Publications by authors named "Juzaili Azizi"

7 Publications

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Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Potentials of Leaf Extracts: A Comparison of Supercritical Fluid and Conventional Extraction Methods.

Molecules 2021 Mar 9;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway 47500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

The leaves of (CP) are rich in natural antioxidants. has traditionally been used to treat various ailments, including skin diseases. This study aims to decipher the antioxidant effects and phytochemical content of different CP leaf extracts (CPEs) obtained using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO) and conventional extraction methods. The antioxidant activities of CPEs were evaluated by cell-free (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric-reduced antioxidative power (FRAP)) and cell-based (HO) assay. Both leaf scCO extract with 5% ethanol (CPSCE) and leaf scCO extract (CPSC) exhibited stronger DPPH radical scavenging activity than conventional extracts. In the FRAP assay, two hydrophilic extracts ( leaf ethanol extract (CPEE) and freeze-dried leaf juice (CPFD)) showed relatively stronger reducing power compared to lipophilic extracts. Cell-based assays showed that CPFD significantly protected skin fibroblasts from HO-induced oxidative stress in both pre-and post-treatment. CPEE protected skin fibroblasts from oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner while CPSCE significantly triggered the fibroblast recovery after treatment with HO. GC-MS analysis indicated that CPSCE had the highest α-tocopherol and squalene contents. By contrast, both CP hydrophilic extracts (CPEE and CPFD) had a higher total phenolic content (TPC) and rutin content than the lipophilic extracts. Overall, CPEs extracted using green and conventional extraction methods showed antioxidative potential in both cell-based and cell-free assays due to their lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26051489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7967148PMC
March 2021

Potential Applications of Conducting Polymers to Reduce Secondary Bacterial Infections among COVID-19 Patients: a Review.

Emergent Mater 2021 Feb 24:1-14. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Bacteriology Unit, Infectious Disease Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, National Institutes of Health, Setia Alam, 40170 Shah Alam, Selangor Malaysia.

The COVID-19 pandemic is a motivation for material scientists to search for functional materials with valuable properties to alleviate the risks associated with the coronavirus. The formulation of functional materials requires synergistic understanding on the properties of materials and mechanisms of virus transmission and disease progression, including secondary bacterial infections that are prevalent in COVID-19 patients. A viable candidate in the struggle against the pandemic is antimicrobial polymer, due to their favorable properties of flexibility, lightweight, and ease of synthesis. Polymers are the base material for personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, face mask, face shield, and coverall suit for frontliners. Conducting polymers (CPs) are polymers with electrical properties due to the addition of dopant in the polymer structure. The conductivity of polymers augments their antiviral and antibacterial properties. This review discusses the types of CPs and how their properties could be exploited to ward off bacterial infections in hospital settings, specifically in cases involving COVID-19 patients. This review also covers common CPs fabrication techniques. The key components to produce CPs at several possibilities to fit the current needs in fighting secondary bacterial infections are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42247-021-00188-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903935PMC
February 2021

A simple and efficient sequential electrokinetic and hydrodynamic injections in micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for quantification of anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil and its metabolite in human plasma.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 May 20;35(5):e5050. Epub 2020 Dec 20.

Integrative and Regenerative Medicine Clusters, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam, Penang, Malaysia.

A simple and sensitive preconcentration strategy using sequential electrokinetic and hydrodynamic injection modes in micellar electrokinetic chromatography with diode array detection was developed and applied for the separation and determination of anticancer agent, 5-fluorouracil and its metabolite, 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, in human plasma. Sequential injection modes with increased analyte loading capacity using the anionic pseudo-stationary phase facilitated collection of the dispersed neutral and charged analytes into narrow zones and improved sensitivity. Several important parameters affecting sample enrichment performance were evaluated and optimized in this study. Under the optimized experimental conditions, 614- and 643-fold and 782- and 803-fold sensitivity improvement were obtained for 5-fluorouracil and its metabolite when compared with normal hydrodynamic and electrokinetic injection, respectively. The method has good linearity (1-1,000 ng/ml) with acceptable coefficient of determination (r  > 0.993), low limits of detection (0.11-0.14 ng/ml) and satisfactory analyte relative recovery (97.4-99.7%) with relative standard deviations of 4.6-9.3% (n = 6). Validation results as well as the application to analysis of human plasma samples from cancer patients demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method to clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.5050DOI Listing
May 2021

Changes in blood-brain barrier permeability and ultrastructure, and protein expression in a rat model of cerebral hypoperfusion.

Brain Res Bull 2019 10 10;152:63-73. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Penang, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Cerebral hypoperfusion involved a reduction in cerebral blood flow, leading to neuronal dysfunction, microglial activation and white matter degeneration. The effects on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) however, have not been well-documented. Here, two-vessel occlusion model was adopted to mimic the condition of cerebral hypoperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. The BBB permeability to high and low molecular weight exogenous tracers i.e. Evans blue dye and sodium fluorescein respectively, showed marked extravasation of the Evans blue dye in the frontal cortex, posterior cortex and thalamus-midbrain at day 1 following induction of cerebral hypoperfusion. Transmission electron microscopy revealed brain endothelial cell and astrocyte damages including increased pinocytotic vesicles and formation of membrane invaginations in the endothelial cells, and swelling of the astrocytes' end-feet. Investigation on brain microvessel protein expressions using two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis coupled with LC-MS/MS showed that proteins involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism, transcription regulation, cytoskeleton maintenance and signaling pathways were differently expressed. The expression of aconitate hydratase, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein, enoyl Co-A hydratase and beta-synuclein were downregulated, while the opposite observed for calreticulin and enhancer of rudimentary homolog. These findings provide insights into the BBB molecular responses to cerebral hypoperfusion, which may assist development of future therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2019.07.010DOI Listing
October 2019

Chemotactic synthetic vesicles: Design and applications in blood-brain barrier crossing.

Sci Adv 2017 08 2;3(8):e1700362. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ, UK.

In recent years, scientists have created artificial microscopic and nanoscopic self-propelling particles, often referred to as nano- or microswimmers, capable of mimicking biological locomotion and taxis. This active diffusion enables the engineering of complex operations that so far have not been possible at the micro- and nanoscale. One of the most promising tasks is the ability to engineer nanocarriers that can autonomously navigate within tissues and organs, accessing nearly every site of the human body guided by endogenous chemical gradients. We report a fully synthetic, organic, nanoscopic system that exhibits attractive chemotaxis driven by enzymatic conversion of glucose. We achieve this by encapsulating glucose oxidase alone or in combination with catalase into nanoscopic and biocompatible asymmetric polymer vesicles (known as polymersomes). We show that these vesicles self-propel in response to an external gradient of glucose by inducing a slip velocity on their surface, which makes them move in an extremely sensitive way toward higher-concentration regions. We finally demonstrate that the chemotactic behavior of these nanoswimmers, in combination with LRP-1 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1) targeting, enables a fourfold increase in penetration to the brain compared to nonchemotactic systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1700362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5540238PMC
August 2017

Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves extracts induced the CYP450 catalyzed aminopyrine-N-demethylase (APND) and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) activities in male Sprague-Dawley rat livers.

Drug Metabol Drug Interact 2013 ;28(2):95-105

Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

Background: Mitragyna speciosa leaves have been abused by drug addicts as some of the alkaloids (mainly mitragynine) from the plant possess opiate and cocaine-like effects. These bring to its prohibition in Malaysia in 2004 as consumption of M. speciosa leaves has been perceived to lead to the abuse of other drugs such as cannabis and heroin.

Methods: In the current study, the in vitro and in vivo effects of M. speciosa methanolic, aqueous and total alkaloid leaves extracts on drug metabolizing enzymes, namely, cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) had been evaluated in rat liver cytosolic fraction and microsomes. Aminopyrine and p-nitrophenol (pNP) were employed as probe substrates in aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) and UGT enzyme assays, respectively. Furthermore, mitragynine was also tested in vitro for its likelihood to inhibit APND and UGT activity. The assessment of the enzyme activity was conducted using spectrophotometric methods.

Results: In vitro, the IC50 value could only be obtained for the methanolic extract in APND study (595.30±30.78 µg/mL) and not in other studies due to the enzyme percentage inhibitions being <70%. In contrast to the in vitro study, the oral treatment of male Sprague-Dawley rats for 14 days with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of methanolic and aqueous extracts and with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of total alkaloid extract showed a profound increment on the APND and UGT activities.

Conclusions: The current findings showed that possibilities exist for herb-drug interaction with increased clearance of drugs, which are primarily metabolized by CYP450s and UGT1A6 among M. speciosa leaves extract users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/dmdi-2012-0039DOI Listing
September 2013

In vitro and in vivo effects of three different Mitragyna speciosa korth leaf extracts on phase II drug metabolizing enzymes--glutathione transferases (GSTs).

Molecules 2010 Jan 20;15(1):432-41. Epub 2010 Jan 20.

Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Penang, Malaysia.

In the present study, we investigate the effects of three different Mitragyna speciosa extracts, namely methanolic, aqueous and total alkaloid extracts, on glutathione transferase-specific activity in male Sprague Dawley rat liver cytosol in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro study, the effect of Mitragyna speciosa extracts (0.01 to 750 microg/mL) against the specific activity of glutathione transferases was examined in rat liver cytosolic fraction from untreated rats. Our data show concentration dependent inhibition of cytosolic GSTs when Mitragyna speciosa extract was added into the reaction mixture. At the highest concentration used, the methanolic extract showed the highest GSTs specific activity inhibition (61%), followed by aqueous (50%) and total alkaloid extract (43%), respectively. In in vivo study, three different dosages; 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for methanolic and aqueous extracts and 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg for total alkaloid extract were given orally for 14 days. An increase in GST specific activity was generally observed. However, only Mitragyna speciosa aqueous extract with a dosage of 100 mg/kg showed significant results: 129% compared to control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules15010432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6256986PMC
January 2010