Publications by authors named "K Murugan"

226 Publications

The prevalence of pain among patients with chronic kidney disease using systematic review and meta-analysis.

Kidney Int 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division of Population Health and Genomics, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 9SY; Renal Unit, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, UK. Electronic address:

Pain is a common but often undertreated symptom in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with a much higher prevalence than in the general population. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize all available quantitative evidence, in order to gain a better understanding of pain prevalence and pain types in patients with CKD. Four databases and the grey literature were searched until 15th January 2021. Random-effect meta-analyses were conducted with multiple subgroup analyses and meta-regressions to further explore the between-study heterogeneity. The quality of studies included was assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa scale and the level of evidence was determined using the GRADE approach. One hundred sixteen studies reported data on 40,678 individuals. Results from meta-analyses yielded an overall prevalence of 60% (95% confidence interval 56-64) for pain, 48% (42-55) for chronic pain and 10% (6-15) for neuropathic pain. The prevalence of pain was lower among kidney transplant recipients 46% (37-56) compared with patients undergoing dialysis 63% (57-68) and those with non-dialysis CKD 63% (55-70). Musculoskeletal pain appeared to be the most common pain symptom among patients with CKD managed conservatively 42% (28-56) or receiving dialysis 45% (36-55) whilst abdominal pain was most prevalent in kidney transplant recipients 41% (7-86). Thus, all subgroups of patients with CKD suffer from a high burden of pain. Hence, greater awareness and recognition of this issue is vital to inform policy and service provision in this area.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2021.03.041DOI Listing
April 2021

Zinc oxide nanoparticles using plant Lawsonia inermis and their mosquitocidal, antimicrobial, anticancer applications showing moderate side effects.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 23;11(1):8837. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 80708, Taiwan.

Microbes or parasites spread vector-borne diseases by mosquitoes without being affected themselves. Insecticides used in vector control produce a substantial problem for human health. This study synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Lawsonia inermis L. and were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, SEM with EDX, and XRD analysis. Green synthesized ZnO NPs were highly toxic against Anopheles stephensi, whose lethal concentrations values ranged from 5.494 ppm (I instar), 6.801 ppm (II instar), 9.336 ppm (III instar), 10.736 ppm (IV instar), and 12.710 ppm (pupae) in contrast to L. inermis treatment. The predation efficiency of the teleost fish Gambusia affinis and the copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis against A. stephensi was not affected by exposure at sublethal doses of ZnO NPs. The predatory potency for G. affinis was 45 (I) and 25.83% (IV), copepod M. aspericornis was 40.66 (I) and 10.8% (IV) while in an ZnO NPs contaminated environment, the predation by the fish G. affinis was boosted to 71.33 and 34.25%, and predation of the copepod M. aspericornis was 60.35 and 16.75%, respectively. ZnO NPs inhibited the growth of several microbial pathogens including the bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis) and the fungi (Alternaria alternate and Aspergillus flavus), respectively. ZnO NPs decreased the cell viability of Hep-G2 with IC value of 21.63 µg/mL (R = 0.942; P < 0.001) while the concentration increased from 1.88 to 30 µg/mL. These outcomes support the use of L. inermis mediated ZnO NPs for mosquito control and drug development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88164-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065047PMC
April 2021

Assessment of Extra-Cortical Bone Bridge Interface in Cemented Mega Endoprosthesis for Limb Salvage Surgery.

Malays Orthop J 2021 Mar;15(1):93-99

Department of Orthopaedics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia.

Introduction: Mega endoprosthesis replacement for resection of primary malignant bone tumour requires immediate and long-term stability, particularly in the young and active patient. Extracortical bone bridge interface (EBBI) is a technique whereby autograft is wrapped around the interface junction of bone and porous-coated implant to induce and enhance bone formation for biological incorporation. This procedure increases the mean torsional stiffness and the mean maximum torque, which eventually improves the implant's long-term survival.

Material And Methods: The extracortical bone bridge interface's radiological parameter was evaluated at the prosthesis bone junction two years after surgery utilising a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The radiograph's anteroposterior and lateral view was analysed for both thickness and length in all four cortices. The analysis was done in SPSS Version 24 using One-Way ANOVA and independent T-Test. Results were presented as mean and standard deviation and considered significant when the p-value was < 0.05.

Results: The mean average thickness was 2.2293mm (SD 1.829), and the mean average length was 31.95% (SD 24.55). We observed that the thickness and length of EBBI were superior in the young patient or patients with giant cell tumour that did not receive chemotherapy, compared to patients treated for osteosarcoma. The distal femur also had better EBBI compared to the proximal tibia. However, the final multivariable statistical analysis showed no significant difference in all variables. EBBI thickness was significantly and positively correlated with EBBI Length (p<0.001). We conclude that, for each 1mm increase in EBBI thickness, the length will increase by 0.06% on average. About 17.2% of patients out of the 29 showed no radiological evidence of EBBI.

Conclusion: From our study, there were no factors that significantly contributed to the formation and incorporation of EBBI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5704/MOJ.2103.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8043634PMC
March 2021

Systematic in vitro specificity profiling reveals nicking defects in natural and engineered CRISPR-Cas9 variants.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 04;49(7):4037-4053

Roy J. Carver Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics & Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease in the bacterial CRISPR-Cas immune system and a popular tool for genome editing. The commonly used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) is relatively non-specific and prone to off-target genome editing. Other Cas9 orthologs and engineered variants of SpCas9 have been reported to be more specific. However, previous studies have focused on specificity of double-strand break (DSB) or indel formation, potentially overlooking alternative cleavage activities of these Cas9 variants. In this study, we employed in vitro cleavage assays of target libraries coupled with high-throughput sequencing to systematically compare cleavage activities and specificities of two natural Cas9 variants (SpCas9 and Staphylococcus aureus Cas9) and three engineered SpCas9 variants (SpCas9 HF1, HypaCas9 and HiFi Cas9). We observed that all Cas9s tested could cleave target sequences with up to five mismatches. However, the rate of cleavage of both on-target and off-target sequences varied based on target sequence and Cas9 variant. In addition, SaCas9 and engineered SpCas9 variants nick targets with multiple mismatches but have a defect in generating a DSB, while SpCas9 creates DSBs at these targets. Overall, these differences in cleavage rates and DSB formation may contribute to varied specificities observed in genome editing studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053117PMC
April 2021

Reproductive toxicity of quantum dots on gonads of the fresh water crab Sinopotamon henanense.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Mar 5;241:108968. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

School of Life Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, China. Electronic address:

Since nano-quantum dots (QDs) are increasingly used as fluorescent dyes in biomedical sciences, the possibility of QDs contaminating aquatic environments is generally increasing. There is concern about potential toxicity of QDs. However, their risks in the aquatic environment are not entirely understood. In this study, the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense was exposed to cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs by intraperitoneal injection to detect the reproductive toxicity of QDs (1/32, 1/16 and 1/4 LD; Crab was exposed for 1, 3, 5, and 7 days). After CdTe QD exposure, no significant effect was detected on the body weight and gonadosomatic index. Additionally, morphological observations showed tissue vacuolation in the testis, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the ovary. The submicroscopic structure showed that exposure to CdTe QDs damaged the organelles and cell structures of the gonads of S. henanense. Among the adverse effects, pathological changes in the nuclear membrane, mitochondria and lysosomes were particularly significant. Antioxidant enzymes responded differently to different doses of QDs. The 0.5-mg/kg dose induced superoxide dismutase activity in the testes. And in the 1-mg/kg and 4-mg/kg dose QD exposure test, the testis responded by activating glutathione peroxidase and inducing reduced glutathione and overconsuming glutathione peroxidase. Respectively, the ovaries responded by overconsuming superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione. Thus, we conclude that the gonads of S. henanense were injured by CdTe QD, and male are better indicators of the toxicity of QDs than female crabs according to greater alterations in tissue structure and antioxidant enzyme in the analyses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2020.108968DOI Listing
March 2021