Publications by authors named "K Adamik"

25 Publications

Colloids Yes or No? - a "Gretchen Question" Answered.

Front Vet Sci 2021 2;8:624049. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Colloid solutions, both natural and synthetic, had been widely accepted as having superior volume expanding effects than crystalloids. Synthetic colloid solutions were previously considered at least as effective as natural colloids, as well as being cheaper and easily available. As a result, synthetic colloids (and HES in particular) were the preferred resuscitation fluid in many countries. In the past decade, several cascading events have called into question their efficacy and revealed their harmful effects. In 2013, the medicines authorities placed substantial restrictions on HES administration in people which has resulted in an overall decrease in their use. Whether natural colloids (such as albumin-containing solutions) should replace synthetic colloids remains inconclusive based on the current evidence. Albumin seems to be safer than synthetic colloids in people, but clear evidence of a positive effect on survival is still lacking. Furthermore, species-specific albumin is not widely available, while xenotransfusions with human serum albumin have known side effects. Veterinary data on the safety and efficacy of synthetic and natural colloids is limited to mostly retrospective evaluations or experimental studies with small numbers of patients (mainly dogs). Large, prospective, randomized, long-term outcome-oriented studies are lacking. This review focuses on advantages and disadvantages of synthetic and natural colloids in veterinary medicine. Adopting human guidelines is weighed against the particularities of our specific patient populations, including the risk-benefit ratio and lack of alternatives available in human medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.624049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8282815PMC
July 2021

Kinetics of Plasma Cytokines, Angiopoietin-2, and C-Reactive Protein in Dogs With Gastric Dilatation Volvulus.

Front Vet Sci 2021 16;8:652479. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Division of Small Animal Emergency and Critical Care, Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

The degree of systemic inflammation, reperfusion injury and endothelial activation are potentially important determinants of clinical outcomes in dogs with gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV). To evaluate plasma concentrations and kinetics of inflammatory markers in dogs with GDV over a time frame of 48 h, and to compare to healthy dogs. Prospective, observational cohort study in client-owned dogs with GDV. Fifteen dogs with GDV and 9 healthy control dogs were enrolled. Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), keratinocyte chemotactic-like, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, Angiopoietin (Ang)-2, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at admission (prior any therapeutic intervention, (T0), immediately after surgery (T1), 24 ± 4 h (T24), and 48 ± 4 h (T48) post-surgery. Cytokines were measured using multiplex magnetic bead assay. Plasma Ang-2 was measured with a commercial human ELISA test kit validated for dogs. Dogs with GDV had significantly higher plasma concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-10 compared to healthy control dogs at all time points. Concentrations of IL-6 were significantly higher at T1 and T24, concentrations of MCP-1 at T24, and concentrations of CRP at T24 and T48. A significant increase between T0 and T1 was found for IL-6, IL-10, and CRP, between T1 and T24 for IL-8, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and CRP, and between T24 and T48 for IL-15, Ang-2, and CRP. A significant decrease between T0 and T1 was found for IL-7, IL-8, IL-15, IL-18, and Ang-2; between T1 and T24 for IL-6 and KC-like; and between T24 and T48 for IL-6. In GDV dogs, a mild pro-inflammatory reaction was present at admission, which peaked immediately after and up to 24 h post-surgery, mainly represented by IL-6, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and CRP, and which decreased at T48. In addition, the anti-inflammatory IL-10 was increased in GDV dogs at all time points.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.652479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242176PMC
June 2021

Case Report: Unusual Peritoneopericardial Diaphragmatic Hernia in an 8-Month-Old German Shepherd Dog, Associated With a Pericardial Pseudocyst and Coexisting Severe Pericardial Effusion Resulting in Right-Sided Heart Failure.

Front Vet Sci 2021 7;8:673543. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Division of Small Animal Cardiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

This study aims to describe an unusual peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia (PPDH) in an 8-month-old German shepherd dog, associated with a pericardial pseudocyst and coexisting severe pericardial effusion resulting in right-sided heart failure. An 8-month-old, male, intact, German shepherd dog, was referred for ascites. Echocardiography revealed a severe pericardial effusion with a cyst-like structure within the pericardium and consequently decompensated right-sided heart failure. The ascites was secondary to right-sided heart failure (cardiac tamponade). Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax and abdomen was performed and showed PPDH with severe pericardial effusion and presence of a pericardial cyst-like structure; xyphoid cleft and Y-shaped seventh sternebra; and mild thickening along the cranioventral abdominal wall consistent with scar tissue from the previous umbilical hernia surgical repair. During surgery, the PPDH was corrected, and it was revealed that the remnant of the umbilical cord passed through it, into the pericardium. The cyst-like structure was successfully resected and sent for pathology. Histopathology showed signs of a chronic suppurative inflammation, with absence of a mesothelial or endothelial wall layer, thus consistent with a pseudocyst. Based on tomographic and surgical findings, it is suspected that the pseudocyst, together with the pericardial effusion, evolved by an inflammation of the remnant of the umbilical cord during the umbilical hernia surgical repair 1 month prior to presentation. The underlying PPDH most likely favored the development of the pericardial pseudocyst. However, due to prior antibiotic therapy initiated by the private vet, an infectious origin cannot be ruled out completely. There are a few case reports describing PPDH and/or pericardial pseudocysts in veterinary patients, but the current case report is unique, since it describes PPDH associated with a pericardial pseudocyst and coexisting severe pericardial effusion resulting in cardiac tamponade. As far as the authors know, such a case has not been described in veterinary medicine before.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.673543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215276PMC
June 2021

The clinical practice of small animal CPR and compliance with RECOVER guidelines in Switzerland: an internet-based survey.

Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2020 12;162(12):755-770

Division of Small Animal Emergency and Critical Care, Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern.

Introduction: Objective: In 2012, the Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation (RECOVER) published the first evidence-based small animal CPR guidelines. Even though a RECOVER-based CPR approach has been shown to improve patient outcomes, guideline awareness and compliance is necessary to see such benefits. Our study aimed to characterize Swiss small animal veterinary CPR practices and assess their compliance with RECOVER guidelines. Methods: A nationwide, internet-based survey was conducted, and invitations distributed via Swiss veterinary society mailing lists. Questions covered respondents' demographics, CPR preparedness, Basic Life Support (BLS) and Advanced Life Support (ALS) techniques, and awareness of RECOVER guidelines. Percentages of group total (95% confidence interval) were calculated. Results: One-hundred and fifty respondents were grouped by level of expertise into board-certified specialists (BCS, n = 19), veterinarians with additional post-graduate training (PGT, n = 27), and general practitioners with (GPE, n = 30), and without emergency duties (GPG, n = 74). Of BCS respondents, 58% (36-77%) were familiar with the RECOVER guidelines, compared to 8% (4-17%) of GPG. Large disparities in preparedness, BLS, and ALS techniques emerged among the levels of expertise. Incompliance with preparedness measures varied from 89% (69-98%) in BCS to 100% (95-100%) in GPG and was predominantly due to failure to attend regular CPR training. BLS compliance ranged from 26% (12-49%) in BCS to 5% (2-13%) in GPG, and incompliance was mostly characterized by targeting lower than recommended chest compression rates. ALS compliance varied from 21% (9-43%) in BCS to 0% (0-5%) in GPG and was compromised by limitations in the resuscitation environment such as lacking access to a defibrillator, monitoring equipment, and rescue drugs. Conclusion: Awareness of RECOVER guidelines in Switzerland is acceptable in specialists, but inadequate among general practitioners and CPR practices are largely not in agreement with RECOVER guidelines. An educational strategy is needed to improve Swiss small animal CPR knowledge and performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17236/sat00281DOI Listing
December 2020

Comparison of the effects of 7.2% hypertonic saline and 20% mannitol on electrolyte and acid-base variables in dogs with suspected intracranial hypertension.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Jan 25;35(1):341-351. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Division of Small Animal Emergency and Critical Care, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Hyperosmolar agents frequently are used to decrease intracranial pressure but their effects on electrolyte and acid-base variables have not been prospectively investigated.

Objectives: Compare duration and magnitude of changes in electrolyte and acid-base variables after hyperosmolar treatment.

Animals: Twenty-eight client-owned dogs with intracranial hypertension caused by various pathologies.

Methods: Prospective, randomized, nonblinded, experimental cohort study. Fifteen dogs received a single dose (4 mL/kg) of 7.2% hypertonic saline (HTS), 13 dogs received 20% mannitol (MAN) 1 g/kg IV. Electrolyte and acid-base variables were measured before (T ), and 5 (T ), 60 (T ), and 120 (T ) minutes after administration. Variables were compared between treatments and among time points within treatment groups.

Results: Mean plasma sodium and chloride concentrations were higher after HTS than MAN at T (158 vs 141 mEq/L; 126 vs 109 mEq/L) and significant differences were maintained at all time points. After HTS, plasma sodium and chloride concentrations remained increased from T at all time points. After MAN, plasma sodium and chloride concentrations decreased at T , but these changes were not maintained at T and T . Plasma potassium concentration was lower at T after HTS compared with T (3.6 vs 3.9 mEq/L) and compared to MAN (3.6 vs 4.1 mEq/L). At T and T , plasma ionized calcium concentration was lower after HTS than MAN (1.2 vs 1.3 mmol/L). No significant differences were found in acid-base variables between treatments.

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: At the administered dose, dogs receiving HTS showed sustained increases in plasma sodium and chloride concentrations, whereas dogs receiving MAN showed transient decreases. Future studies should assess the effects of multiple doses of hyperosmolar agents on electrolyte and acid-base variables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7848367PMC
January 2021
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