Publications by authors named "K A Al-Ghanim"

81 Publications

Mitigation of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity by casticin in male albino rats.

Braz J Biol 2021 27;83:e243438. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

King Saud University - KSU, College of Science, Department of Zoology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Cisplatin (CP) is a commonly used, powerful antineoplastic drug, having numerous side effects. Casticin (CAS) is considered as a free radical scavenger and a potent antioxidant. The present research was planned to assess the curative potential of CAS on CP persuaded renal injury in male albino rats. Twenty four male albino rats were distributed into four equal groups. Group-1 was considered as a control group. Animals of Group-2 were injected with 5mg/kg of CP intraperitoneally. Group-3 was co-treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally and injection of CP (5mg/kg). Group-4 was treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally throughout the experiment. CP administration substantially reduced the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione (GSH) content while increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. Urea, urinary creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, albumin and creatinine clearance was significantly reduced in CP treated group. The results demonstrated that CP significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity and histopathological damages. However, the administration of CAS displayed a palliative effect against CP-generated renal toxicity and recovered all parameters by bringing them to a normal level. These results revealed that the CAS is an effective compound having the curative potential to counter the CP-induced renal damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.243438DOI Listing
September 2021

Toxicological effects of thimerosal on rat kidney: a histological and biochemical study.

Braz J Biol 2021 27;83:e242942. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

King Saud University, Department of Zoology, College of Science, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Thimerosal is an organomercurial compound, which is used in the preparation of intramuscular immunoglobulin, antivenoms, tattoo inks, skin test antigens, nasal products, ophthalmic drops, and vaccines as a preservative. In most of animal species and humans, the kidney is one of the main sites for mercurial compounds deposition and target organs for toxicity. So, the current research was intended to assess the thimerosal induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were categorized into four groups. The first group was a control group. Rats of Group-II, Group-III, and Group-IV were administered with 0.5µg/kg, 10µg/kg, and 50µg/kg of thimerosal once a day, respectively. Thimerosal administration significantly decreased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), and protein content while increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels dose-dependently. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, urinary albumin and creatinine clearance was reduced dose-dependently in thimerosal treated groups. The results demonstrated that thimerosal significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activities, DNA and histopathological damages dose-dependently. So, the present findings ascertained that thimerosal exerted nephrotoxicity in male albino rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.242942DOI Listing
September 2021

Growth performance, intestinal histomorphology, gut microflora and ghrelin gene expression analysis of broiler by supplementing natural growth promoters: A nutrigenomics approach.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jun 13;28(6):3438-3447. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

In an epoch of escalating number of antibiotic-resistance bacteria, there is a dire need to develop efficient and novel feeding strategies for animal nutrition as alternatives to antibiotics. Here, implicating nutrigenomic approach, phytobiotics and organic acids were used to evaluate ghrelin gene expression levels, gut microflora composition, performance parameters and intestinal histomorphological changes in broiler chickens. One-day-old chicks (n = 315) were reared for 42 days and distributed randomly into five experimental groups; each with three replicates (21 birds per replicate). Experimental groups were control: basal diet only, antimicrobial growth promoter: 40 g/metric ton of basal diet (virginiamycin), organic acids: 4 kg/metric ton of basal diet, phytobiotics: 3 kg/metric ton of basal diet, combination: 7 kg/metric ton of basal diet (organic acids 4 kg and phytobiotics 3 kg metric ton of feed). Growth performance, histological and ghrelin gene expression analysis were executed on 21 and 42 days while, quantitative bacterial analysis of cecum and ileum was performed on day 42. Increased feed intake and body weight () were noticed in phytobiotics group. Addition of phytobiotics significantly improved () villus height and ratio of villus height/crypt depth in ileum, jejunum, and duodenum and down-regulated ghrelin gene expression levels. Total coliform and in cecal and ileal digesta were decreased significantly () in organic acids group. Correlation analysis revealed spp. were positively correlated to villus height/crypt depth ration in duodenum. The findings indicated the importance of gene-nutrient-microbiota interactions based on nutrigenomics approach. Hence, phytobiotics and organic acids might be suitable alternatives to antibiotics for improved performance and immunity, along with healthier meat production in poultry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.03.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176037PMC
June 2021

Seasonal analysis of food items and feeding habits of endangered riverine catfish Rita rita (Hamilton, 1822).

Braz J Biol 2021 4;82:e237040. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

King Saud University, College of Science, Department of Zoology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

This investigation presents the food and feeding activity of and endangered riverine catfish Rita rita, during February 2017-January 2018. A total of 225 fish individuals was analyzed for stomach contents by characterizing the dominant food items and morphometric features. The results divulged ten major food items consumed, preferably fish scales and eggs, teleost fishes, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, and mollusks. Total length and body weight of fish varied between 9-34 cm (20.53 ± 6.90 cm) and 10-400 g (9125.94 ± 102.07 g), respectively. The index of relative importance (IRI%) showed the importance of rotifers over the other food items. Morisita's index of diet overlap indicated seasonal variations in catfish diets with summer and monsoon displaying the least overlap, while maximum overlap during monsoon and winter seasons. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) indicated the close association between the food items available during summer and winter seasons with a significant difference among the seasons (ANOSIM, R = 0.638, P = 0.013). Levin's niche breadth index arranged in the order of 0.88>0.81>0.78>0.63>0.43 for the size classes of V, IV, III, II and I, respectively. The PCA explained 95.39% of the total variance among the food items and fish size groups. Small-sized fish individuals displayed a greater correlation with food items suitable for their mouth size. In conclusion, the variety and frequency of food items recorded indicated considerable feeding plasticity and opportunistic feeding behavior with a shift from carnivorous to omnivorous feeding nature. This study could render useful information on the food and feeding habits of R. rita and provide background for preparing its diet for future aquaculture practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.237040DOI Listing
June 2021

Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles for antimicrobial and vegetative growth applications: A novel approach for advancing efficient high quality health care to human wellbeing.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Mar 19;28(3):1808-1815. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Adhiyaman Arts and Science College for Women, Uthangarai, Tamil Nadu 635207, India.

The present work aims to synthesize zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles via green approaches using leaf extract of . UV-vis and FT-IR tests confirmed the existence of biomolecules, active materials, and metal oxides. The X-ray diffraction structural study exposes the ZnO nanoparticles formation with hexagonal phase structures. SEM and TEM analysis reveal surface morphologies of ZnO nanoparticles and most of them are spherical with a size range of 10 nm. ZnO nanoparticles were revealed strong antimicrobial activity against both bacterial and fungal strains. The germination of seeds and vegetative growth of has been greatly improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.12.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938149PMC
March 2021
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