Publications by authors named "Jutta Zwielehner"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Changes in human fecal microbiota due to chemotherapy analyzed by TaqMan-PCR, 454 sequencing and PCR-DGGE fingerprinting.

PLoS One 2011 14;6(12):e28654. Epub 2011 Dec 14.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Vienna, Austria.

Background: We investigated whether chemotherapy with the presence or absence of antibiotics against different kinds of cancer changed the gastrointestinal microbiota.

Methodology/principal Findings: Feces of 17 ambulant patients receiving chemotherapy with or without concomitant antibiotics were analyzed before and after the chemotherapy cycle at four time points in comparison to 17 gender-, age- and lifestyle-matched healthy controls. We targeted 16S rRNA genes of all bacteria, Bacteroides, bifidobacteria, Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa as well as C. difficile with TaqMan qPCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing. After a significant drop in the abundance of microbiota (p = 0.037) following a single treatment the microbiota recovered within a few days. The chemotherapeutical treatment marginally affected the Bacteroides while the Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa were significantly more sensitive to chemotherapy and antibiotic treatment. DGGE fingerprinting showed decreased diversity of Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa in response to chemotherapy with cluster IV diversity being particularly affected by antibiotics. The occurrence of C. difficile in three out of seventeen subjects was accompanied by a decrease in the genera Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Veillonella and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Enterococcus faecium increased following chemotherapy.

Conclusions/significance: Despite high individual variations, these results suggest that the observed changes in the human gut microbiota may favor colonization with C. difficile and Enterococcus faecium. Perturbed microbiota may be a target for specific mitigation with safe pre- and probiotics.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0028654PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3237468PMC
August 2012

Quantification of butyryl CoA:acetate CoA-transferase genes reveals different butyrate production capacity in individuals according to diet and age.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2011 Mar 17;316(2):130-5. Epub 2011 Jan 17.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

The gastrointestinal microbiota produces short-chain fatty acids, especially butyrate, which affect colonic health, immune function and epigenetic regulation. To assess the effects of nutrition and aging on the production of butyrate, the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene and population shifts of Clostridium clusters lV and XlVa, the main butyrate producers, were analysed. Faecal samples of young healthy omnivores (24 ± 2.5 years), vegetarians (26 ± 5 years) and elderly (86 ± 8 years) omnivores were evaluated. Diet and lifestyle were assessed in questionnaire-based interviews. The elderly had significantly fewer copies of the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene than young omnivores (P=0.014), while vegetarians showed the highest number of copies (P=0.048). The thermal denaturation of the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene variant melting curve related to Roseburia/Eubacterium rectale spp. was significantly more variable in the vegetarians than in the elderly. The Clostridium cluster XIVa was more abundant in vegetarians (P=0.049) and in omnivores (P<0.01) than in the elderly group. Gastrointestinal microbiota of the elderly is characterized by decreased butyrate production capacity, reflecting increased risk of degenerative diseases. These results suggest that the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene is a valuable marker for gastrointestinal microbiota function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2010.02197.xDOI Listing
March 2011

Characterization of bacteria, clostridia and Bacteroides in faeces of vegetarians using qPCR and PCR-DGGE fingerprinting.

Ann Nutr Metab 2009 27;54(4):253-7. Epub 2009 Jul 27.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background/aims: This study aimed to investigate the quantitative and qualitative changes of bacteria, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium and Clostridium cluster IV in faecal microbiota associated with a vegetarian diet.

Methods: Bacterial abundances were measured in faecal samples of 15 vegetarians and 14 omnivores using quantitative PCR. Diversity was assessed with PCR-DGGE fingerprinting, principal component analysis (PCA) and Shannon diversity index.

Results: Vegetarians had a 12% higher abundance of bacterial DNA than omnivores, a tendency for less Clostridium cluster IV (31.86 +/- 17.00%; 36.64 +/- 14.22%) and higher abundance of Bacteroides (23.93 +/- 10.35%; 21.26 +/- 8.05%), which were not significant due to high interindividual variations. PCA suggested a grouping of bacteria and members of Clostridium cluster IV. Two bands appeared significantly more frequently in omnivores than in vegetarians (p < 0.005 and p < 0.022). One was identified as Faecalibacterium sp. and the other was 97.9% similar to the uncultured gut bacteriumDQ793301.

Conclusions: A vegetarian diet affects the intestinal microbiota, especially by decreasing the amount and changing the diversity of Clostridium cluster IV. It remains to be determined how these shifts might affect the host metabolism and disease risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000229505DOI Listing
January 2010

Combined PCR-DGGE fingerprinting and quantitative-PCR indicates shifts in fecal population sizes and diversity of Bacteroides, bifidobacteria and Clostridium cluster IV in institutionalized elderly.

Exp Gerontol 2009 Jun-Jul;44(6-7):440-6. Epub 2009 Apr 17.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria.

Aims: This study aimed at determining ageing-related shifts in diversity and composition of key members of the fecal microbiota by comparing institutionalized elderly (n = 17, 78-94 years) and young volunteers (n = 17, 18-31 years).

Methods And Results: A combination of molecular methods was used to characterize the diversity and relative abundance of total gastro-intestinal flora, along with relevant subsets within the genera Bacteroides, bifidobacteria and Clostridium cluster IV. The institutionalized elderly harbored significantly higher numbers of Bacteroides cells than control (28.5 +/- 8.6%; 21.4 +/- 7.7%; p = 0.016) but contained less bifidobacteria (1.3 +/- 0.9, 2.7 +/- 3.2%, p = 0.026) and Clostridium cluster IV (26.9 +/- 11.7%, 36.36 +/- 11.26%, p = 0.036). The elderly also displayed less total Bacteria diversity and less diversity with the Clostridium cluster IV (p < 0.016) and Bacteroides.

Conclusion: Despite high individual variations, our analyses indicate the composition of microbiota in the elderly comprises a less diverse subset of young healthy microbiota.

Significance And Impact Of The Study: A better understanding of the individual composition of the human microbiota and the effects of ageing might result in the development of specifically targeted supplementation for elderly citizens in order to support healthy ageing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2009.04.002DOI Listing
November 2010

DGGE and real-time PCR analysis of lactic acid bacteria in bacterial communities of the phyllosphere of lettuce.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2008 May;52(5):614-23

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria.

Food associated indigenous microbial communities exert antagonistic effects on pathogens and may routinely deliver health relevant microorganisms to the GI tract. By using molecular, culture independent methods including PCR-DGGE of 16S rDNA-coding regions and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) as well as BIOLOG metabolic fingerprinting, microbial communities on lettuce were analyzed in samples from fields, from supermarkets and soil. Amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences (57.7%) could be assigned to species previously reported as typical for the phyllosphere including Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas flavescens, Moraxella spp., and Mycobacterium spp. 71.8% of the sequences obtained represented so far undescribed taxa. Principal component analysis of BIOLOG metabolic profiles indicated a seasonal variation in the lettuce phyllosphere microbial community structure. Various lactic acid bacteria were detected including several Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc species in particular on lettuce from organic farming. By RT-PCR lactobacilli were found with a range of abundances from 1x10(4 )to 1x10(5 )copies/g lettuce. Considering the importance of salad in many diets lettuce may contribute to a constant supply with LAB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200700158DOI Listing
May 2008