Publications by authors named "K K Brown"

7,586 Publications

Acknowledge the Elephant in the Room: The Role of Power Dynamics in Transforming Food Systems Comment on "What Opportunities Exist for Making the Food Supply Nutrition Friendly? A Policy Space Analysis in Mexico".

Int J Health Policy Manag 2022 Jul 26. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

College of Life & Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

A paradigm shift is required to transform food systems, so they are more equitable, environmentally friendly, and healthy. This requires acknowledging which factors change or maintain the status quo. In this commentary, we reflect upon the Cervantes et al study findings and discuss the role of power dynamics in transforming food systems. This is directly relevant to Mexico in terms of () relationships between food system actors; () the role of socio-economic political context; and () opportunities for policy coherence and transformative food systems approaches. We suggest that the power dynamics that drive the food produced, sold, and consumed should be recognised in all (inter)national governance decision-making. The 2021 United Nations Food System Summit - when interest groups were perceived to overly influence the summit proceedings - is an example of how neglecting the role of power dynamics can undermine and slow food system transformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2022.7382DOI Listing
July 2022

A systematic review and behaviour change technique analysis of remotely delivered alcohol and/or substance misuse interventions for adults.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2022 Aug 8;239:109597. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Department of Psychology, Sport, and Geography, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB, UK.

Background: There has been a lack of systematic exploration of remotely delivered intervention content and their effectiveness for behaviour change outcomes. This review provides a synthesis of the behaviour change techniques (BCT) contained in remotely delivered alcohol and/or substance misuse approaches and their association with intervention promise.

Methods: Searches in MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO (ProQuest), and the Cochrane Library, included studies reporting remote interventions focusing on alcohol and/or substance misuse among adults, with a primary behaviour change outcome (e.g., alcohol levels consumed). Assessment of risk of bias, study promise, and BCT coding was conducted. Synthesis focussed on the association of BCTs with intervention effectiveness using promise ratios.

Results: Studies targeted alcohol misuse (52 studies) or substance misuse (10 studies), with predominantly randomised controlled trial designs and asynchronous digital approaches. For alcohol misuse studies, 16 were very promising, 17 were quite promising, and 13 were not promising. Of the 36 eligible BCTs, 28 showed potential promise, with seven of these only appearing in very or quite promising studies. Particularly promising BCTs were 'Avoidance/reducing exposure to cues for behaviour', 'Pros and cons' and 'Self-monitoring of behaviour'. For substance misuse studies, three were very promising and six were quite promising, with all 12 BCTs showing potential promise.

Conclusions: This review showed remotely delivered alcohol and substance misuse interventions can be effective and highlighted a range of BCTs that showed promise for improving services. However, concerns with risk of bias and the potential of promise ratios to inflate effectiveness warrant caution in interpreting the evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109597DOI Listing
August 2022

Evaluation of the move to remote delivery of drug and alcohol services during the COVID-19 pandemic: A study protocol.

J Public Health Res 2022 Jul 6;11(3):22799036221106583. Epub 2022 Aug 6.

University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.

Background: Substance misuse is a significant global health concern. In the UK, the prevalence of substance misuse has increased over the past decade and the number of alcohol and drug related deaths are increasing. Individuals with substance dependency issues are entitled to access treatment services. However, the COVID-19 pandemic created significant challenges for public services, including drug and alcohol treatment, and resulted in significant service reconfiguration and a shift from in-person to remote delivery. This study aims to evaluate the delivery of drug and alcohol services in a large metropolitan area in Northern England during the COVID-19 pandemic. It aims to understand the impact of service reconfiguration for services, staff and service users, and to use this understanding to inform the future optimised design of services.

Design And Methods: The study has five workstreams within a mixed methods framework: (1) Systematic review of literature; (2) Qualitative process evaluation with service providers (digital timelines, focus groups and interviews); (3) Qualitative process evaluation with service users (interviews, focus groups, text based conversations and case studies); (4) Quantitative outcomes and health economic analysis; and (5) Data synthesis and dissemination.

Expected Impact Of The Study For Public Health: The breadth of the study, its novel nature, and the importance of substance misuse as a public health issue, mean that this study will provide valuable findings for those who commission, deliver and use drug and alcohol treatment services nationally and internationally. There will also be important learning for the effective remote delivery of services in sectors beyond drug and alcohol treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/22799036221106583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9358564PMC
July 2022

Personal Digital Twin: A Close Look into the Present and a Step towards the Future of Personalised Healthcare Industry.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Aug 8;22(15). Epub 2022 Aug 8.

School of Computer Science and Information Technology, University College Cork, T12 E8YV Cork, Ireland.

Digital twins (DTs) play a vital role in revolutionising the healthcare industry, leading to more personalised, intelligent, and proactive healthcare. With the evolution of personalised healthcare, there is a significant need to represent a virtual replica for individuals to provide the right type of care in the right way and at the right time. Therefore, in this paper, we surveyed the concept of a personal digital twin (PDT) as an enhanced version of the DT with actionable insight capabilities. In particular, PDT can bring value to patients by enabling more accurate decision making and proper treatment selection and optimisation. Then, we explored the progression of PDT as a revolutionary technology in healthcare research and industry. However, although several research works have been performed for smart healthcare using DT, PDT is still at an early stage. Consequently, we believe that this work can be a step towards smart personalised healthcare industry by guiding the design of industrial personalised healthcare systems. Accordingly, we introduced a reference framework that empowers smart personalised healthcare using PDTs by bringing together existing advanced technologies (i.e., DT, blockchain, and AI). Then, we described some selected use cases, including the mitigation of COVID-19 contagion, COVID-19 survivor follow-up care, personalised COVID-19 medicine, personalised osteoporosis prevention, personalised cancer survivor follow-up care, and personalised nutrition. Finally, we identified further challenges to pave the PDT paradigm toward the smart personalised healthcare industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22155918DOI Listing
August 2022
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