Publications by authors named "K Scott Brimble"

54 Publications

The WISHED Randomized Controlled Trial: Impact of an Interactive Health Communication Application on Home Dialysis Use in People With Chronic Kidney Disease.

Can J Kidney Health Dis 2021 4;8:20543581211019631. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background: While home dialysis therapies are more cost effective and may offer improved health-related quality of life, uptake compared to in-center hemodialysis remains low.

Objective: To test whether a web-based interactive health communication application (IHCA) compared to usual care would increase home dialysis use.

Design: Randomized control trial.

Setting: Patients were recruited from 3 multidisciplinary kidney clinics across Ontario, Canada (Hamilton, Kingston, London).

Patients: We included adults with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) followed in multidisciplinary kidney clinics. Patients who had not completed dialysis modality education, who did not have access to a home computer or the internet, who had significant hearing or vision impairment, who could not read/write/speak English, who had a medical contraindication for home dialysis, or who had selected conservative kidney care were excluded.

Measurements: The primary outcome was any use of home dialysis (peritoneal dialysis or home hemodialysis) within 90 days of dialysis initiation. Secondary outcomes were social support, decision conflict and dialysis knowledge measured at baseline, 6 months and 1 year.

Methods: Eligible patients were randomized to either usual care or the IHCA in addition to usual care in a 1:1 ratio. As part of usual care, all patients received education about dialysis modalities and kidney transplantation delivered by clinic nurses according to local practices. Randomization was performed using a computer-generated sequence in randomly permuted block sizes, stratified by site, and allocation occurred using sequentially numbered sealed, opaque envelopes. Participants, care providers, and outcome assessors were not blinded to the intervention. All analyses were performed blinded using an intention to treat approach. We estimated the effect of the ICHA on the odds of the primary outcome using unadjusted logistic regression models. Linear mixed models for repeated measures over time were used to analyze the impact of the IHCA on the secondary outcomes of interest.

Results: We randomized 140 (usual care, n = 71; IHCA, n = 69) out of a planned 264 patients (mean [SD] age 61 [14.5] years, 65% men). Among patients randomized to the IHCA group that completed 6-month and 1-year follow-up visits, 56.8% and 71.4%, respectively, had not accessed the IHCA website within the past month. There were 23 (32.4%) and 26 (37.7%) patients in the usual care and IHCA groups who received a home dialysis therapy within 90 days of dialysis initiation (odds ratio, OR = 1.3, 95% CI = [0.6-2.5], = .5). Among the 78 patients who initiated dialysis (n = 38 usual care, n = 40 IHCA), 60.5% and 65% in the usual care and IHCA groups received a home therapy within 90 days of dialysis initiation (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = [0.5-3.0], = .7). Secondary outcomes did not differ by intervention group over time.

Limitations: The trial was underpowered due to poor recruitment and use of the IHCA was low.

Conclusions: We did not find evidence of a difference in home dialysis uptake with IHCA use, but our analyses were notably underpowered. The incorporation of greater patient engagement, qualitative research and design research, and pilot implementation may help future evaluations of strategies to improve home dialysis uptake.

Trial Registration: NCT01403454, registration date: Jul 21, 2011.
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June 2021

A Web-Based Self-Management Support Prototype for Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease (My Kidneys My Health): Co-Design and Usability Testing.

JMIR Form Res 2021 Feb 9;5(2):e22220. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Background: Supporting patients to self-manage their chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been identified as a research priority by patients with CKD and those who care for them. Self-management has been shown to slow CKD progression and improve the quality of life of individuals living with the disease. Previous work has identified a need for a person-centered, theory-informed, web-based tool for CKD self-management that can be individualized to a patient's unique situation, priorities, and preferences. We addressed this gap using an integrated knowledge translation method and patient engagement principles.

Objective: The aim of this study is to conduct systematic co-design and usability testing of a web-based self-management prototype for adults with CKD (nondialysis and nontransplant) and their caregivers to enhance self-management support.

Methods: A multistep, iterative system development cycle was used to co-design and test the My Kidneys My Health prototype. The 3-step process included creating website features and content using 2 sequential focus groups with patients with CKD and caregivers, heuristic testing using the 10 heuristic principles by Nielsen, and usability testing through in-person 60-minute interviews with patients with CKD and their caregivers. Patients with CKD, caregivers, clinicians, researchers, software developers, graphic designers, and policy makers were involved in all steps of this study.

Results: In step 1, 18 participants (14 patients and 4 caregivers) attended one of the 2 sequential focus groups. The participants provided specific suggestions for simplifying navigation as well as suggestions to incorporate video, text, audio, interactive components, and visuals to convey information. A total of 5 reviewers completed the heuristic analysis (step 2), identifying items mainly related to navigation and functionality. Furthermore, 5 participants completed usability testing (step 3) and provided feedback on video production, navigation, features and functionality, and branding. Participants reported visiting the website repeatedly for the following features: personalized food tool, my health care provider question list, symptom guidance based on CKD severity, and medication advice. Usability was high, with a mean system usability score of 90 out of 100.

Conclusions: The My Kidneys My Health prototype is a systematically developed, multifaceted, web-based CKD self-management support tool guided by the theory and preferences of patients with CKD and their caregivers. The website is user friendly and provides features that improve user experience by tailoring the content and resources to their needs. A feasibility study will provide insights into the acceptability of and engagement with the prototype and identify preliminary patient-reported outcomes (eg, self-efficacy) as well as potential factors related to implementation. This work is relevant given the shift to virtual care during the current pandemic times and provides patients with support when in-person care is restricted.
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February 2021

Variability in Cardiac Biomarkers during Hemodialysis: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Clin Chem 2021 01;67(1):308-316

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background: The effect of hemodialysis on cardiac biomarkers is unclear. We sought to evaluate the degree and causes of intradialytic variability of high sensitivity troponin I (hs-TnI), galectin-3 (gal-3), and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (hFABP).

Methods: hs-TnI, gal-3, and hFABP were prospectively measured pre-dialysis and post-dialysis for 1 week every month for 6 months in 178 prevalent adult hemodialysis patients at a single center in Hamilton, Canada. The degree of change from pre-dialysis to post-dialysis for each cardiac biomarker was estimated with multilevel linear regression models.

Results: The median change in the concentration of hs-TnI during hemodialysis was -1 ng/L (interquartile range [IQR] -1 to 2 ng/L) while gal-3 and hFABP changed by -36.3 ng/mL (IQR -27.7 to -46.8 ng/mL) and -19.41 ng/mL (IQR -13.61 to -26.87 ng/mL), respectively. The median (IQR) percentage intradialytic changes for hs-TnI, gal-3, and hFABP were 2.6% (-4.4% to 12.5%), -59.8% (-54.7% to -64.8%) and -35.3% (-28.4% to -42.1%), respectively. Ultrafiltration was associated with an increase in concentration of hs-TnI, gal-3, and hFABP (mean 0.99 ng/L, 1.05 ng/mL, and 1.9 ng/mL per L ultrafiltration, respectively, P < 0.001). Both gal-3 and hFABP concentrations decreased in association with the volume of blood processed (P < 0.001) and with hemodialysis treatment time (P  = 0.02 and P  = 0.04) while hs-TnI concentration decreased only in association with hemodialysis treatment time (P  < 0.001).

Conclusions: Ultrafiltration volume and hemodialysis treatment time influenced hs-TnI, gal-3, and hFABP concentrations during hemodialysis and should be considered when interpreting their measurement.
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January 2021

Kidney Function and Potassium Monitoring After Initiation of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade Therapy and Outcomes in 2 North American Populations.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2020 09 2;13(9):e006415. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland (R.V.P., T.C.T., F.K.-R., A.S.G.).

Background: Clinical practice guidelines recommend routine kidney function and serum potassium testing within 30 days of initiating ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker therapy. However, evidence is lacking about whether follow-up testing reduces therapy-related adverse outcomes.

Methods And Results: We conducted 2 population-based retrospective cohort studies in Kaiser Permanente Northern California and Ontario, Canada. Patients with outpatient serum creatinine and potassium tests in the 30 days after starting ACE inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker therapy were matched 1:1 to patients without follow-up tests. We evaluated the association of follow-up testing with 30-day all-cause mortality and hospitalization with acute kidney injury or hyperkalemia using Cox regression. We also developed and externally validated a risk score to identify patients at risk of having abnormally high serum creatinine and potassium values in follow-up. We identified 75 251 matched pairs initiating ACE inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker therapy between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2017, in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Follow-up testing was not significantly associated with 30-day all-cause mortality in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (hazard ratio, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.54-1.06]) and was associated with higher mortality in 84 905 matched pairs in Ontario (hazard ratio, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.07-1.62]). In Kaiser Permanente Northern California, follow-up testing was significantly associated with higher rates of hospitalization with acute kidney injury (hazard ratio, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.10-2.22]) and hyperkalemia (hazard ratio, 3.36 [95% CI, 1.08-10.41]), as was observed in Ontario. The risk score for abnormal potassium provided good discrimination (area under the curve [AUC], 0.75) and excellent calibration of predicted risks, while the risk score for abnormal serum creatinine provided moderate discrimination (AUC, 0.62) but excellent calibration.

Conclusions: Routine laboratory monitoring after ACE inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker initiation was not associated with a lower risk of 30-day mortality. We identified patient subgroups in which targeted testing may be effective in identifying therapy-related changes in serum potassium or kidney function.
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September 2020

Potentially inappropriate prescribing in older adults with advanced chronic kidney disease.

PLoS One 2020 20;15(8):e0237868. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Older adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at heightened risk for polypharmacy. We examined potentially inappropriate prescribing in this population and whether introducing pharmacists into the ambulatory kidney care model was associated with improved prescribing practices.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study using linked administrative databases. We included patients with an eGFR ≤30 mL/min/1.73 m2 ≥66 years of age followed in multidisciplinary kidney clinics in Ontario, Canada (n = 25,016 from 28 centres). The primary outcome was the absence of a statin prescription or the receipt of a potentially inappropriate prescription defined by the American Geriatric Society Beers Criteria® and a modified Delphi panel that identified key drugs of concern in CKD. We calculated the crude cumulative incidence and incidence rate for the primary outcome and used change-point regression to determine if a change occurred following pharmacist introduction.

Results: There were 6,007 (24%) and 16,497 patients (66%) not prescribed a statin and with ≥1 potentially inappropriate prescription, respectively. The rate of potentially inappropriate prescribing was 125.6 per 100 person-years and was higher in more recent years. The change-point regression analysis included 2,275 patients from two centres. No immediate change was detected at pharmacist introduction, but potentially inappropriate prescribing was increasing pre-pharmacist introduction, and this rising trend was reversed post-pharmacist introduction. The incidence of potentially inappropriate prescribing still remained high post-pharmacist introduction.

Conclusions: Potentially inappropriate prescribing practices were common. Incorporating pharmacists into the kidney care model may improve prescribing practices. The role of pharmacists in the ambulatory kidney care team warrants further investigation in a randomized controlled trial.
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October 2020