Publications by authors named "K Glover"

285 Publications

Development and validation of a multidimensional, culturally and socially inclusive Child Resilience Questionnaire (parent/caregiver report) to measure factors that support resilience: a community-based participatory research and psychometric testing study in Australia.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 20;12(6):e061129. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Intergenerational Health, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: Develop a comprehensive socially inclusive measure to assess child resilience factors.

Design: A socioecological model of resilience, community-based participatory research methods and two rounds of psychometric testing created the Child Resilience Questionnaire (parent/caregiver report, child report, school report). The parent/caregiver report (CRQ-P/C) is the focus of this paper.

Setting: Australia.

Participants: Culturally and socially diverse parents/caregivers of children aged 5-12 years completed the CRQ-P/C in the pilot (n=489) and validation study (n=1114). Recruitment via a large tertiary hospital's outpatient clinics, Aboriginal and refugee background communities (Aboriginal and bicultural researchers networks) and nested follow-up of mothers in a pregnancy cohort and a cohort of Aboriginal families.

Analysis: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses conducted to assess the structure and construct validity of CRQ-P/C subscales. Cronbach's alpha used to assess internal consistency of subscales. Criterion validity assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) parent report.

Results: Conceptually developed CRQ comprised 169 items in 19 subscales across five socioecological domains (self, family, friends, school and community). Two rounds of psychometric revision and community consultations created a CRQ-P/C with 43 items in 11 scales: self (positive self, positive future, managing emotions), family (connectedness, guidance, basic needs), school (teacher support, engagement, friends) and culture (connectedness, language). Excellent scale reliability (α=0.7-0.9), except scale (α=0.61) (where a highly endorsed item was retained for conceptual integrity). Criterion validity was supported: scales had low to moderate negative correlations with SDQ total difficulty score (R -0.2/-0.5. p<0.001); children with emotion/behavioural difficulties had lower CRQ-P/C scores (β=-14.5, 95% CI -17.5 to -11.6, adjusted for gender).

Conclusion: The CRQ-P/C is a new multidomain measure of factors supporting resilience in children. It has good psychometric properties and will have broad applications in clinical, educational and research settings. The tool also adds to the few culturally competent measures relevant to Aboriginal and refugee background communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2022-061129DOI Listing
June 2022

Introgression of domesticated salmon changes life history and phenology of a wild salmon population.

Evol Appl 2022 May 11;15(5):853-864. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Institute of Marine Research Bergen Norway.

The release of domesticated conspecifics into the natural environment, whether deliberate or accidental, has the potential to alter the genetic integrity and evolutionary trajectory of wild populations. This widespread challenge is of particular concern for wild Atlantic salmon. By investigating phenotypic differences between the offspring of domesticated, hybrid, and wild Atlantic salmon released into the natural environment, earlier studies have documented the short-term consequences of introgression from domesticated fish into wild salmon populations. However, few studies have investigated the joined product of introgression and natural selection after several generations. Here, we investigated the phenotypic response of an Atlantic salmon population that has been subjected to an average of 24% genetic admixture by domesticated conspecifics escaping from fish farms over three decades (approximately 6-7 generations). Individual levels of admixture were positively correlated with increased size at the smolt and adult stages for both sexes, a decrease in the age of male smolts, and a decrease in the age at maturity for males. These life history changes are presumably the consequence of the well-documented directional selection for increased growth in domesticated salmon and are likely maladaptive. However, the most novel result of this study is that admixture was positively linked with delayed date of return to the river, with highly admixed fish arriving up to 26 days later than nonadmixed fish. Potentially, this phenological change provides admixed individuals with a survival advantage in the later phase of the life cycle as it reduces their period of exposure to selection through rod and line angling. We, therefore, conclude that while gene flow from domesticated conspecifics changes life history and phenological traits of wild Atlantic salmon populations, most of which are likely to be maladaptive, when pressured by additional anthropogenic challenges, some changes may confer a fitness advantage for a short part of the life cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eva.13375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9108307PMC
May 2022

Total Synthesis of (+)-Cochlearol B by an Approach Based on a Catellani Reaction and Visible-Light-Enabled [2+2] Cycloaddition.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 Apr 13:e202201213. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Willard Henry Dow Laboratory, 930 North University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

A 14-step synthesis of (+)-cochlearol B is reported. This renoprotective meroterpenoid features a unique core structure containing a densely substituted cyclobutane ring with three stereocenters. Our strategy employed an organocatalytic Kabbe condensation in route to the key chromenyl triflate. A subsequent Catellani reaction incorporated the remaining carbon atoms featured in the skeleton of cochlearol B. An ensuing visible-light-mediated [2+2] photocycloaddition closed the cyclobutane and formed the central bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane core. Notably, careful design and tuning of the Catellani and photocycloaddition reactions proved crucial in overcoming undesired reactivity, including cyclopropanation reactions and [4+2] cycloadditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202201213DOI Listing
April 2022

3D bioprinted scaffolds for diabetic wound-healing applications.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2022 Jan 11. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

School of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, 97 Lisburn Road, Belfast, BT9 7BL, UK.

The treatment strategy required for the effective healing of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a complex process that is requiring several combined therapeutic approaches. As a result, there is a significant clinical and economic burden associated in treating DFU. Furthermore, these treatments are often unsuccessful, commonly resulting in lower-limb amputation. The use of drug-loaded scaffolds to treat DFU has previously been investigated using electrospinning and fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing techniques; however, the rapidly evolving field of bioprinting is creating new opportunities for innovation within this research area. In this study, 3D-bioprinted scaffolds with different designs have been fabricated for the delivery of an antibiotic (levoflocixin) to DFU. The scaffolds were fully characterised by a variety of techniques (e.g. SEM, DSC/TGA, FTIR, and mechanical characterisation), demonstrating excellent mechanical properties and providing sustained drug release for 4 weeks. This proof of concept study demonstrates the innovative potential of bioprinting technologies in fabrication of antibiotic scaffolds for the treatment of DFU.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13346-022-01115-8DOI Listing
January 2022

A Systematic Review of Child Health and Developmental Outcomes Associated with Low Birthweight and/or Small for Gestational Age in Indigenous Children from Australia, Canada and New Zealand.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 12 1;18(23). Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Intergenerational Health Department, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne 3052, Australia.

While much is known about the health implications of low birthweight for infants and adults, there is limited information about the health implications in childhood, particularly for Indigenous children. The aim of this systematic review was to assess associations between low birthweight (LBW) and/or small for gestational age (SGA) and the developmental, physical or mental health outcomes for Australian, Canadian and New Zealand Indigenous children (5-12 years), including the potential mediating role of cultural connections. The review was guided by an Aboriginal Advisory Group established to guide the Aboriginal Families Study. Four databases were investigated with pre-determined inclusion/exclusion criteria. The search identified 417 articles after independent screening by two authors. Eight studies assessing six child outcomes were included. The review identified limited evidence, although the review suggested possible links between LBW and/or SGA and childhood asthma, lower body mass index (BMI) and poorer academic performance. Links between LBW, SGA and disability, global health and developmental vulnerability were inconclusive. One study identified cultural-based resilience as protective against perinatal adversity. In summary, research on the relationship between adverse birth outcomes and Indigenous children's health and development is limited. Further investigation and collaboration with Indigenous communities is required to drive optimised health and social services responses and equitable system reform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8657270PMC
December 2021
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