Publications by authors named "K D Hopper"

355 Publications

Response to selection for parasitism of a suboptimal, low-preference host in an aphid parasitoid.

Evol Appl 2021 Aug 21;14(8):2012-2024. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Beneficial Insect Introductions Research Unit USDA-ARS Newark DE USA.

Risks of postintroduction evolution in insects introduced to control invasive pests have been discussed for some time, but little is known about responses to selection or genetic architectures of host adaptation and thus about the likelihood or rapidity of evolutionary shifts. We report here results on the response to selection and genetic architecture of parasitism of a suboptimal, low-preference host species by an aphid parasitoid, , a candidate for introduction against the soy bean aphid, . We selected .  for increased parasitism of by rearing the parasitoid on this aphid for three generations. We measured parasitism of .  at generations 2 and 3, and at generation 3, we crossed and backcrossed parasitoids from the populations reared on .  with those from populations reared on and compared parasitism of both .  and among and backcross females. responded rapidly to selection for parasitism of . . Selection for .  parasitism reduced parasitism of , the original host of . . However, parasitism of .  did not increase from generation 2 to generation 3 of selection, suggesting reduced variance available for selection, which was indeed found. We tested the associations between 184 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and increased parasitism of .  and found 28 SNP loci, some of which were associated with increased and others with decreased parasitism of . . We assembled and annotated the .  genome, mapped all SNP loci to contigs and tested whether genes on contigs with SNP loci associated with parasitism were enriched for candidate genes or gene functions. We identified 80 genes on these contigs that mapped to 1.2 Mb of the 483 Mb genome of .  but found little enrichment of candidate genes or gene functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eva.13254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8372064PMC
August 2021

Retrospective evaluation of the prognostic utility of plasma lactate concentration and serial lactate measurements in dogs and cats presented to the emergency room (January 2012 - December 2016): 4863 cases.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, University of California Davis, Davis, California, USA.

Objective: To determine the prognostic significance of plasma lactate concentration, plasma lactate clearance, and delta lactate in dogs and cats presented to an emergency room (ER).

Design: Retrospective study.

Setting: University teaching hospital.

Animals: A total of 8,321 animals with a plasma lactate concentration measured with 4,863 presenting to the ER and 1,529 dogs and 444 cats having a measurement within 4 hours of admission.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: Plasma lactate concentration of dogs and cats presented to a university teaching hospital was retrospectively evaluated. Of dogs and cats with a plasma lactate concentration measured within 4 hours of admission to the ER, hyperlactatemia was common, and the prevalence of hyperlactatemia for dogs 78% (361/462) and cats 67% (78/116) was highest when evaluated within the first 30 minutes following admission. The distribution of patient's plasma lactate concentration was significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors at all time points evaluated (P 0.001). Both lactate clearance (P = 0.010) and delta lactate (P = 0.013) were significantly different between survivors and nonsurvivors. A delta lactate > 4.5 mmol/L was 100% (95% CI: 95 to 100%) specific for nonsurvival in patients with hyperlactatemia measured within 1 hour of admission to the ER. The most common cause of hyperlactatemia was shock in dogs (24%) and urinary tract diseases in cats (22%). Shock was associated with the highest mortality rate in both dogs (61%) and cats (77%). Hyperlactatemia was significantly associated with increased mortality for dogs with shock (P = 0.001), respiratory diseases (P = 0.022), diabetes mellitus (P = 0.018), and liver dysfunction (P = 0.006).

Conclusions: Hyperlactatemia was associated with mortality in both dogs and cats when measured at any time point in the 4 hours following admission to the ER. Serial lactate measurement may also be a valuable tool to guide clinical management decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vec.13106DOI Listing
August 2021

Potential of deep learning segmentation for the extraction of archaeological features from historical map series.

Archaeol Prospect 2021 Apr-Jun;28(2):187-199. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Archaeology University of Cambridge Downing Street Cambridge CB2 3DZ UK.

Historical maps present a unique depiction of past landscapes, providing evidence for a wide range of information such as settlement distribution, past land use, natural resources, transport networks, toponymy and other natural and cultural data within an explicitly spatial context. Maps produced before the expansion of large-scale mechanized agriculture reflect a landscape that is lost today. Of particular interest to us is the great quantity of archaeologically relevant information that these maps recorded, both deliberately and incidentally. Despite the importance of the information they contain, researchers have only recently begun to automatically digitize and extract data from such maps as coherent information, rather than manually examine a raster image. However, these new approaches have focused on specific types of information that cannot be used directly for archaeological or heritage purposes. This paper provides a proof of concept of the application of deep learning techniques to extract archaeological information from historical maps in an automated manner. Early twentieth century colonial map series have been chosen, as they provide enough time depth to avoid many recent large-scale landscape modifications and cover very large areas (comprising several countries). The use of common symbology and conventions enhance the applicability of the method. The results show deep learning to be an efficient tool for the recovery of georeferenced, archaeologically relevant information that is represented as conventional signs, line-drawings and text in historical maps. The method can provide excellent results when an adequate training dataset has been gathered and is therefore at its best when applied to the large map series that can supply such information. The deep learning approaches described here open up the possibility to map sites and features across entire map series much more quickly and coherently than other available methods, opening up the potential to reconstruct archaeological landscapes at continental scales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arp.1807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248396PMC
January 2021

Public restrooms, periods, and people experiencing homelessness: An assessment of public toilets in high needs areas of Manhattan, New York.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(6):e0252946. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Sociomedical Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States of America.

Access to safe, clean water and sanitation is globally recognized as essential for public health. Public toilets should be accessible to all members of a society, without social or physical barriers preventing usage. A public toilet facility's design and upkeep should offer privacy and safety, ensure cleanliness, provide required sanitation-related resources, and be gender equitable, including enabling comfortable and safe management of menstruation. Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) refers to the need to ensure that girls, women and all people who menstruate have access to clean menstrual products, privacy to change the materials as often as needed, soap and water for washing the body as required, and access to facilities to dispose of used materials. Challenges around menstruation faced by people experiencing homelessness, which tend to be greater than those facing the general population, include inadequate toilet and bathing facilities, affordability issues around menstrual products, and menstrual stigma. Public toilets are a vital resource for managing menstruation, particularly for vulnerable populations without reliable access to private, safe, and clean spaces and menstrual products. This mixed-methods study sought to: 1) understand the lived experiences of MHM among people experiencing homelessness in New York City with respect to public toilets; 2) describe general and MHM-related characteristics of public toilets in high need areas of Manhattan and analyze their interrelationships; and 3) examine the associations among neighborhood-level demographics and the public toilet characteristics in those areas. Qualitative methods included key informant interviews (n = 15) and in-depth interviews (n = 22) with people with experience living on the street or in shelters, which were analyzed using Malterud's 'systematic text condensation' for thematic cross-case analysis. Quantitative methods included audits and analyses of public toilet facilities (n = 25) using traditional statistics (e.g., Spearman's correlations) and spatial analyses (e.g., proximity buffers). Qualitative findings suggest cleanliness, access to restrooms, and availability of resources are critical issues for the participants or prospective users. Quantitative analyses revealed insufficiently provided, maintained, and resourced public toilets for managing menstruation in high-needs areas. Findings also suggest that toilets with more MHM-related resource availability, such as menstrual products and toilet stall disposal bins, were more difficult to access. Neighborhood-level characteristics showed a potential environmental injustice, as areas characterized by higher socioeconomic status are associated with more access to MHM-specific resources in public restrooms, as well as better overall quality.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252946PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8221515PMC
June 2021

Characteristics of arterial catheter use and related complications in dogs and cats in an intensive care unit.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2021 Jul 14;31(4):469-475. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Veterinary Surgical and Radiological Sciences|School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, USA.

Objective: To identify characteristics of arterial catheter use, including indwelling times and reasons for removal, and analyze potential risk factors for complications based on patient- and catheter-related variables.

Design: Prospective clinical study from July 2012 to September 2016.

Setting: University teaching hospital.

Animals: One hundred ninety-eight dogs and 29 cats with an arterial catheter monitored in the ICU.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: A questionnaire was used to obtain patient and catheter information for arterial catheters monitored in the ICU during the study period. Two hundred twenty-seven catheters met the inclusion criteria. Most catheters were placed in the dorsal metatarsal artery in dogs (90.4%) and either the dorsal metatarsal artery (51.7%) or coccygeal artery (48.3%) in cats. Weights ranged from 1.5 to 64 kg in dogs and 0.77 to 8.7 kg in cats. The median indwelling time was 24 hours for dogs and 12 hours for cats. Minor complications occurred in 19.2% of catheters in dogs and 17.2% of those in cats with removal of catheter due to complications in 13 of 198 (6.6%) for dogs and 2 of 29 (6.9%) for cats. There was no association between the incidence of complications and patient weight, catheter indwelling time, species, insertion site, catheter size, or level of consciousness during placement. There was also no association between the method of catheter maintenance (intermittent flushing or continuous pressure transducer) and the failure of a catheter to aspirate or flush.

Conclusions: Arterial catheter-related complications were relatively frequent, but most complications were minor and did not justify removal of the catheter. This suggests that the use of arterial catheters in both species is relatively safe. However, further research is needed to assess complications related to longer catheter indwelling times, particularly in cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vec.13084DOI Listing
July 2021
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