Publications by authors named "Justyna Totoń-Żurańska"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Dysregulation of Transcription Factor Activity During Formation of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Nov 19;21(22). Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Center for Medical Genomics OMICRON, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-034 Kraków, Poland.

The reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and the quiescent fibroblasts leading to the activation of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) serve an important role in cancer progression. Here, we investigated the activation of transcription factors (TFs) in prostate fibroblasts (WPMY cell line) co-cultured with normal prostate or tumorous cells (RWPE1 and RWPE2 cell lines, respectively). After indirect co-cultures, we performed mRNA-seq and predicted TF activity using mRNA expression profiles with the Systems EPigenomics Inference of Regulatory Activity (SEPIRA) package and the GTEx and mRNA-seq data of 483 cultured fibroblasts. The initial differential expression analysis between time points and experimental conditions showed that co-culture with normal epithelial cells mainly promotes an inflammatory response in fibroblasts, whereas with the cancerous epithelial, it stimulates transformation by changing the expression of the genes associated with microfilaments. TF activity analysis revealed only one positively regulated TF in the RWPE1 co-culture alone, while we observed dysregulation of 45 TFs (7 decreased activity and 38 increased activity) uniquely in co-culture with RWPE2. Pathway analysis showed that these 45 dysregulated TFs in fibroblasts co-cultured with RWPE2 cells may be associated with the RUNX1 and PTEN pathways. Moreover, we showed that observed dysregulation could be associated with expression. We conclude that phenotypic changes in fibroblast responses to co-culturing with cancer epithelium result from orchestrated dysregulation of signaling pathways that favor their transformation and motility rather than proinflammatory status. This dysregulation can be observed both at the TF and transcriptome levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7699520PMC
November 2020

Negative pressure wound therapy affects circulating plasma microRNAs in patients with diabetic foot ulceration.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2020 Jul 10;165:108251. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Metabolic Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland; University Hospital, Krakow, Poland. Electronic address:

Aims: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is commonly used in diabetic foot ulceration (DFU). The molecular mechanisms of NPWT action, particularly outside of the wound site, have not been described. We assessed NPWT's effect on circulating miRNA expression levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients with DFU.

Methods: We examined 34 T2DM patients treated with either NPWT (n = 24) or standard therapy (ST, n = 10). The group assignment was based on clinical criteria and local practice. Next-generation sequencing-based microRNA expression was determined on the patient's plasma collected before therapy and after 8 days.

Results: NPWT patients were similar to the ST group in terms of age, BMI, and HbA1c level; however, they differed by mean wound area (12.6 cm vs. 1.1 cm p = 0.0005). First, we analyzed the change of miRNA after NPWT or ST and observed an upregulation of let-7f-2 only in the NPWT group. Then, we analyzed the differential expression between NPWT and ST groups, looking at possible wound size effects. We found 12 differentially expressed miRNAs in pre-treatment comparison, including let-7f-2, while in post-treatment analysis we identified 28 miRNAs. The pathway enrichment analysis suggests that identified miRNAs may be involved in wound healing, particularly through angiogenesis.

Conclusion: We found initial evidence that NPWT in T2DM patients with DFU affects miRNA expression in plasma. Additionally, some differences in plasma miRNA expression may be related to wound size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108251DOI Listing
July 2020

Relations between circulating and myocardial fibrosis-linked microRNAs with left ventricular reverse remodeling in dilated cardiomyopathy.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2020 Mar;29(3):285-293

Department of Cardiac and Vascular Diseases, John Paul II Hospital, Kraków, Poland.

Background: Left ventricular reverse remodeling (LVRR) determines clinical status and outcomes in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The extent of myocardial fibrosis is connected to the systolic function of the heart. The recent discovery of the contribution of microRNAs (miRs) to the regulation of cardiac remodeling, LVRR and fibrosis warrants exploration.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine the predictive value of circulating and myocardial miR expression for LVRR in DCM.

Material And Methods: Seventy consecutive DCM patients (age 48 ±12.1 years, 90% male, ejection fraction (EF) 24.4% ±7.4%) were included in the study. At baseline, all patients underwent clinical assessment, echocardiography, venous blood sampling, and right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy. Circulating and myocardial miRs (miR-21, -26, -29, -30, -133a, and -423) were measured with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). LVRR was defined as an increase in EF ≥ 10%, accompanied by a decrease in left ventricle end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd) ≥10% or LVEDd ≤ 33 mm/m2 between baseline and 3-month follow-up.

Results: At the 3-month follow-up, 4 patients had died and 3 patients had incomplete data. The remaining patients were divided according to the presence of LVRR into LVRR-present (n = 32, 51%) and LVRR-absent (n = 31, 49%) groups. Out of all the circulating and tissue miRs under study, only myocardial expression of miR-133a significantly differed between the LVRR-present and LVRR-absent group (1.22 (0.47-1.90) vs 0.61 (0.25-0.99) ΔCq, respectively, p < 0.01). miR-133a was found to be a significant LVRR predictor in unadjusted (odds ratio (OR) = 2.81 (1.23-6.40), p < 0.05) and adjusted for duration of disease, left ventricle end-diastolic (LVED) volume (LVEDvol), hs-troponin-T, and NT-proBNP (OR = 5.20 (1.13-24.050, p < 0.05) models.

Conclusions: From all of the circulating and tissue miRs, only myocardial miR-133a showed increased expression in LVRR-present patients and was found an independent LVRR predictor. This indicates a link between miR-133 and cardiac remodeling in DCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/115088DOI Listing
March 2020

Contribution of a Novel Variant to Peters Plus Syndrome Discovered by a Combination of Next-Generation Sequencing and Automated Text Mining.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Nov 28;20(23). Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Center for Medical Genomics-OMICRON, Jagiellonian University Medical College, ul. Kopernika 7c, 31-034 Krakow, Poland.

Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) encompasses a spectrum of ocular disorders affecting the structures of the anterior eye chamber. Mutations in several genes, involved in eye development, are implicated in this disorder. ASD is often accompanied by diverse multisystemic symptoms and another genetic cause, such as variants in genes encoding collagen type IV. Thus, a wide spectrum of phenotypes and underlying genetic diversity make fast and proper diagnosis challenging. Here, we used AMELIE, an automatic text mining tool that enriches data with the most up-to-date information from literature, and wANNOVAR, which is based on well-documented databases and incorporates variant filtering strategy to identify genetic variants responsible for severely-manifested ASD in a newborn child. This strategy, applied to trio sequencing data in compliance with ACMG 2015 guidelines, helped us find two compound heterozygous variants of the gene, of which c.660+1G>A (rs80338851) was previously associated with the phenotype of Peters plus syndrome (PPS), while the second, NM_194318.3:c.755delC (p.T252fs), in exon 9 of the same gene was noted for the first time. PPS, a very rare subtype of ASD, is a glycosylation disorder, where the dysfunctional gene product, O-fucose-specific β-1,3-glucosyltransferase, is ineffective in providing a noncanonical quality control system for proper protein folding in cells. Our study expands the mutation spectrum of the gene related to PPS. We suggest that the implementation of automatic text mining tools in combination with careful variant filtering could help translate sequencing results into diagnosis, thus, considerably accelerating the diagnostic process and, thereby, improving patient management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20236006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6928627PMC
November 2019

Cranial Irradiation in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Is Related to Subclinical Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Reduced Large Artery Compliance in Cancer Survivors.

J Clin Med 2019 Nov 13;8(11). Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Department of Internal Medicine and Gerontology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 10 Śniadeckich Street, 31-531 Cracow, Poland.

Long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common childhood malignancy, are at remarkably increased risk of heart failure (HF) in middle age, most likely due anthracycline cardiotoxicity. The role of cranial radiation therapy (CRT) in the development of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, a predecessor of overt HF, remains unclear. Our aim was to compare LV function and systemic arterial properties according to past CRT in young adult survivors of anthracycline-treated ALL. We studied young adult survivors of childhood ALL at a median of 16 years from diagnosis treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy, with ( = 12) or without ( = 30) CRT. In addition to fractional shortening (FS) and ejection fraction (EF), LV function was quantified by tissue Doppler imaging of the mitral annulus. Aortic strain/distensibility and arterial compliance were derived from echocardiography and simultaneously recorded pulse pressure. Despite similar FS and EF, peak mitral annular systolic velocity (median (interquartile range): 9.0 (7.5-10.0) vs. 10.0 (8.8-11.5) cm/s, = 0.05), and early diastolic velocity (13.8 (13.0-14.8) vs. 15.5 (14.0-17.3), = 0.01) were decreased after chemotherapy combined with CRT compared to chemotherapy without CRT. Systemic arterial compliance was lower in post-CRT subjects (1.0 (0.8-1.2 vs. 1.4 (1.1-1.7) mL/mmHg, = 0.002). Aortic strain and distensibility were similar regardless of prior CRT. In conclusion, lower arterial compliance and subclinical LV dysfunction may be possible late consequences of past CRT in adult survivors of childhood ALL. Whether arterial stiffening is associated with future HF development in CRT-exposed ALL survivors remains to be investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111952DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6912438PMC
November 2019

Patterns of gene expression characterize T1 and T3 clear cell renal cell carcinoma subtypes.

PLoS One 2019 31;14(5):e0216793. Epub 2019 May 31.

Center for Medical Genomics OMICRON, Medical Faculty, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Renal carcinoma is the 20th most common cancer worldwide. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is the most frequent type of renal cancer. Even in patients diagnosed at an early stage, characteristics of disease progression remain heterogeneous. Up-to-date molecular classifications stratify the ccRCC samples into two clusters. We analyzed gene expression in 23 T1 or T3 ccRCC samples. Unsupervised clustering divided this group into three clusters, two of them contained pure T1 or T3 samples while one contained a mixed group. We defined a group of 36 genes that discriminate the mixed cluster. This gene set could be associated with tumor classification into a higher stage and it contained significant number of genes coding for molecular transporters, channel and transmembrane proteins. External data from TCGA used to test our findings confirmed that the expression levels of those 36 genes varied significantly between T1 and T3 tumors. In conclusion, we found a clustering pattern of gene expression, informative for heterogeneity among T1 and T3 tumors of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0216793PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6544217PMC
January 2020

The Influence of Trehalose on Atherosclerosis and Hepatic Steatosis in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 28;20(7). Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Chair of Pharmacology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-531 Krakow, Poland.

Atherosclerosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are frequent causes of death in the Western countries. Recently, it has been shown that autophagy dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both atherosclerosis and NAFLD; thus, activators of autophagy might be useful for novel therapeutic interventions. Trehalose-a naturally occuring disaccharide present in plants, bacteria, fungi, insects, and certain types of shrimps-is a known inducer of autophagy. However, according to the literature, its anti-atherosclerotic and anti-steatotic potential seem to depend on the experimental setting. The aim of our study was to comprehensively describe the influence of a prolonged treatment with orally administered trehalose on the development of atherosclerotic lesions and hepatic steatosis in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE) mice in an experimental set up reflecting both moderate and severe proatherogenic conditions: male apoE mice on a chow diet (CD) and female apoE mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). We found that exogenous trehalose inhibited atherosclerosis and attenuated hepatic steatosis in apoE mice. Such effects of trehalose were not associated with changes of plasma cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), or high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Moreover, the anti-steatotic action of trehalose in the liver was associated with the induction of autophagy. The exact molecular mechanisms of both the anti-atherosclerotic action of trehalose and its inhibitory effect on liver steatosis require further clarification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6479548PMC
March 2019

The relationship between myocardial fibrosis and myocardial microRNAs in dilated cardiomyopathy: A link between mir-133a and cardiovascular events.

J Cell Mol Med 2018 04 29;22(4):2514-2517. Epub 2018 Jan 29.

Department of Cardiac and Vascular Diseases, John Paul II Hospital, Krakow, Poland.

It is unknown whether fibrosis-associated microRNAs: miR-21, miR-26, miR-29, miR-30 and miR-133a are linked to cardiovascular (CV) outcome. The study evaluated the levels of extracellular matrix (ECM) fibrosis and the prevalence of particular microRNAs in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) to investigate any correlation with CV events.

Methods: Seventy DCM patients (48 ± 12 years, EF 24.4 ± 7.4%) underwent right ventricular biopsy. The control group was comprised of 7 patients with CAD who underwent CABG and intraoperative biopsy. MicroRNAs were measured in blood and myocardial tissue via qPCR. The end-point was a combination of CV death and urgent HF hospitalization at the end of 12 months. There were differential levels of circulating and myocardial miR-26 and miR-29 as well as myocardial miR-133a when the DCM and CABG groups were compared. Corresponding circulating and myocardial microRNAs did not correlate with one another. There was no correlation between microRNA and ECM fibrosis. By the end of the 12-month period of the study, CV death had occurred in 6 patients, and a further 19 patients required urgent HF hospitalization. None of the circulating microRNAs was a predictor of the combined end-point; however, myocardial miR-133a was an independent predictor in unadjusted models (HR 1.53; 95% CI 1.14-2.05; P < .004) and adjusted models (HR 1.57; 95% CI 1.14-2.17; P < .005). The best cut-off value for the miR-133a level for the prediction of the combined end-point was 0.74 ΔCq, with an AUC of 0.67. The absence of a correlation between the corresponding circulating and myocardial microRNAs calls into question their cellular source. This study sheds new light on the role of microRNAs in ECM fibrosis in DCM, which warrants further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.13535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5867126PMC
April 2018

Right ventricular morphology and function is not related with microRNAs and fibrosis markers in dilated cardiomyopathy.

Cardiol J 2018 25;25(6):722-731. Epub 2017 Aug 25.

Department of Cardiac and Vascular Diseases, John Paul II Hospital.

Background: The relationship between right ventricle (RV), extracellular matrix (ECM) fibrosis and fibrosis-linked, circulating microRNAs in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is unknown.

Aim: The aim of the study was to uncover the associations between serum markers of ECM metabolism and circulating microRNAs with RV morphological and functional parameters.

Methods: The study population consisted of 70 consecutive DCM patients (ejection fraction 24.4 ± ± 7.4%). Based on detailed echocardiographic assessment - 15 patients had normal RV, whereas 55 patients had RV dilatation (RVD) and/or RV systolic dysfunction (RVSD). Procollagens type I and III carboxy- and amino-terminal peptides, osteopontin (OPN), TGF1-b1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were measured in serum as well as expression of miR-21, miR-26, miR-29, miR-30 and miR-133a. All patients underwent endomyocardial biopsy.

Results: Biopsy-proven fibrosis was evenly distributed in two groups. Serum levels of fibrosis markers did not differ between groups. OPN, CTGF, MMP-2, and TIMP-1 correlated with RV parameters. Only miR-133 a was differently expressed in both groups. MiR-21, miR-26, miR-30, and miR-133a cor-related with RV morphological but without functional parameters. Not a single marker of fibrosis was independently associated with RV. MiR-30 was associated with RV impairment in the logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and disease duration; however, lost its significance in the more comprehensive model.

Conclusions: Right ventricle structural and functional abnormalities are common in DCM. ECM fibrosis and serum markers are not associated with RV impairment. The prognostic value of studied microRNAs on RV is limited in DCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/CJ.a2017.0099DOI Listing
June 2019

Anti-Atherosclerotic Action of Agmatine in ApoE-Knockout Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2017 Aug 4;18(8). Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Department of Pharmacology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-531 Krakow, Poland.

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease in which dysfunction of mitochondria play an important role, and disorders of lipid management intensify this process. Agmatine, an endogenous polyamine formed by decarboxylation of arginine, exerts a protective effect on mitochondria and modulates fatty acid metabolism. We investigated the effect of exogenous agmatine on the development of atherosclerosis and changes in lipid profile in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice. Agmatine caused an approximate 40% decrease of atherosclerotic lesions, as estimated by en face and cross-section methods with an influence on macrophage but not on smooth muscle content in the plaques. Agmatine treatment did not changed gelatinase activity within the plaque area. What is more, the action of agmatine was associated with an increase in the number of high density lipoproteins (HDL) in blood. Real-Time PCR analysis showed that agmatine modulates liver mRNA levels of many factors involved in oxidation of fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry identified 27 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins upon agmatine treatment in the liver of apoE-/- mice, mostly proteins related to metabolism and apoptosis. In conclusion, prolonged administration of agmatine inhibits atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice; however, the exact mechanisms linking observed changes and elevations of HDL plasma require further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms18081706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5578096PMC
August 2017

Resolvin D1 down-regulates CYP1A1 and PTGS2 gene in the HUVEC cells treated with benzo(a)pyrene.

Pharmacol Rep 2016 Oct 27;68(5):939-44. Epub 2016 Jun 27.

Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA.

Background: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can interact with lipids and their derivatives and have been known to induce atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Resolvin D1 (RvD1) on inflammatory-state realted proteins and genes in the human primary umbilical vein endothelial HUVEC cells exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP).

Methods: We analyzed the influence of RvD1 and/or BaP on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cytosolic prostaglandine E2 synthase (cPGES), glutathione S transferase (GSTM1) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) protein expression by Western blot. Additionaly, phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1) activity, as well as AhR, CYP1A1, phospholipase A2 (PLA2G4A) and prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) gene expression by qRT-PCR was studied.

Results: RvD1 down-regulates cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1) and prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) gene expression in HUVEC cells exposed to BaP. Repressesion of COX-2, cPGES and overexpressesion of GSTM1 protein was noted after co-treatment with RvD1 and BaP. After incubation with RvD1 an increase of cPLA2 and a decrease of CYP1A1 activity was observed when compared to BaP treated alone endothelial cells.

Conclusions: Our data suggests that RvD1 can significantly contributes on vascular function and alleviates the harmful effects caused by BaP, which might potentially aid in the repair of the injured endothelium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2016.05.005DOI Listing
October 2016

n-3 Fatty acids regulate the inflammatory-state related genes in the lung epithelial cells exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Pharmacol Rep 2016 Apr 15;68(2):319-28. Epub 2015 Sep 15.

Laboratory of Forensic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Kraków, Poland.

Background: Chronic airway inflammation is coordinated by a complex of inflammatory mediators, including eicosanoids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the human lung epithelial carcinoma A549 cells supplemented with docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids.

Methods: We analyzed the influence of DHA, EPA and/or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), chrysene (Chr), fluoranthene (Flu) and benzo(a)anthracene (Baa) treatment on the fatty acids (FAs) profile and the formation of isoprostanes. We studied the cyclooxygenase-2, FP-receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors PPARδ and PPARγ, transcription factor NF-кB p50 and p65 expression by Western blot, phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity, as well as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1), phospholipase A2 (PLA2G4A) and prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) gene expression by qRT-PCR.

Results: DHA or EPA supplementation and BaP or Baa treatment resulted in a higher level of PGF3α. COX-2 expression was decreased while PPARδ expression and cPLA2 activity was increased after fatty acid supplementation and PAHs treatment. DHA and EPA up-regulated AHR and PLA2G4A genes.

Conclusions: Supplementation with n-3 FAs resulted in changes of inflammatory-state related genes in the lung epithelial cells exposed to PAHs. The altered profile of lipid mediators from n-3 FA as well as repression of the COX-2 protein by n-3 PUFAs in A549 cells incubated with PAHs suggests anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties of DHA and EPA. It remains to be shown whether these pleiotropic and protective actions of n-3 FAs contribute to fish oil's therapeutic effect in asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2015.09.001DOI Listing
April 2016

Docosahexaenoic acid regulates gene expression in HUVEC cells treated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Toxicol Lett 2015 Jul 5;236(2):75-81. Epub 2015 May 5.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland; Center for Medical Genomics-OMICRON, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland.

The molecular mechanism of inflammation and carcinogenesis induced by exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is not clearly understood. Our study was undertaken due to the strong pro-carcinogenic potential and reactivity of PAH-metabolites, as well as the susceptibility of polyunsaturated fatty acids to oxidation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pro- or anti-inflammatory impact of n-3 docosahexaenoic acid on human primary umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We analysed the influence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or PAHs supplementation on the fatty acid profile of cell membranes, on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and glutathione S transferase Mu1 (GSTM1) protein expression as well as on the prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2), AHR, GSTM1, PLA2G4A, and cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 gene expression. We observed that COX-2 and AHR protein expression was increased while GSTM1 expression was decreased in cells exposed to DHA and PAHs. Docosahexaenoic acid down-regulated CYP1A1 and up-regulated the AHR and PTGS2 genes. Our findings suggested that DHA contributes significantly to alleviate the harmful effects caused by PAHs in endothelial cells. Moreover, these results suggest that a diet rich in n-3 fatty acids is helpful to reduce the harmful effects of PAHs exposure on human living in heavily polluted areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2015.05.002DOI Listing
July 2015

Polymorphism rs7023923 and monocyte count in blood donors and coronary artery disease patients.

Kardiol Pol 2015 7;73(6):445-50. Epub 2015 Jan 7.

Uniwersytet Jagielloński Collegium Medicum.

Background: The importance of the role of monocytes in coronary artery disease (CAD) is well documented. An increased number of circulating monocytes is associated with higher incidence of CAD. Both environmental and genetic factors influence monocytosis. The latter have been extensively studied since the development of high-throughput genome-wide association studies. Several associations between polymorphisms and monocytosis were found among healthy individuals; the first example was rs7023923. The magnitude of the association of studied polymorphisms with the trait of interest is often confounded by environmental factors and may therefore differ between patient and healthy populations. It is very important to determine the magnitude of the association among patients to predict outcome of the disease, e.g. myocardial infarction.

Aim: To determine whether the magnitude of association of rs7023923 with monocytosis, previously reported among healthy volunteers, is similar in patients in whom diagnosis of CAD was determined during elective coronarography.

Methods And Results: Leucocytosis and neutrophilocytosis were higher among patients with CAD, while thrombocytosis was lower. Monocyte count did not differ among the studied groups (p = 0.25). We confirmed the association of rs7023923 with monocytosis among healthy blood donors (p = 0.0156) but not among patients admitted for elective coronarography (p = 0.61). Inclusion of the age and sex of patients in the statistical model did not modify the results.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that translation of the results of genetic association with the studied traits from healthy to patient population should be implemented with caution. It is possible that numerous environmental factors, which discriminate healthy volunteers from CAD patients, confound the magnitude of genetic associations and make interpretation of the data in patients less clear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/KP.a2014.0238DOI Listing
February 2017

Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase activation by Alda-1 inhibits atherosclerosis and attenuates hepatic steatosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

J Am Heart Assoc 2014 Nov 12;3(6):e001329. Epub 2014 Nov 12.

Department of Pharmacology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland (A.S., R.O., M.S., A.W., J.T., M., J.J., R.K.).

Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been shown to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), an enzyme responsible for the detoxification of reactive aldehydes, is considered to exert protective function in mitochondria. We investigated the influence of Alda-1, an activator of ALDH2, on atherogenesis and on the liver steatosis in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice.

Methods And Results: Alda-1 caused decrease of atherosclerotic lesions approximately 25% as estimated by "en face" and "cross-section" methods without influence on plasma lipid profile, atherosclerosis-related markers of inflammation, and macrophage and smooth muscle content in the plaques. Plaque nitrotyrosine was not changed upon Alda-1 treatment, and there were no changes in aortic mRNA levels of factors involved in antioxidative defense, regulation of apoptosis, mitogenesis, and autophagy. Hematoxylin/eosin staining showed decrease of steatotic changes in liver of Alda-1-treated apoE(-/-) mice. Alda-1 attenuated formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) protein adducts and decreased triglyceride content in liver tissue. Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry identified 20 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins upon Alda-1 treatment in liver of apoE(-/-) mice, mostly proteins related to metabolism and oxidative stress. The most up-regulated were the proteins that participated in beta oxidation of fatty acids.

Conclusions: Collectively, Alda-1 inhibited atherosclerosis and attenuated NAFLD in apoE(-/-) mice. The pattern of changes suggests a beneficial effect of Alda-1 in NAFLD; however, the exact liver functional consequences of the revealed alterations as well as the mechanism(s) of antiatherosclerotic Alda-1 action require further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.114.001329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4338726PMC
November 2014

Association of plasma miR-223 and platelet reactivity in patients with coronary artery disease on dual antiplatelet therapy: A preliminary report.

Platelets 2015 28;26(6):593-7. Epub 2014 Oct 28.

2nd Department of Cardiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College , Cracow , Poland .

Decreased plasma levels of microRNA-223 (miR-223), predominantly of platelet origin, were proposed as a surrogate marker of efficacy of antiplatelet therapy. However, higher on-treatment platelet reactivity was associated with lower plasma miR-223 in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) including clopidogrel and aspirin. Our aim was to compare plasma miR-223 and platelet reactivity in CAD patients on DAPT with newer P2Y12 antagonists vs. clopidogrel. We studied 21 men with CAD admitted to our centre owing to a non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome, and with an uncomplicated hospital course. From the day of admission, the patients were receiving either clopidogrel (n = 11) or prasugrel/ticagrelor (n = 10) in addition to aspirin. Before discharge, miR-223 expression in plasma was estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using the comparative Ct method relative to miR-16 as an endogenous control. Multiple electrode aggregometry was used to assess platelet aggregation in response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ADP-induced platelet reactivity was decreased in the patients treated with prasugrel or ticagrelor compared with those on clopidogrel (mean ± SD: 139 ± 71 vs. 313 ± 162 arbitrary units [AU]*min, p = 0.006), due to a more potent antiplatelet activity of the novel P2Y12 antagonists. Consequently, six out of seven patients in the lower tertile of the ADP-induced platelet aggregation were treated with the newer P2Y12 blockers, whereas six out of seven patients in the upper tertile were on clopidogrel. Plasma miR-223 was elevated with decreasing platelet reactivity (Spearman's rho = -0.52; p = 0.015 for trend), being significantly higher in the lower tertile of the ADP-induced platelet aggregation (median [range]: 1.06 [0.25-2.31]) vs. the upper tertile (0.20 [0.13-2.30]) (p = 0.04). In conclusion, our preliminary results argue against the notion of low plasma miR-223 as a marker of platelet responsiveness to DAPT. On the contrary, more potent platelet inhibition associated mainly with newer P2Y12 antagonists appears to coincide with higher miR-223 relative to the subjects with attenuated responsiveness to DAPT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09537104.2014.974527DOI Listing
May 2016

The effect of AVE 0991, nebivolol and doxycycline on inflammatory mediators in an apoE-knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis.

Med Sci Monit 2012 Oct;18(10):BR389-93

Jagiellonian University School of Medicine, Cracow, Poland.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the 3 different substances that can decrease the development of atherosclerosis--nebivolol, AVE 0991 and doxycycline--could at the same time diminish the level of inflammatory indicators interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-12 (IL-12), serum amyloid A (SAA), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1).

Material/methods: Forty 8-week-old female apoE-knockout mice on the C57BL/6J background were divided into 4 groups and put on chow diet for 4 months. Three experimental groups received the same diet as a control group, mixed with AVE 0991 at a dose 0.58 µmol per kg of body weight per day, nebivolol at a dose 2.0 µmol per kg of body weight per day, and doxycycline at a dose 1.5 mg per kg of body weight per day. At the age of 6 months, the mice were sacrificed.

Results: All inflammatory indicators (MCP-1, IL-6, IL-12 and SAA) were diminished by AVE 0991. There was also a tendency to lower MCP-1, IL-6, IL-12 and SAA levels by nebivolol and doxycycline; however, it did not reach statistical significance.

Conclusions: Of the 3 presented substances, only AVE 0991 was able to diminish the rise of inflammatory markers. Therefore, drug manipulations in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis seem to be the most promising in the future treatment of atherogenesis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3560549PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/msm.883478DOI Listing
October 2012

Proteomic analysis of changes in protein expression in liver mitochondria in apoE knockout mice.

J Proteomics 2011 May 23;74(6):887-93. Epub 2011 Mar 23.

Chair of Pharmacology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Poland.

The involvement of both apolipoprotein E (apoE) and mitochondria in lipid metabolism is widely recognized, however there is surprisingly scarce data about the putative mitochondrial action(s) of this protein. The aim of the study was to screen the alterations in liver mitochondrial proteome caused by apoE deficiency. We applied 2DE-LC-MS/MS methodology to investigate the changes in liver mitochondrial protein expression in 6-months old apoE(-/-) mice as compared to C57BL/6J controls. ApoE(-/-), but not C57BL/6J mice developed visible atherosclerotic changes in aorta and mild, diffuse steatosis of the liver. Collectively, 18 differentially expressed proteins were identified in mitochondria, related to apoptosis, antioxidant and detoxifying mechanisms of mitochondria, as well as lipid metabolism and transport. In conclusion, differential proteomic approach revealed several lines of proteomic evidence that mitochondrial function in the liver of apoE(-/-) mice could be altered as a result of overlapping of pathological and compensatory changes in expression of proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2011.03.003DOI Listing
May 2011