Publications by authors named "K Mjoun"

9 Publications

Lactation performance of dairy cows fed yeast-derived microbial protein in low- and high-forage diets.

J Dairy Sci 2016 Apr 4;99(4):2775-2787. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

Alltech Inc., Brookings, SD 57006.

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of substituting soybean meal products with yeast-derived microbial protein (YMP) on lactation performance in diets containing 2 forage-to-concentrate ratios. Sixteen Holstein cows (4 primiparous and 12 multiparous) were randomly assigned to multiple 4 × 4 Latin squares with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets contained low (LF; 45% of diet DM) or high forage (HF; 65% of diet DM) and YMP at 0 (NYMP) or 2.25% (WYMP) of the diet. The forage mix consisted of 67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa hay on a DM basis. No interactions of forage and YMP were noted for any of the production parameters measured. Feed efficiency (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake) was greater for cows fed NYMP compared with WYMP. Regardless of the addition of YMP, cows fed LF had greater dry matter intake and produced more milk than cows fed HF. In addition, cows fed LF produced more energy-corrected milk than those fed HF. Milk fat percentage was lower in cows fed LF compared with HF, whereas fat yield was similar between forage concentrations. Fat yield tended to decrease with feeding YMP. Interactions of forage and YMP were observed for propionate concentration, acetate and propionate proportion, and acetate-to-propionate ratio. A tendency for an interaction of forage and YMP was also noted for ruminal pH. Cows fed HF diets had greater ruminal ammonia and butyrate concentrations, as well as proportion of butyrate. Arterial concentrations of Ile, Leu, Met, Thr, and Val were greater in cows fed LF. Cows fed NYMP had greater arterial concentrations of Ile, Lys, Trp, and Val than cows fed WYMP. Substitution of soybean proteins with YMP did not improve performance or feed efficiency of high-producing dairy cows regardless of the forage-to-concentrate ratio of the diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-10014DOI Listing
April 2016

Feeding protein supplements in alfalfa hay-based lactation diets improves nutrient utilization, lactational performance, and feed efficiency of dairy cows.

J Dairy Sci 2014 Dec 26;97(12):7716-28. Epub 2014 Sep 26.

Department of Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State University, Logan 84322.

Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow-release urea (SRU; Optigen; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) and ruminal-escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP; Alltech Inc.). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in alfalfa hay-based [45.7% of forage dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and lactational performance of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous dairy cows were used in a triple 4 × 4 Latin square design with one square consisting of ruminally cannulated cows. Treatments included (1) control, (2) SRU-supplemented total mixed ration (SRUT), (3) YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (YMPT), and (4) SRU- and YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (SYT). The control consisted only of a mixture of soybean meal and canola meal in a 50:50 ratio. The SRU and the YMP were supplemented at 0.49 and 1.15% DM, respectively. The experiment consisted of 4 periods lasting 28 d each (21 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling). Cows fed YMPT and SYT had decreased intake of DM, and all supplemented treatments had lower crude protein intake compared with those fed the control. Milk yield tended to have the greatest increase in YMPT compared with the control (41.1 vs. 39.7 kg/d) as well as a tendency for increased milk fat and protein yields. Feed efficiencies based on yields of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk increased at 10 to 16% due to protein supplementation. Cows fed protein supplements partitioned less energy toward body weight gain, but tended to partition more energy toward milk production. Efficiency of use of feed N to milk N increased by feeding SRUT and YMPT, and milk N-to-manure N ratio increased with YMPT. Overall results from this experiment indicate that replacing the mixture of soybean meal and canola meal with SRU and YMP in alfalfa hay-based dairy diets can be a good approach to improve nutrient utilization efficiencies in lactating dairy cows.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-8033DOI Listing
December 2014

Extruded aquafeeds containing distillers dried grains with solubles: effects on extrudate properties and processing behaviour.

J Sci Food Agric 2011 Dec 1;91(15):2865-74. Epub 2011 Jul 1.

USDA-ARS, North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory, 2923 Medary Avenue, Brookings, SD 57006, USA.

Background: The tremendous supply and low cost of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) make it an attractive feedstuff for aquaculture diets. Also, several studies have shown that DDGS can be successfully fed to various finfish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion rate of DDGS (0, 250, 500 g kg(-1) ), feed moisture content (350, 450 g kg(-1) ) and die opening area (die A = 18.85 mm(2) , die B = 3988.45 mm(2) ) on the properties of the extrudates and on processing behaviour using a single-screw extruder.

Results: Increasing the inclusion rate of DDGS resulted in extrudates with lower unit density, bulk density, expansion ratio, water solubility index and brightness (Hunter L) but higher redness (Hunter a) and yellowness (Hunter b). The increase in moisture content affected the extrudate properties in different ways: it increased bulk density, Hunter L, Hunter b and mass flow rate, whereas specific mechanical energy decreased at high moisture content. Increasing the die opening area primarily decreased expansion ratio of extrudates, power consumption and barrel temperatures but increased mass flow rate.

Conclusion: Extrudates from all treatments exhibited high durability and floatability, and less energy was required to produce extrudates when DDGS was used compared with soybean meal-based diets. The aquaculture industry can use this information to develop high-quality feeds at low cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4536DOI Listing
December 2011

Fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of wet corn distillers grains with solubles ensiled in combination with whole plant corn.

J Sci Food Agric 2011 May 18;91(7):1336-40. Epub 2011 Feb 18.

Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.

Background: Wet corn distillers grains with solubles (WDG) are prone to aerobic spoilage when stored for an extended period of time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentation characteristics of ensiling WDG with whole plant corn (WPC) using the following combinations: (1) 100% WPC; (2) 75% WPC + 25% WDG; (3) 50% WPC + 50% WDG; and (4) 100% WDG.

Results: The initial pH was greatest for 100% WPC and lowest for 100% WDG (5.7, 4.6, 4.0, and 3.1, respectively). Concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (12.0, 26.8, 40.7, and 50.8 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM)) and Crude protein (CP) (98.7, 155.8, 206.8, and 307.9 g kg(-1) of DM) increased with increasing concentrations of WDG. Lactic acid concentration prior to ensiling was greatest for 100% WDG (9.0 g kg(-1) DM) and decreased with WPC in the silage. Acetic, propionic, and butyric acids were not present prior to ensiling. The pH of the ensiled feeds dropped below 4.0 by day 3, with no further decrease over time. Acetic acid increased from undetected amounts at day 0 to 38.8, 43.9, 43.2, and 2.2 g kg(-1) of DM at day 129 as concentration of WDG increased. Aerobic stability was enhanced with increasing WDG concentration in the silage.

Conclusion: Fermentation, nutrient profile, and aerobic stability can be improved when ensiling wet distillers grains with whole plant corn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4323DOI Listing
May 2011