Publications by authors named "K Ponmurugan"

19 Publications

Biochemical analysis of leptospiral LPS explained the difference between pathogenic and non-pathogenic serogroups.

Microb Pathog 2021 Mar 30;152:104738. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Medical Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, 620024, India; Department of Neuroscience, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA. Electronic address:

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major surface antigen of Leptospira. In this study, the genes involved in the LPS biosynthesis were analyzed and compared by bioinformatics tools. Also, the chemical composition analysis of leptospiral lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from 5 pathogenic serovars like Autumnalis, Australis, Ballum, Grippotyphosa, Pomona, and the nonpathogenic serovar Andamana was performed. Methods used were Limulus amebocyte lysate assay (LAL), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). LAL assay showed a significantly higher level of endotoxicity among pathogenic serovars (~0.490 EU/mL) than that of nonpathogenic Andamana (~0.102 EU/mL). FAMES analysis showed the presence of palmitic acid (C16:0), hydroxy lauric acid (3-OH-C12:0), and oleic acid (C18:0). Palmitoleic acid (C16: 1), and 3- hydroxy palmitate (3-OH-C16:0) was detected only in pathogenic serovars. In contrast myristoleic acid (C14:1) and stearic acid (C18:0) were present in Andamana. FTIR analysis revealed C-O-C stretch of esters, 3°ROH functional groups and carbohydrate vibration range were similar among pathogenic serovars. The NMR analysis reveals similarity for 6 deoxy sugars and methyl groups of Autumnalis, Australis, and Ballum. Further, the presence of palmitoleic acid and 3-hydroxy palmitate may be the significant pathogen-associated predisposing factor. This mediates high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mediated stress response in leptospiral LPS mediated pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104738DOI Listing
March 2021

Nephroprotective effect of pigmented violacein isolated from in wistar rats.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Dec 15;27(12):3307-3312. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea.

The present study aimed to analyze the nephroprotective property of violacein obtained from the bacterium, . The nephrotoxicity in the animal model was induced by gentamicin, potassium dichromate, mercuric chloride, and cadmium chloride-induced nephrotoxicity in the Wistar rats was analyzed by measuring the serum creatinine, uric acid, and urea level. The present investigation revealed the nephroprotective property on convoluted proximal tubule (S1 and S2 segments) and the straight proximal tubule (S3 segment). Also, violacein significantly improved the renal function by the renal protective property on S2 segment of proximal tubule from the nephrotoxicity stimulated by mercuric chloride, potassium dichromate, cadmium chloride and gentamicin in animal models. Animal model studies revealed that violacein at 20 and 40 mg/kg p.o improved the renal function and significantly reduced the increased amount of uric acid, creatinine, and blood urea compared to the control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.10.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7715039PMC
December 2020

Broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of dispirooxindolopyrrolidine fused acenaphthenone heterocyclic hybrid against healthcare associated microbial pathogens (HAMPs).

J Infect Public Health 2020 Dec 24;13(12):2001-2008. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Bioscience and Technology, Karunya Institute of Technology and Science, Branch of Bioinformatics, School of Agriculture and Biosciences, Karunya Nagar, Coimbatore, 641114, India.

Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are prime health task worldwide and issue of patient safety besides intensifying antimicrobial drug resistance. It is essential to formulate structurally fascinating novel, active and cost-effective anti-microbial drugs possessing a peculiar way of action and capable of overcoming the resistance to effectively combat this disease.

Materials And Methods: The synthesized spiro-heterocyclic hybrids (SHHs) were elucidated through spectroscopic analysis and were assessed for their in vitro antimicrobial activity by agar diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was also determined. In addition, antioxidant potential was also evaluated through DPPH radical scavenging assays.

Results: The novel class of SHHs 4a and 4b displayed significant antibacterial activity against selected healthcare associated microbial pathogens (HAMPs). In addition, SHH 4b showed potent antioxidant properties.

Conclusion: Antibacterial and antifungal activity of dispirooxindolopyrrolidine fused acenaphthenone heterocyclic hybrids were examined. Interestingly, SHH 4b exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against selected HAMPs. Further, these compounds were also showed potent antioxidant properties. These results revealed that SHH 4b is a promising lead for the development of new antimicrobial drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2020.09.016DOI Listing
December 2020

Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Efficacy of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using a Traditional Phytoproduct, Asafoetida Gum.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 19;15:4351-4362. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: The present study synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the aqueous extract of a traditional medicinal product consisting of an oleoresin (a combination of macromolecules of carbohydrates and proteins) exuded from the rhizome of the plant (asafoetida gum) and evaluated its biological properties.

Materials And Methods: The silver nanoparticles synthesized using asafoetida gum (As-AgNPs) were characterized using UV/Vis spectroscopy, fourier infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and EADX. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity As-AgNPs were evaluated against MCF-7 cell lines and selected microbial pathogens, respectively.

Results: The synthesized silver nanoparticles were crystalline in nature with a spherical shape. The average particle size was 5.6-8.6 nm. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized As-AgNPs was evaluated against MCF-7 cell lines, and the As-AgNPs were found to be effective in inhibiting the multiplication of cancer cells. The As-AgNPs exhibited significant antimicrobial activity towards and . The MIC of the synthesized As-AgNPs was 7.80 μg/mL for ATCC 25922, sp. WS50- and ; 15.60 μg/mL for and WS10, and 31.20 μg/mL for and ATCC 43300-MRSA. In addition, MIC values of 15.60 μg/mL for ATCC8436 and 31.20 μg/mL for ATCC6258 were obtained.

Conclusion: As asafoetida is a good traditional medicine, its involvement in the synthesis of AgNPs led the silver nanoparticles to exhibit good cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S258319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310983PMC
August 2020

Immune stimulatory and anti-HIV-1 potential of extracts derived from marine brown algae Padina tetrastromatica.

J Complement Integr Med 2020 Jan 29;17(2). Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Medicinal botany, Sri Sairam Siddha Medical College & Research Centre, Chennai, TN, India.

Background Marine brown algae are biologically diverse and their medicinal value has been explored limited. We assessed whether Padina tetrastromatica Hauck will possess the immune stimulatory and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) inhibitory activity. Materials and Methods Aqueous and methanolic extracts were tested for the Th1/Th2 cytokines using PBMC. Subsequently, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), nitric oxide (NO) and anti-oxidant effect were analyzed using RAW264.7 cells. In addition, Padina extracts were tested for the HIV-1 clade C & A by measuring the levels of viral p24 antigen in infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and against reverse transcriptase (RT). Results At 100 μg/mL, aqueous and methanolic extracts produced a significant amount of IL-10 and IFN-γ at 24 h and 72 h post-stimulation by PBMCs. It also produced a significant amount of LTB4, NO and had an antioxidant effect on RAW264.7 cell, suggesting the immune stimulating potential of P. tetrastromatica. Upon infection of PBMCs with 100 TCID50, aqueous and methanolic extracts of P. tetrastromatica inhibited HIV-1 C (>90%) and HIV-1 A (>50%) showed a significant reduction in HIV-1 p24 levels and HIV-1 RT inhibition (>50%). GC-MS study revealed a relative abundance of tetradecanoic and oleic acid in the methanolic extract of P. tetrastromatica, which might be responsible for immune stimulation and anti-HIV-1 activity. Conclusion At lower concentrations (100 mg/mL), the aqueous and methanolic extracts of P. tetrastromatica showed the strong immune stimulation and greatest anti-HIV-1 potential in vitro. This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of these brown algae P. tetrastromatica for the benefit of mankind.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jcim-2019-0071DOI Listing
January 2020
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