat Rai Road, and Ring road, along with significant intersections, viz. Moolchand, Ashram, Sabz Burj, and Lodhi road. The monitoring has been performed during the day and night's peak traffic hours using Sound Level Meter (SLM) Larson & Davis 831as per standard procedure. Then after, 2-D and 3-D noise maps have been prepared, visualized, and analyzed by soundPLAN (acoustic) and MapInfo Pro (Desktop GIS). The maximum noise level is observed at Ashram Chowk [81.1 dB (A)] at 8 pm; however, the minimum noise level is found to be at Lala Lajpat Rai Road [76.4dB (A)] at 7 pm. Monitoring results of noise level show non-compliance of regulatory standards for day time and night time. 2-D noise maps revealed that the noise level is maximum at the centerline of the road and decreases either side with the distance, and remains above the permissible limits at all locations. However, the 3-D noise maps show horizontal as well as vertical noise levels at all locations. The 3-D noise maps also revealed a noise level of 70 dB (A) up to a height of 6.096m at the Ashram Chowk and Moolchand intersection. However, a noise level of 65 dB (A) has been observed at the height of 5.486m at Lala Lajpat Rai Marg and Sabz Burj. This study will explore noise levels in both horizontal and vertical directions near roads surrounded by high-rise buildings. It will help the decision-makers take remedial measures.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248939PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990173PMC
March 2021

Evaluation of transfer of lead in soil plant animal system: assessment of consequences of its toxicity.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 18;28(29):38698-38705. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 22452, Riyadh, 11495, Saudi Arabia.

The instant endeavor was undertaken for determination of lead (Pb) in water, soil, forage, and cow's blood domesticated in contaminated area of heavy automobiles' exhaust in Sahiwal town of District Sargodha, Pakistan. Water samples showed that the concentration of Pb ranged from 1.14 to 0.44 mg kg at all sites. It was maximum at site 5 and minimum at site 2. Soil samples showed the concentration of Pb at all sites ranged from 1.58 to 0.279 mg kg. It was maximum in soil where Avena sativa was grown at site 5 and was found minimum in soil where Zea mays was grown at site 2. While among samples of forage, the concentration of Pb ranges from 0.048 to 2.002 mg kg. The highest Pb amount was found in Brassica campestris at site 1 and the minimum was recorded in Trifolium alexandrinum at site 2. Finally, the blood samples of cow depicted that concentration of Pb ranged from 4.468 to 0.217 mg kg. It was the maximum at site 1 and the minimum at site 3. It is recommended that such study should be conducted in other districts for public awareness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13314-wDOI Listing
August 2021

Trace metal accumulation in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) grown using organic fertilizers and health risk assessment from consumption.

Food Res Int 2021 02 16;140:109992. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Botany, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.

Organic farming and healthy nutrition are among the most popular topics of recent times. However, organic fertilizers, which are one of the important elements of organic agriculture, have the potential to threaten human health with the toxic substances they may contain. The present study aimed to observe the effect of farmyard manure, poultry waste and press mud on metal accumulation in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) to determine the pollution severity of soil and to examine the health risk due to the consumption of organic fertilizer applied pepper. The multipurpose pot experiment was conducted to study the agronomical growth performance and accretion of metals in C. annuum grown with different organic fertilizers in the soil at the area of the Department of Botany, University of Sargodha, Pakistan. The trace metal contents in soil and C. annuum samples were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-6300 Shimadzu Japan). Trace metal concentrations in soil samples ranged from 0.152 to 0.850, 2.167 to 5.812, 0.345 to 1.235, 2.682 to 5.875, 0.095 to 0.558, 6.132 to 17.062, 0.172 to 2.235 and 6.670 to 22.585 mg/kg for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Fe, Mn and Zn, respectively. In pepper samples, trace metal concentrations ranged from 0.364 to 2.206, 0.305 to 4.042, 0.272 to 1.160, 1.132 to 1.305, 0.164 to 0.204, 4.736 to 17.000, 0.844 to 1.150 and 14.751 to 18.385 mg/kg for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Fe, Mn and Zn, respectively. The accumulation of Cd and Pb had higher values of HRI than 1 and these values suggested that these metals had probability to cause health problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109992DOI Listing
February 2021

Simultaneous modelling of coagulant recovery and reuse by response surface methodology.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 20;285:112139. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Civil Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025, India.

Surface water from rivers, lakes, reservoirs etc. needs to be treated prior to municipal supplies. The treatment scheme includes coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and finally disinfection process. Huge volume of sludge or waste is generated during the coagulation-flocculation. Disposal of the sludge so generated in the treatment plants require careful consideration for managing it sustainably and in an environment friendly manner. Constructive utilization of the inevitable waste may help in finding a sustainable solution to sludge disposal problems. Presently, response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCD) has been applied to simultaneously model coagulant recovery as well as reuse parameters. In order to simplify the process and increase the applicability, the effect of three significant variables, acid dose, sludge ratio, and recovered coagulant dose are studied. A second order regression model has been developed which gave the optimum combination of acid dose of 30 ml/L, sludge ratio of 1% and recovered coagulant dose of 12 ml/L for maximum turbidity removal. The predicted value of turbidity removal is 95.4%. In the confirmatory experiments, the turbidity removal value was observed to be about 96.2%, which is in good agreement with the predicted value. In addition to turbidity removal, it also helps to effectively remove other impurities from the raw water for it to meet the standards prescribed for potable supply. Thus, the regenerated alum or recovered coagulant has the potential to substitute the conventional coagulants, fully or partially at water treatment plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112139DOI Listing
May 2021

Monitoring of copper accumulation in water, soil, forage, and cows impacted by heavy automobiles in Sargodha, Pakistan.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 7;28(23):29110-29116. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Department of Botany, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, 40100, Pakistan.

The instant endeavor was undertaken to monitor copper (Cu) contents in water, soil, forage, and cow's blood impacted by heavy automobiles in Sahiwal town of district Sargodha, Pakistan. The samples were collected in triplicates with a total of 120 soil and water samples with corresponding forage samples. For the analysis of metal concentration in cows, 60 blood samples were collected from the cows feeding on these forages on selected sites. Metal contents were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that water samples contained mean values of Cu concentration ranged from 1.01 to 0.444 mg/kg at all sites. It was maximum at site 3 and minimum at site 6. The soil samples of all the forage fields showed Cu mean values concentration ranged from 1.94 to 0.286 mg/kg at all sites. It was maximum in Trifolium alexandrinum grown field at site 2, and minimum in Avena sativa at site 2. All the forage samples showed the mean value of Cu concentration ranged from 0.151 to 1.86 mg/kg at all sites. The concentration of Cu was maximum in Zea mays grown at site 5 and minimum in Trifolium alexandrinum at site 4. The cow blood samples showed the mean concentration of Cu ranged from 1.368 to 0.53 mg/kg at all sites. It was maximum at site 2 and minimum at site 6. Owing to the results of pollution index and transfer factors, metal content was found to be in permissible range in forages as well as animal samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12770-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Mineral availability in soil and fodders affecting blood profiles in Nili-Ravi dairy buffaloes.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Jan 7;53(1):98. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan.

A mineral assessment study for dairy buffaloes, Nili-Ravi breed, was carried out seasonally at silvopasture farm at Sargodha, Pakistan. Sampling for soil, forage, and buffalo serum was done seasonally for a period of 1 year for mineral (P, Mg, Na, K, Ca) evaluation. In the study, experiments on forages showed significant differences in mean concentrations of Mg and P with changing seasons, whereas the values for Ca, Mg, Na, and K did not vary significantly. Three groups of buffaloes were checked for mineral concentration in blood serum, viz., calves, lactating and non-lactating. Ca mean concentration varied significantly for non-lactating buffaloes and calves between two seasons. Na mean level showed a significant difference for two sampling seasons among calves and lactating buffaloes. Mean level for Mg only differed significantly in serum of non-lactating buffaloes between the two seasons. Mean levels for Ca and P in soil and forage remained higher than the optimal level, whereas soil Na was below the critical level. K concentrations in soil and blood serum were above the critical level, while Mg levels remained below the optimal range in soil, forage, and blood serum. K concentration in forage remained below the optimal level. All buffalo categories displayed lower levels of Ca and P in serum. Na concentration in forage and serum exceeded the critical level. Furthermore, Ca yielded significant and positive correlation between soil and serum level, whereas K had significant but negative correlation for soil-forage and forage-serum. Overall, it was determined that P deficiency existed among buffaloes, which could be improved via supplementation. Similarly, K deficiency and Mg deficiency were exhibited for forage and soil respectively which could be countered through addition of fertilizers rich for these minerals. In brief, the mineral utilization of buffaloes is affected by reduced availability of essential nutrients and may result in lower productivity. It is suggested to add mineral supplementation in addition to natural diet of buffaloes to enhance the productivity of these animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-020-02511-3DOI Listing
January 2021

Evaluation of toxicity potential of cobalt in wheat irrigated with wastewater: health risk implications for public.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 6;28(17):21119-21131. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

School of Environment Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China.

The use of wastewater in irrigation weakens the beneficial properties of the soil and leads to a threat to food safety standards. The present research was designed to explore the cobalt toxicity associated with the ingestion of wastewater irrigated wheat. Wheat plants of five different varieties were collected from 7 different sites of Punjab, Pakistan, which were irrigated with three different sources of water. The sampling was done in two cropping years. The cobalt values in water, soil and wheat samples (root, shoot, grain) ranged from 0.46 to 1.24 mg/l, 0.15 to 1.20, 0.29 to 1.30, 0.08 to 0.76 and 0.12 to 0.57 mg/kg, respectively. All the water samples showed high cobalt concentration than the maximum permissible value. However, all the soil and wheat plant samples were found within the maximum allowable range. The high cobalt concentration in irrigating water showed that the continuous usage of such type of water may lead to cobalt toxicity in living organisms with the passage of time and may results in severe health risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11815-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Appraisal of chromium in chicken reared on maize irrigated with sewage water.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 30;28(9):11509-11517. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Earth Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.

In the present study, the outcome of sewage, canal, and ground water on the chromium (Cr) concentration in corn and ultimately in chicken body parts was reported. To evaluate Cr level, atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer AA 6300, Shimadzu Japan) was used. The highest level of Cr in grains (0.50 ± 0.05 mg/kg), shoots (0.90 ± 0.01 mg/kg), and roots (1.01 ± 0.02 mg/kg) were noticed in the Sadaf variety watered with canal water. The least concentration of Cr was recorded in grains (0.07 ± 0.01 mg/kg), shoots (0.59 ± 0.01 mg/kg), and roots (0.71 ± 0.01 mg/kg) of Pearl variety irrigated with ground water. The maximum concentration of chromium in the blood (1.68 ± 0.02 mg/kg) and bones (1.26 ± 0.24 mg/kg) was observed in chicks fed on Millet Research Institute (MMRI) grains reared with the sewage water. The lowest concentration was observed in the blood (1.60 ± 0.04 mg/kg) and in bone (0.80 ± 0.01 mg/kg) of the chicks fed Pearl variety grains reared with canal water. In the second experiment, the maximum content of Cr was determined in the blood (0.74 ± 0.04 mg/kg) and bones (1.76 ± 0.02 ppm) of chicks consuming Sadaf variety grains reared with canal water and the least concentration in the blood (0.26 ± 0.03 mg/kg) and bones (1.64 ± 0.01 mg/kg) was determined on the consumption of the Pearl variety grains reared with ground water. A similar trend was observed in other body organs. It was concluded that polluted water causes higher accumulation levels of Cr in plant parts and even in animals' body parts after the utilization of such plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11393-9DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of organic and chemical fertilizers on the growth, heavy metal/metalloid accumulation, and human health risk of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 20;28(10):12533-12545. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Botany, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.

The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effect of the chemical fertilizer and organic fertilizers such as cow manure and poultry manure applications on the heavy metal/metalloid accumulation in the wheat samples. A field experiment was conducted using a complete randomized block design with three replicates per treatment to observe the impact of organic and chemical fertilizers on the heavy metal/metalloid accumulation in a wheat variety (Lasani-08). Heavy metal/metalloid concentrations in the root, shoot, and grains of wheat samples were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). In addition, the growth parameters of wheat samples were assigned. Results indicated that morphological parameters showed maximum growth under chemical fertilizer treatment. The heavy metal/metalloid concentrations in the wheat grains ranged from 12.95 to 25.83, 1.03 to 1.11, 16.83 to 20.26, 0.92 to 0.98, 0.504 to 1.997, 2.24 to 5.98, and 0.493 to 1.154 mg/kg for Zn, Co, Fe, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Cr, respectively. All heavy metal/metalloid values in the present study were within the safe limits reported by the FAO/WHO except for Pb. However, the health risk index determined for all metals are higher in the wheat grown with chemical fertilizer applications, but it has been shown that the consumption of wheat grown with organic and chemical applications is not hazardous for health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11271-4DOI Listing
March 2021

Correction to: A study on the transfer of chromium from meadows to grazing livestock: an assessment of health risk.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Nov;27(33):42193

Low Carbon Energy Institute, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, People's Republic of China.

The affiliation of Shahzadi Mahpara is shown in this paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10660-zDOI Listing
November 2020

Bioaccumulation of cadmium in different genotypes of wheat crops irrigated with different sources of water in agricultural regions.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 4;28(2):2468-2478. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.

The study was carried out to evaluate the health risks associated with accumulation of cadmium in the different genotypes of wheat, grown in agricultural regions of Punjab, Pakistan. Five genotypes irrigated with three varied water sources were selected randomly from each region. Among all sources of water, types of soil, and grain samples, the cadmium (Cd) quantities were found (2.24-2.82 mg/L, 1.75-4.16 mg/kg, 0.86-1.90, respectively), exceeding the maximum permissible limits (0.01 mg/L, 1.1 mg/kg, 0.2 mg/kg, respectively) described by FAO/WHO. The pollution load index (PLI) exhibited by all of the samples was higher than 1.00, the permissible limit; however, other factors including bioaccumulation, translocation, bio-concentration, daily intake, and enrichment values of Cd were less than 1.00. Moreover, the health risk index for cadmium in all types of wheat grain samples was less than 1.00. The study concluded that the continuous use of wastewater resources may lead to the accumulation of cadmium in the vital body organs that may cause severe health hazards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10685-4DOI Listing
January 2021

Comparative study of forage toxic metals of conventional versus non-conventional pastures in relation to animal mineral nutrient allowance.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Oct 20;27(29):36579-36586. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Botany, University of Sargodha, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

At present, the forage production is the foundation of beef cattle and sheep industries in graziery. This study was designed to assess the toxic metal composition of the conventional pastures and non-conventional pastures in consideration of mineral needs of ruminants. At all the surveyed sites, these mean soil metal concentrations were measured to be higher or lower than the referred threshold levels. Specifically, these concentrations of Co, Pb, and Cr were observed as much higher than the referred threshold levels of 0.01-0.06 mg/kg (Co), 0.05 mg/kg (Pb), and 0.02 mg/kg (Cr). On the contrary, the mean soil concentrations of Cd were observed to be relatively lower than the threshold levels of 0.50-10 mg/kg at all sites. The estimated mean concentrations of Co, Cd, Pb, and Cr in both conventional and non-conventional forage species were measured to be lower than the referred threshold levels. The supplementation of these metals for livestock grazing from pasture was unnecessary based on these findings. However, further research should be conducted for ecological safety and conservation of ruminant forages, so that both the conventional and non-conventional pastures are employed as livestock friendly consuming forages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09599-yDOI Listing
October 2020

Bioaccumulation of lead in different varieties of wheat plant irrigated with wastewater in remote agricultural regions.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Aug 13;27(22):27937-27951. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Botany, University of Sargodha, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

The accumulation of heavy metals by crops irrigated with wastewater has been considered as a serious environmental problem in many developing countries, where the wastewater irrigation has emerged as a common practice. In this research, we were concerned with the highly toxic metal lead (Pb) in water, agricultural soils, and wheat crops, and the possible risk on human health in the peripheral agricultural regions of Punjab, Pakistan. Various types of irrigated water (ground, sewage, industrial), soil, and wheat plant (root, shoot, grain) samples of five different varieties (Seher-2006, Punjab-2011, Faislabad-2008, Watan, and Galaxy-2013) were collected from seven different districts and then pooled up to make one composite sample and analyzed for Cd concentration. The various pollution and mobility indices (pollution load index, enrichment factor, daily intake of metal, health risk index, translocation factor, bioaccumulation factor, and bio-concentration factor) were also calculated. The descending order for Pb concentration was as follows: water>soil>wheat plant. The range of concentration of Pb in all types of water, soil, and wheat plant (root, shoot, grains) samples was (7.05-7.83 mg/l), (6.32-7.74 mg/kg), (3.23-4.82, 1.14-2.75, 0.09-0.51 mg/kg), respectively. The concentration of Pb in all types of water samples exceeded the maximum permissible limit. There were values found to be < 1.00 in all the pollution and mobility indices for all types of samples. These results reveal that high levels of Pb in irrigated water may pollute the soil and wheat plants of these regions in the near future, if various control measures have not been taken. It may pose a great health risk to the local human and animal populations. Preventive measures should be taken to reduce heavy metal pollution of irrigation water and soils to protect both human and animal health in various regions of Punjab, Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09138-9DOI Listing
August 2020

A study on the transfer of chromium from meadows to grazing livestock: an assessment of health risk.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jul 6;27(21):26694-26701. Epub 2020 May 6.

Low Carbon Energy Institute, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, People's Republic of China.

The present investigation was performed in different district of Punjab to determine the chromium level in soil, forages, and blood plasma of the small ruminants (goat and sheep). The results showed that the mean concentrations of chromium in the soil of Sargodha, Mianwali, and Bhakkar districts were ranged from 1.8 to 2.3, 3.01 to 4.99, and 2.04 to 2.87 mg/kg, respectively. The chromium level was higher in Mianwali compared with Sargodha and Bhakkar. The mean concentrations of chromium in forages which were used for feeding purposes were found between 0.672 and 1.631, 1.493 and 2.612, and 0.7804 and 1.047 mg/kg for Sargodha, Mianwali, and Bhakkar, respectively. The mean concentrations of chromium in blood plasma of goat which consumed the contaminated forages were between 0.666 and 1.269 mg/L in Sargodha, 0.657 and 0.752 mg/L in Mianwali, and 1.39 and 2.37 mg/L in Bhakkar. In blood plasma of sheep, the residual levels of chromium in the districts Sargodha, Mianwali, and Bhakkar were ranged from 0.673 to 1.384, 0.83 to 1.086, and 1.496 to 3.611 mg/L, respectively. In the present research, there was a higher concentration of chromium in blood plasma of sheep from Bhakkar and the lowest was in Sargodha. The chromium level in blood samples was found to be higher than the tolerable level of 1.0 mg/L in all districts. In light of these results, it was concluded that chromium levels in the soil and forages of all sites were present within the safe limit while in blood samples of sheep and goats were found to be above the acceptable limit. Sheep and goats also consume water from river, streams, and ponds and other contaminated water sources. So it might be the reason of higher level of chromium in their blood plasma. Hence, the proper monitoring of study sites will be necessary to prevent the excessive accumulation of chromium in ruminants in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09062-yDOI Listing
July 2020

Level and speciation of nickel in some forages in relation to spatial and temporal fluctuations.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jul 16;27(19):23793-23800. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Botany, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.

The present experimental work was conducted at different sites of district Bhakkar, a semiarid region of Pakistan, to assess whether the goats are suffering nickel deficiency or toxicity and what are the possible seasonal effects on the availability and translocation of nickel in food chain. A total of 27 forage and 320 goats according to four physiological stages [does (she goat), bucks (he goat), wether (castrated), juvenile (6 month)] were recruited for this study. To fulfill this objective, soil, forage, blood plasma, urine, and feces samples were collected in 4 seasons of the year at 2 sites and were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for nickel concentration. Different indices BCF, EF, and PLI were also studied to check the metal transfer. The results showed that sites had significant (P < 0.05) effect on nickel concentration in soil, forage, and goats. On the other hand, season and site x season had nonsignificant (P > 0.05) effects on nickel level in soil and goats. The soil (0.68-0.71 mg kg), forage (3.41-3.70 mg/kg), and blood (0.21-0.28 mg/l) level was lower than the permissible limits, while feces (0.57-1.34 mg/kg) and urine (0.35-1.32 mg/l) had enough concentration of nickel. Sources showed significant (P < 0.05) effects on Ni level in all stages of goats. All stages of goats except Wether (castrated) showed low level of nickel in blood. Most fluctuations in nickel concentration were observed in (S1) summer (low) and spring (S4) (high) season as a whole, while overall site 2 had high level of nickel than site 1. Thus, nickel showed deficiency in soil, forage, as well as in all stages of goats except wether goats. Nickel containing mineral mixtures are essential for does (she goat), bucks (he goat), and juveniles (6 months old), so application of Ni containing fertilizers to the soil and forage of that region and supplementation of Ni mineral mixture for grazing ruminants should be done.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08321-2DOI Listing
July 2020

Effect of Organic Manure and Mineral Fertilizers on Bioaccumulation and Translocation of Trace Metals in Maize.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2020 May 10;104(5):649-657. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Faculty of Education, Usak University, Usak, Turkey.

Mineral fertilizers and organic manure are used as soil amender to enhance the mineral status of the soil. These fertilizers contain trace metals besides providing macro and micronutrients. The present study was performed to observe the effect of mineral fertilizers, poultry manure and cow manure on trace metal content of soil and various parts (root, shoot, and grains) of maize plant (Zea mays L.). The analysis of metals was performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-6300 Shimadzu Japan). The highest level of Pb, Fe, Ni and Cu was observed in the root as 0.36-0.55, 70.41-83.03, 4.98-7.44 and 2.94-4.43 mg kg, respectively. The highest level of Cd, Zn and Mn was determined in grains as 0.44-1.59, 28.05-46.39 and 26.24-46.57 mg kg, respectively. The values of all metals were found within their permissible limit given by FAO/WHO except for the Cd. The interactive use of mineral and organic fertilizers enhanced the level of trace metals in maize as compared to their sole application. In the present findings, the health risk index for all metals was less than 1 in all treatments. So, it was concluded that the level of metals in poultry manure, cow manure and mineral fertilizer treated maize did not pose any potential threat to the consumers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-02841-wDOI Listing
May 2020

Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of daphne mucronata.

J Tradit Chin Med 2019 12;39(6):764-771

Centre of Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan.

Objective: To aim at preliminary phytochemical screening of Daphne mucronata and evaluate its antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was conducted for the crude extracts using standard methods. Antioxidant properties of crude methanolic extracts, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions of leaves, roots and bark were evaluated following standard procedures. The antibacterial activities were checked against Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Morganella morganii (M. morganii) and vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VRSA).

Results: Carbohydrates, saponins, steroids, phenols/ tannins, flavonoids and glycosides were present in different parts of Daphne mucronata. The extracts showed good antioxidant activity with EC50 values of 157.82-361.61 μg/mL. Methanolic extracts of roots showed good activity against A. baumannii (86.95%), E. coli (85.18%) and S. aureus (84.61%). Methanolic extracts of bark were active against A. bumanni (65.21%), M. morganii (65.21%) and E. coli (62.96%). Methanolic extracts of leaves showed good activity against A. bumanni (78.26%), E. coli (77.78%), P. aeruginosa (74.07%), S. aureus (73.07%), M. morganii (69.56%), VRSA (68%) and Proteus vulgaris (60%). The n-hexane fraction of roots was effective against A. bumanni (78.26%). Chlorofom fraction of roots showed moderate activity against A. bumanni (60.86%) and S. aureus (61.53%). Ethyl acetate fraction of roots showed moderate activity against A. bumanii (69.56%), E. coli (62.96%) and S. aureus (69.23%).

Conclusion: This study illustrates that Daphne mucronata possesses good antioxidant and antibacterial properties. The plant could be further exploited as potential natural antioxidant and as a new source of antimicrobials for treatment of various infections.
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December 2019

A study on the seasonal transfer of two metals from pasture to animals: health risk assessment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 May 2;27(14):16339-16349. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Department of Botany, University of Sargodha, University Road, Sargodha, Punjab, 40100, Pakistan.

Accretion of heavy metals in forage is a potential risk to grazing animals due to their uptake by plants and its entrance into the food chain. This study aimed to examine the Mn and Cd concentration from different samples. Sampling was done twice after the interval of 6 months during 2018; five different sites from Chakwal (Pidh, Tobar, Ratoccha, Kalar Kahar Road, Choa Saiden Shah and Chakwal Road, Choa Saiden Shah) were selected. Thirty samples of soil, forage (Acacia nilotica, Ziziphus nummularia, and Acacia modesta), and blood were collected. Forage and soil samples were dried, ground very fine, digested by wet digestion method, and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Samples collected from site I and site II had a very high concentration of heavy metals because these sites were very close to the coal mines and receive higher contamination. Manganese concentration in the soil fluctuated from 5.46 to 1.20, in the forage 6.84 to 1.00, and in the blood 5.21 to 1.03 mg/l, and cadmium concentration in the soil fluctuate from 1.85 to 0.03, in the forage 0.57 to 0.16, and in the blood 1.67 to 0.25 mg/l. Manganese concentration was higher as compared to the Cd. Higher concentration of Mn shows that this metal is due to human activities. Pollution load index value of Cd was higher than 1 in some samples, and the value fluctuates from 0.01 to 1.24 mg/kg. The values of a bioconcentration factor for Mn were greater than 1. Daily intake of metal value fluctuates from 0.01 to 1.03 mg/kg. Health risk index value ranges from 0.03 to 1.09 mg/kg. Health risk index of metals showed the risk which is due to the intake of contaminated fodder. From the soil, the metals can enter forage and bioaccumulate in the food chain. The health risk index was highest for Cd. The result obtained from the present research work indicated that there is a biomagnification of both metals in the food chain due to mining activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08140-5DOI Listing
May 2020

Role of surface charge in enhancing antibacterial activity of fluorescent carbon dots.

Nanotechnology 2020 Feb 8;31(9):095101. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Department of Applied Sciences, Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad, Allahabad 211012, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Herein, different surface charged carbon dots (Cdots) were synthesized by using diethylene glycol as a carbon source with various amine containing surface passivating agents. The synthesis method is very simple and fast microwave oven-based, that results in almost similar sized positive, negative and uncharged fluorescent Cdots which has been confirmed by zeta potential analysis in our case. The formation of Cdots was confirmed by characterization using fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, XRD, FT-IR, and XPS spectroscopy. To find out relative bactericidal activity of these Cdots, green fluorescence protein expressing recombinant E. coli bacteria were taken as a model system. Time-dependent bacterial growth and FACS study demonstrated that both uncharged Cdots and positively charged Cdots were showing better bactericidal activity as compared to negative charged Cdots. The Cdots caused elevation of reactive oxygen species level, which is possibly leading to bacterial cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ab55b8DOI Listing
February 2020

Trace Metal Accumulation in Trigonella foenum-graecum Irrigated with Wastewater and Human Health Risk of Metal Access Through the Consumption.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2019 Sep 4;103(3):468-475. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Department of Botany, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.

The aim of the present research was to determine the trace metal accumulations in Trigonella foenum-graecum irrigated with three different water regimes (ground water, canal water and sugar mill water). Also, transfer factors, pollution load indices, and health risk indices were assessed to evaluate metal transport and accumulation through the food chain. The analysis was conducted by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Shimadzu model AA-6300) to evaluate the concentration of metals in water, soil and vegetables. Trace metal concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.84 to 1.67, 0.42 to 0.72, 0.45 to 0.85, 2.51 to 9.99, 1.21 to 1.92, 1.82 to 9.98 and 0.64 to 0.91 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Mn, respectively. The mean metal concentrations in soil samples were determined as 0.25, 0.86, 0.96, 3.37, 0.4, 0.44 and 2.31 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Mn, respectively. Trace metal accumulations in T. foenum-graecum samples gathered from where soil samples were taken are as follows: The contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Mn ranged from 0.48 to 1.06, 0.11 to 0.35, 0.15 to 0.29, 1.43 to 8.39, 0.39 to 0.54, 2.1 to 3.05 and 0.42 to 0.47 mg/kg, respectively. Statistical analyses showed that the treatments have non-significant effect (p > 0.05) on concentrations of metals in T. foenum-graecum samples collected from three sites for Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn and Mn and significant effect on Fe and Cd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-019-02673-3DOI Listing
September 2019

Evaluation of toxic potential of metals in wheat crop grown in wastewater-contaminated soil in Punjab, Pakistan.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Aug 26;26(24):24958-24966. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Economics, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.

The cheapest way of disposal of wastewater is its use in agriculture. The pressure in using fresh water resources may be alleviated by the domestic wastewater in agriculture. Wastewater holds significant quantity of plant nutrients like N, P, Ca, K, Co, Zn, and Mn. Therefore, it increases the crop yield. Triticum aestivum is the staple food crop for Pakistan, where it is an important caloric source. It is grown successfully in rain fed areas of the country as well as in irrigated areas with minimum water without losing its production potential. In this study, cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and cobalt (Co) were evaluated; the effect of wastewater was studied on wheat variety (Punjab-2011) by applying different treatments of wastewater. In the comparison between five different treatments, in soil, Fe was the highest. The chromium in the current findings exceeded the permissible limit (0.03 mg/kg) in wheat grains. The reason of high Cr concentration might be due to the increased usage of wastewater for long periods. The level of pollution or the factor of contamination was the lowest for Zn and was highest for Cd in all treatments. Chromium has the lowest value of health risk index while Cd has the highest value in all treatments, indicating that exposed population is unlikely to experience obvious adverse effects on utilization of these contaminated grains of wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05715-9DOI Listing
August 2019

Evaluation of Potential Toxic Metals Accumulation in Wheat Irrigated with Wastewater.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2019 Jun 6;102(6):822-828. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.

The present study was carried out to ascertain the level of various metals in wheat variety (Chagi-4) irrigated with diverse doses of wastewater. The concentration of metals in soil, water and wheat grain samples was examined through an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. In wheat grains, the mean values of metals (mg/kg) varied from 0.06 to 0.2 for Pb, 1.2 to 1.6 for Cd, 0.6 to 0.9 for Ni, 0.8 to 1.6 for Fe, 0.4 to 1.0 for Mn, 0.7 to 1.4 for Cu, 0.3 to 0.5 for Cr, 0.1 to 0.9 for Zn and 0.03 to 0.2 for Co, correspondingly. Measured concentrations were found within the permissible limit given by FAO/WHO except for cadmium whose concentration exceeded an acceptable limit 0.2 mg/kg suggested by FAO/WHO. It might be due to high soil pH, which hinders the efficient transfer of metals between different mediums. Wastewater irrigated soil, wheat and water had high metal values, but the low rate of transfer was noticed from soil to grains. Higher bioconcentration factor was obtained for manganese and cadmium; cadmium had even higher pollution load index, which could indicate the contamination status of soil. Therefore, regular monitoring of wastewater is necessary to prevent the excessive build-up of metals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-019-02605-1DOI Listing
June 2019
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