Publications by authors named "K Buchmann"

200 Publications

Optimization of tools for the detection and identification of Cryptocotyle metacercariae in fish: Digestion method and viability studies.

J Fish Dis 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

ANSES, Laboratory for Food Safety, Boulogne-sur-Mer, France.

Some trematode metacercariae, including marine digeneans belonging to the genus Cryptocotyle, induce black spots in target tissues due to the attraction of fish host melanophores. To promote precise quantification of infection, the counting of black spots has to be confirmed by reliable quantification of metacercariae after tissue digestion. This process ensures the isolation of undamaged parasites for morphological and molecular identification. The aim of this work was to optimize the pepsin digestion protocol and to assess the duration of viability of Cryptocotyle metacercariae in fish post-mortem (pm). Four digestion protocols were compared by measuring the viability rate of metacercariae. The present study shows that the orbital digestion method was the least destructive for metacercariae and allowed better quantification of Cryptocotyle infection. Moreover, morphological identification seemed reliable up to 8 days pm for Cryptocotyle infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13495DOI Listing
July 2021

Eye fluke effects on Danish freshwater fish: Field and experimental investigations.

J Fish Dis 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.

Eye flukes in fish are common in freshwater lakes. Fish become infected by the penetration of cercariae released from freshwater snails, and high infection pressures may be associated with mortalities in a Danish lake. Examination of two other freshwater lakes, combined with laboratory study, supported the notion. We investigated 77 freshwater fish from two lakes and the infection level suggested the occurrence of a high cercarial infection pressure in the Danish lakes. Dominant genera were Tylodelphys and Diplostomum covering a range of species identified by PCR and sequencing of the 18S (partial)-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-28S (partial) of the rDNA. Cercariae of the prevalent species Diplostomum pseudospathaceum were used to infect zebrafish Danio rerio for the elucidation of short-term effects on the fish host. Zebrafish did not display abnormal behaviour when exposed to 200-400 cercariae, but a dosage of 600 and 1,000 cercariae/fish proved lethal. When fish were exposed to sublethal dosages, 19 out of 27 immune genes were significantly regulated and three genes encoding cytokine (IL 4/13B, IL-6 and IL-8) were upregulated at 3 hr post-infection (hpi), whereas others were downregulated especially at a later time point. We suggest that direct massive cercarial penetration of fish surfaces may be detrimental and may represent a threat to fish populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13496DOI Listing
July 2021

(Apicomplexa) in in Europe with a potential for spread.

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2021 Aug 2;15:270-275. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Four specimens of mallard () shot by local hunters (December 2020 to January 2021 along the eastern coastline of the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea) were diagnosed with a heavy load of sarcocysts in the musculature. Morphometric and molecular diagnosis based on rDNA (18 S, ITS1, 28 S) of parasites recovered from two of the birds revealed the causative pathogen to be . We further present novel sequences for the entire 5.8 S and ITS2 for this species. Elongate cysts (mean length 5.25 (SD 0.6) mm, width 1.37 (SD 0.2) mm) were recorded in all parts of the striated skeletal musculature of the birds. The main part (72%) of the 2585 cysts in one female mallard was located in the outer superficial pectoral musculature, with 11% in the inner pectoral musculature. Minor but significant parts were found in the dorsal, ventral abdominal, neck and head, legs, hand and arm (wing) musculature. No cysts were found in the smooth musculature. Each cyst contained a median of 3.2 mio bradyzoites indicating that more than 8 billion bradyzoites are available for infection of one or more predators/scavengers ingesting the bird. Bradyzoites (median length 13.5 μm (range 12.1-14.5) and median width 2.66 μm (range 2.1-3.3)) were highly resistant to proteinase treatment, which secures the passage through the stomach of the predator to its intestine where wall penetration takes place. One of the birds was ringed (tagged) in Sweden Island Øland in the Baltic Sea two years before being shot. This is documenting immigration of mallards from northern locations. The parasite species was originally described in North America in 1893 and was commonly reported in this region during the 20th century but not in Europe. Recent cases from Norway, Finland, Lithuania, Poland, UK and Hungary suggest that the species may be spreading geographically. Experienced duck hunters with a 40 years record of hunting on the island reported that this type of infection unprecedented. The final host is reported to be canines (fox, raccoon dog), skunk and mustelids, including ermines and American mink. Presence of these hosts in Europe may allow establishment of the life cycle and further colonization of the local duck populations which calls for implementation of a survey program in Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2021.06.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264532PMC
August 2021

Avian schistosome species in Danish freshwater lakes: relation to biotic and abiotic factors.

J Helminthol 2021 Apr 20;95:e22. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Stigbøjlen 7, DK-1870Frederiksberg C, Denmark.

Due to the increased prevalence of human infections with bird schistosome larvae (cercarial dermatitis) associated with bathing in Danish lakes, a nationwide survey of infected intermediate host snails was conducted in 2018-2020. Pulmonate snails (10,225 specimens) were collected from 39 freshwater lakes (in the four major geographic regions in Denmark) and subjected to shedding. Released schistosome cercariae were isolated and identified by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing whereby Trichobilharzia regenti, Trichobilharzia franki, Trichobilharzia szidati and Trichobilharzia anseri were recorded. Infections were primarily determined by biotic factors such as the presence of final host birds and intermediate host snails and water temperature was noted as an important abiotic parameter associated with the infection. No clear connection with other abiotic factors (conductivity, alkalinity, pH, nitrogen, phosphorous) was seen. The widespread occurrence of infected snails, when compared to previous investigations, suggests that climate changes at northern latitudes could be responsible for the increased risk of contracting cercarial dermatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X21000122DOI Listing
April 2021

Properties of Starve-Fed Extrusion on a Material Containing a VHMWPE Fraction.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Institute of Polymer Extrusion and Compounding, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz, Austria.

Single-screw extruders are usually operated with the screw fully filled (flood-fed mode) and not partially filled (starve-fed mode). These modes result in completely different processing characteristics, and although starve-fed mode has been shown to have significant advantages, such as improved mixing and melting performance, it is rarely used, and experimental studies are scarce. Here, we present extensive experimental research into starve-fed extrusion at feeding rates as low as 25%. We compared various operating parameters (e.g., residence time, pressure build-up, and melting performance) at various feeding rates and screw speeds. The results show a first insight into the performance of starve-fed extruders compared to flood-fed extruders. We explored starve-fed extrusion of a polyethylene material which contains a Very High Molecular Weight Polyethylene fraction (VHMWPE). VHMWPE offers several advantages in terms of mechanical properties, but its high viscosity renders common continuous melt processes, such as compression molding, ram extrusion and sintering, ineffective. This work shows that operating single-screw extruders in extreme starve-fed mode significantly increases residence time, melt temperature, and improves melting and that-in combination-this results in significant elongation of VHMWPE particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13060944DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003239PMC
March 2021
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