Publications by authors named "Justin W Arner"

78 Publications

Open Ischiofemoral Impingement Decompression.

Arthrosc Tech 2022 Jul 8;11(7):e1149-e1155. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Burke and Bradley Orthopedics, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

Ischiofemoral impingement is a relatively rare cause of posterior hip pain associated with narrowing of the space between the lateral aspect of the ischium and the lesser trochanter. Symptoms typically consist of lower buttock, groin, and/or medial thigh pain, which is commonly exacerbated by adduction, extension, and external rotation of the hip. This condition can be treated nonoperatively in many circumstances; however, recalcitrant cases may require surgical intervention. Whereas described operative treatment options for this pathology range from endoscopic to open procedures, this Technical Note describes a safe and reliable technique for open ischiofemoral decompression with sciatic nerve neurolysis through a posterior approach for treatment of ischiofemoral impingement refractory to conservative treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eats.2022.02.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9353069PMC
July 2022

Concomitant Glenolabral Articular Disruption (GLAD) Lesion is Not Associated With Inferior Clinical Outcomes After Arthroscopic Bankart Repair for Shoulder Instability: A Retrospective Comparative Study.

Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil 2022 Jun 31;4(3):e1015-e1022. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes between anterior shoulder instability patients with and without glenolabral articular disruption (GLAD) lesions after undergoing arthroscopic Bankart repair and to evaluate potential risk factors for inferior outcomes and recurrent instability.

Methods: Prospectively collected data were retrospectively reviewed for patients who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair with and without GLAD lesions at a minimum of 2 years follow-up. Consecutive patients were matched by age, sex, and number of anchors. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were evaluated before and after surgery, including American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, Short Form-12 score, and satisfaction. Recurrent dislocation, subjective instability, and reoperation were analyzed. Additionally, PROs were assessed on the basis of GLAD lesion characteristics.

Results: A total of 54 patients (27 GLAD, 27 control) with a mean age of 28.9 ± 11.6 years were analyzed at mean 4.5 ± 1.9 years (range, 2-9 years) follow-up. Thirty-eight (70.3%) of the participants were male. Patients in both groups experienced significant improvements in all PROs ( ≤ .006 for all measures) and reported high median satisfaction (scale 1-10: 10 vs 10,  = .290) at final follow-up. Two patients in the GLAD cohort and 1 in the control cohort underwent reoperation ( = .588). Four (14.8%) patients in each group reported recurrent dislocation ( = 1.0). Additionally, 2 (7.4%) GLAD patients and 1 (3.7%) control patient reported subjective shoulder instability after surgery ( = 1.0). No significant differences in PROs were observed based on anchor/labral advancement or treatment with microfracture, nor were significant correlations observed between GLAD lesion size and PROs ( > .05 for all).

Conclusion: Arthroscopic Bankart repair in patients with GLAD lesions resulted in significantly improved outcomes with high satisfaction, which was no different when compared with those without GLAD lesions.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asmr.2022.02.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9210388PMC
June 2022

Glenoid Bone Loss Directly Affects Hill-Sachs Morphology: An Advanced 3-Dimensional Analysis.

Am J Sports Med 2022 07 6;50(9):2469-2475. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: While the glenoid track concept presents a useful prediction for recurrent glenohumeral instability, little is known about the humeral head bony architecture as it relates to glenoid erosion in the setting of bipolar bone loss.

Purpose: To (1) qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the interplay between glenoid bone loss (GBL) and Hill-Sachs lesions (HSLs) in a cohort of patients with anterior instability using 3-dimensional imaging software and (2) assess the relationships between GBL and HSL characteristics.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Patients were identified who had anterior shoulder instability with a minimum 5% GBL and evidence of HSL confirmed on computed tomography. Unilateral 3-dimensional models of the ipsilateral proximal humeral head and en face sagittal oblique view of the glenoid were reconstructed using MIMICS software (Materialise NV). GBL surface area, width, defect length, and glenoid track width were quantified. The volume, surface area, width, and depth of identified HSLs were quantified with their location (medial, superior, and inferior extent) on the humeral head. Severity of GBL was defined as percentage glenoid bone surface area loss and categorized as low grade (5%-10%), moderate grade (>10% to 20%), high grade (>20% to 30%), and extensive (>30%). Analysis of variance was then computed to determine significance ( < .05) between severity of GBL and associated HSL parameters.

Results: In total, 100 patients met inclusion criteria (mean age, 27.9 years; range, 18-43 years), which included 58 right shoulders and 42 left shoulders (84 male, 16 female). Among groups, there were 32 patients with low-grade GBL (mean GBL = 6.1%), 38 with moderate grade (mean GBL = 16.2%), 17 with high grade (mean GBL = 23.7%), and 13 with extensive (mean GBL = 34.0%), with an overall mean GBL of 18.1% (range, 5%-39%). Patients with 5%-10% GBL had significantly narrower HSLs (average and maximum width; < .03) and deeper HSLs (average depth; = .002) as compared with all other GBL groups, while greater GBL was associated with wider and shallower HSLs. GBL width, percentage width loss, defect length, and glenoid track width all significantly differed across the 4 GBL groups ( < .05).

Conclusion: HSLs had significantly different morphological characteristics depending on the severity of GBL, indicating that GBL was directly related to the characteristics of HSLs. Patients presenting with smaller glenoid defects had significantly narrower and deeper HSLs with less humeral head surface area loss, while greater GBL was associated with wider and shallower HSLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221101016DOI Listing
July 2022

Management of Complex and Revision Anterior Shoulder Instability.

Arthroscopy 2022 05;38(5):1396-1397

The Steadman Clinic and Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado.

Treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability has gained significant interest in recent years and involves evaluation of both glenoid and humeral sided bone loss. Decision making is more complex in patients with significant humeral or glenoid bone defects or in those who underwent previous instability surgery. Appropriate assessment of the glenoid track is necessary as "off track" lesions typically require treatments beyond arthroscopic labral repair alone. In those with significant humeral or glenoid sided bone loss, the authors recommend three-dimensional computed tomography in addition to magnetic resonance imaging for accurate evaluation. The Glenoid Track Instability Management Score is a useful guide to help direct treatment by using the glenoid track as well as other known risk factors for recurrence. In circumstances with significant glenoid bone loss, typically over 20%, a coracoid transfer such as the Latarjet is recommended. In patients that previously failed a coracoid transfer, the authors recommend a distal tibia allograft; however, distal clavicle and iliac crest autograft have also been reported to have high success rates. In those with large Hill-Sachs lesions, remplissage or bone grafting are recommended. An estimation of the postoperative glenoid track after glenoid bone augmentation is required for appropriate Hill-Sachs lesion treatment. The authors typically recommend against revision instability surgical treatment with arthroscopic repair alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2022.03.009DOI Listing
May 2022

Meniscus Repair Part 1: Biology, Function, Tear Morphology, and Special Considerations.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2022 Jun 21;30(12):e852-e858. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (Arner), the The Steadman Clinic and Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Aspen, CO (Ruzbarsky), the The Steadman Clinic and Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, CO (Vidal), and the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Colorado, Denver, CO (Frank).

Knowledge of anatomy and physiology of the meniscus is essential for appropriate treatment. The unique anatomy of the medial and lateral meniscus and blood supply play an important role in decision making. Controversy exists regarding the optimal treatment of meniscal tears including débridement, repair, root repair, and transplantation. The unique tear location and morphology thus plays an essential role in determination of appropriate treatment. Repair is generally advised in tear types with healing potential to preserve meniscal function and joint health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-21-00993DOI Listing
June 2022

Meniscus Repair Part 2: Technical Aspects, Biologic Augmentation, Rehabilitation, and Outcomes.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2022 07 16;30(13):613-619. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (Arner), The Steadman Clinic and Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Aspen, CO (Ruzbarsky), The Steadman Clinic and Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, CO (Vidal), and the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Colorado, Denver, CO (Frank).

Multiple meniscal repair techniques exist, and successful healing and excellent patient outcomes have been reported with a variety of all-inside and open techniques. Increased awareness and recognition of root tears and meniscocapsular separations are topics of recent interest. The ideal treatment of these injuries remains uncertain, and definitive recommendations regarding their treatment are lacking. Postoperative protocols regarding weight bearing and range of motion are controversial and require future study. The role of biologics in the augmentation of meniscal repair remains unclear but promising. An evidence-based individualized approach for meniscal repair focusing on clinical outcomes and value is essential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-21-01153DOI Listing
July 2022

Outcomes of Arthroscopic Anterior Labroligamentous Periosteal Sleeve Avulsion Lesions: A Minimum 2-Year Follow-up.

Am J Sports Med 2022 05 13;50(6):1512-1519. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: Anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion (ALPSA) lesions can occur in recurrent anterior shoulder instability, which may lead to the labrum scarring medially to the glenoid. ALPSA lesions have also been associated with greater preoperative dislocations, larger Hill-Sachs lesions, and greater degrees of glenoid bone loss. Therefore, patients with these lesions have historically had a higher failure rate after repair, with nearly double the recurrent instability rate compared with those undergoing standard arthroscopic Bankart repair.

Purpose: To compare minimum 2-year outcomes of arthroscopic mobilization and anatomic repair of ALPSA lesions with those after standard arthroscopic Bankart repair.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of ALPSA lesions were matched in a 1-to-3 fashion to patients who underwent standard Bankart repair by age, sex, number of previous ipsilateral shoulder instability surgical procedures, and number of anchors used. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores were compared preoperatively and postoperatively (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons [ASES]; 12-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-12] Physical Component Summary [PCS]; Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation [SANE]; shortened version of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand; and satisfaction). Recurrent instability, on- versus off-track Hill-Sachs lesion, and reoperation rates were analyzed.

Results: A total of 100 shoulders (25 ALPSA and 75 Bankart) with an overall mean age of 25.7 years were evaluated. Patients in the ALPSA group demonstrated significant improvements in the ASES (preoperative, 74.8; postoperative, 89.7; = .041) and SF-12 PCS (preoperative, 46.9; postoperative, 53.4; = .021) scores but not the SANE score (preoperative, 65.2; postoperative, 75.3; = .311). Patients in the Bankart group had significant improvements in all outcome scores at final follow-up: ASES (preoperative, 67.1; postoperative, 90.3), SANE (preoperative, 58.0; postoperative, 85.7), and SF-12 PCS (preoperative, 45.3; postoperative, 52.9) (all < .001). There were no significant differences in PRO scores between the groups preoperatively or postoperatively ( > .05). The median satisfaction for the ALPSA group was 10 of 10 and for the Bankart group it was 9 of 10 ( = .094). There was a significantly higher rate of recurrent dislocation in the ALPSA group (8/25 [32.0%]) compared with the Bankart group (10/75 [13.3%]) ( = .040). Additionally, 5 patients (20.0%) in the ALPSA group underwent revision surgery at a mean of 5.6 years, and 8 patients (10.7%) in the Bankart group underwent revision surgery at a mean of 4.4 years ( = .311).

Conclusion: Despite improvements in the recognition of and surgical techniques for ALPSA lesions, they still lead to significantly higher postoperative dislocation rates; however, no differences in PRO scores were found. These findings highlight the importance of early surgical interventions in anterior shoulder instability with the hope of lessening recurrent instability and the risk of developing an ALPSA lesion, as well as careful assessment of the quality of soft tissues and other risk factors for recurrence when considering what type of shoulder stabilization procedure to perform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221090902DOI Listing
May 2022

Effects of oral losartan administration on homeostasis of articular cartilage and bone in a rabbit model.

Bone Rep 2022 Jun 28;16:101526. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Background And Aims: Previous work has shown that oral losartan can enhance microfracture-mediated cartilage repair in a rabbit osteochondral defect injury model. In this study, we aimed to determine whether oral losartan would have a detrimental effect on articular cartilage and bone homeostasis in the uninjured sides.

Methods: New Zealand rabbits were divided into 4 groups including normal uninjured (Normal), contralateral uninjured side of osteochondral defect (Defect), osteochondral defect plus microfracture (Microfracture) and osteochondral defect plus microfracture and losartan oral administration (10 mg/kg/day) (Losartan). Rabbits underwent different surgeries and treatment and were sacrificed at 12 weeks. Both side of the normal group and uninjured side of treatment groups tibias were harvested for Micro-CT and histological analysis for cartilage and bone including H&E staining, Herovici's staining (bone and cartilage) Alcian blue and Safranin O staining (cartilage) as well as immunohistochemistry of losartan related signaling pathways molecules for both cartilage and bone.

Results: Our results showed losartan oral treatment at 10 mg/kg/day slightly increase Alcian blue positive matrix as well as decrease collagen type 3 in articular cartilage while having no significant effect on articular cartilage structure, cellularity, and other matrix. Losartan treatment also did not affect angiotensin receptor type 1 (AGTR1), angiotensin receptor type 2 (AGTR2) and phosphorylated transforming factor β1 activated kinase 1 (pTAK1) expression level and pattern in the articular cartilage. Furthermore, losartan treatment did not affect microarchitecture of normal cancellous bone and cortical bone of tibias compared to normal and other groups. Losartan treatment slightly increased osteocalcin positive osteoblasts on the surface of cancellous bone and did not affect bone matrix collagen type 1 content and did not change AGTR1, AGTR2 and pTAK1 signal molecule expression.

Conclusion: Oral losartan used as a microfracture augmentation therapeutic does not have significant effect on uninjured articular cartilage and bone based on our preclinical rabbit model. These results provided further evidence that the current regimen of using losartan as a microfracture augmentation therapeutic is safe with respect to bone and cartilage homeostasis and support clinical trials for its application in human cartilage repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2022.101526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8971351PMC
June 2022

Comprehensive Arthroscopic Management of Shoulder Arthritis.

Arthroscopy 2022 04;38(4):1035-1036

Steadman Clinic and Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A.

Glenohumeral arthritis is a challenging problem, especially in the young, active patient. After nonoperative treatment, including activity modification, anti-inflammatory medications, physical therapy, and injections, is exhausted, surgical treatment ranging from simple debridement to arthroplasty is commonly offered. Given concerns regarding arthroplasty implant longevity, there is an interest in joint-preserving procedures. In this difficult population, the authors recommend a systematic, inclusive approach to the array of pathologies encountered in the setting of early glenohumeral arthritis: the Comprehensive Arthroscopic Management (CAM) procedure. CAM consists of the combination of arthroscopy, glenohumeral chondroplasty, synovectomy, loose body removal, microfracture, capsular release, humeral osteoplasty, axillary nerve neurolysis, subacromial decompression, and biceps tenodesis. Key perioperative care includes the use of regional nerve blocks to allow immediate physical therapy with the goal of restoring range of motion by 4 to 6 weeks with strengthening beginning at 6 to 12 weeks and return to full activities at 4 to 6 months. Although this is still considered a bridging procedure, the literature has reported 92% survival at 1 year, 85% survival at 2 years, 77% survival at 5 years, and 63% survival at 10 years. Predictors of failure of the CAM procedure include joint space <2 mm, flattening of the humeral head, and abnormal posterior glenoid morphology. Patient selection and education is therefore essential for optimizing outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2022.01.033DOI Listing
April 2022

Arthroscopic Axillary Nerve Neurolysis From the Anteroinferior Glenoid Through the Quadrilateral Space to the Terminal Deltoid Branches.

Arthrosc Tech 2022 Mar 8;11(3):e373-e377. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A.

Axillary nerve compression is a rare cause of posterolateral shoulder pain. Once the diagnosis is confirmed and after failure of conservative measures, open procedures have been the mainstay of treatment for several decades. More recently, arthroscopic techniques have been proposed, which offer several advantages, including improved access to difficult locations, better visualization, and less surgical morbidity. The objective of this Technical Note is to describe an arthroscopic neurolysis of the axillary nerve from the inferior humeral pouch, through the quadrilateral space and into the subdeltoid recess.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eats.2021.11.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8897587PMC
March 2022

Outcomes and Survivorship at a Median of 8.9 Years Following Hip Arthroscopy in Adolescents with Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Matched Comparative Study with Adults.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2022 05 7;104(10):902-909. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado.

Background: Because of the unique theoretical surgical risks, including osteonecrosis, acute iatrogenic slipped capital femoral epiphysis, and epiphyseal injury, the optimal treatment strategy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in growing adolescents has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of primary arthroscopic treatment of FAI in growing adolescents with a matched adult group.

Methods: Patients with FAI who underwent arthroscopic treatment with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included. Patients with previous ipsilateral hip surgery, an Outerbridge grade of ≥3, a preoperative Tönnis grade of ≥2, or evidence of dysplasia (lateral center-edge angle of <25°) were excluded. Eligible patients who were ≤19 years old and whose proximal femoral physis had not yet closed were matched to adult (20 to 40-year-old) counterparts in a 1:1 ratio by sex, body mass index, and time of surgery. For the adolescents, cam resection was performed with a physeal-sparing approach. Outcome scores, including the modified Harris hip score (mHHS), Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), and HOS-Sports-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), were prospectively collected.

Results: Of the 196 eligible adolescents, 157 (80%) were pair-matched to adult controls, with a median postoperative follow-up of 8.9 and 6.6 years, respectively. Fourteen (9%) of the adolescents required revision hip arthroscopy compared with 18 adults (11%) (p = 0.46). No patient in the adolescent group had conversion to a total hip arthroplasty (THA), while 3 in the adult group had a THA (p = 0.25). For adolescents without subsequent hip surgery, the median mHHS improved from 59 preoperatively to 96 postoperatively; the HOS-ADL, from 71 to 98; and the HOS-SSS, from 44 to 94 (p < 0.001), which were significantly higher postoperative scores than those of the matched adults (p < 0.05) despite similar or inferior baseline scores. No complications were found during the office visit or at the final follow-up.

Conclusions: Hip arthroscopy performed with a physeal-sparing approach for FAI in growing adolescents is safe and effective and yields superior clinical outcomes compared with those in a matched adult group.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.21.00852DOI Listing
May 2022

Midterm Outcomes After Hip Labral Augmentation in Revision Hip Arthroscopy.

Am J Sports Med 2022 04 2;50(5):1299-1305. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: Labral augmentation has emerged as an essential procedure to address a deficient or irreparable labrum while preserving native labral tissue and restoring the hip suction seal mechanism.

Purpose: To evaluate midterm outcomes of arthroscopic hip labral augmentation for labral insufficiency after previous hip arthroscopy.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: Patients were identified from a prospectively collected database who underwent arthroscopic hip labral augmentation between January 2011 and January 2017 with a minimum 3-year follow-up. Pre- and postoperative patient-reported outcome scores were compared and included the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey physical and mental component summaries, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), and Hip Outcome Score (HOS) (Activities of Daily Living [ADL] and Sport). Postoperative Tegner Activity Scale and patient satisfaction (1-10) scores were also evaluated. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) and Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) between the preoperative and minimum 3-year follow-up scores were calculated.

Results: A total of 88 patients (39 men, 49 women) underwent revision hip arthroscopy with labral augmentation. The average age was 32.8 ± 11 years. Of these, 77 patients (88%) were available for the minimum 3-year follow-up. The survivorship (absence of conversion to total hip arthroplasty) at 3 years and 5 years was 93% at both time points, with a mean survival time of 8.5 years (95% CI, 8.0-8.9). Eleven patients (14%) required revision arthroscopic surgery for continued pain. Revisions occurred at a mean of 2.6 ± 1.4 years after augmentation. The mean follow-up was 5.2 ± 1.2 years (range, 3-9 years). For patients not requiring subsequent surgery (n = 61), all patient-reported outcome measures significantly improved, which included a 20-point increase in HOS-ADL (MCID, 82%; PASS, 72%) and mHHS (MCID, 78%; PASS, 70%). The median postoperative Tegner score was 4 (range, 1-10). The median postoperative patient satisfaction score was 9 out of 10 (range, 1-10).

Conclusion: Arthroscopic hip labral augmentation is a successful treatment option for patients with labral insufficiency after previous hip arthroscopy, demonstrating improved patient-reported outcomes and survivorship of 93% at 3 years and 5 years. This technique provides a valuable labral preservation option when addressing hip labral pathology when viable native labral tissue remains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221080162DOI Listing
April 2022

Evaluation and Management of the Contact Athlete's Shoulder.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2022 Mar;30(6):e584-e594

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (Arner and Bradley), and The Steadman Clinic and Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, CO (Provencher and Millett).

Shoulder injuries are common in contact athletes and vary in severity because of the required complex interplay of shoulder stability and range of motion for proper function. Pathology varies based on sport but most commonly includes shoulder instability, acromioclavicular injuries, traumatic rotator cuff tears, and brachial plexus injuries. Acute management ranges from reduction of shoulder dislocations to physical examination to determine the severity of injury. Appropriate radiographs should be obtained to evaluate for alignment and fracture, with magnetic resonance imaging commonly being necessary for accurate diagnosis and management. Treatments range from surgical stabilization in shoulder instability to repeat examinations and physical therapy. Return-to-play decision making can be complex with avoidance of reinjury and player safety being of utmost concern. Appropriate evaluation and treatment are vital because repeat injury can lead to long-term effects due to the relatively high effectsometimes seen in contact sports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-20-01374DOI Listing
March 2022

Editorial Commentary: Femoroplasty May Not Be Necessary in All Patients With Hip Femoroacetabular Impingement, But Cam Lesions Should Not Be Ignored in Patients With Significant Femoral Head-Neck Offset.

Authors:
Justin W Arner

Arthroscopy 2021 11;37(11):3295-3296

Our knowledge of appropriate arthroscopic management of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) continues to evolve. However, few studies exist evaluating mid- to long-term surgical outcomes to guide optimal treatment. The recent focus has been on the importance of cam femoroplasty in addition to labral treatment; however, studies have shown that correction of the alpha angle to normal does not correlate with patient outcomes. Furthermore, in cases of mixed impingement, an optimal degree of acetabuloplasty as measured by the lateral center-edge angle has not been determined. Few studies have evaluated isolated pincer decompression with omission of cam treatment. In select patients with small or negligible cam lesions who do not have acetabular dysplasia, a small, isolated acetabular rim resection of 1 to 3 mm may provide adequate FAI decompression as well as reduce surgical time and complications. Nonetheless, individualized FAI treatment is necessary that includes a comprehensive 180° femoroplasty in patients with sizable cam lesions to prevent future labral and chondral damage. An intraoperative dynamic examination is important to determine sufficient resolution of FAI. Predictive modeling may play an increasingly important role to ensure appropriate bony resection and to optimize long-term patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.05.008DOI Listing
November 2021

Grade III Acromioclavicular Separations Treated With Suspensory Fixation Techniques: A Systematic Review of Level I Through IV Studies.

Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil 2021 Oct 5;3(5):e1535-e1545. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

The Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A.

Purpose: To perform a systematic review comparing clinical outcomes, radiographic outcomes, and complication rates after acute (surgery ≤6 weeks from injury) versus chronic (surgery >6 weeks from injury) acromioclavicular joint reconstructions for grade III injuries using modern suspensory fixation techniques.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature examining acute versus chronic surgical treatment of Rockwood grade III acromioclavicular joint separations using the Cochrane registry, MEDLINE database, and Embase database over the past 10 years according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines. The inclusion criteria included techniques using suspensory fixation, a minimum study size of 3 patients, a minimum follow-up period of 6 months, human studies, and English-language studies. The methodology of each study was evaluated using the Methodological Index for Non-randomized Studies (MINORS) tool for nonrandomized studies and the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias (RoB 2) tool for randomized controlled trials.

Results: The systematic review search yielded 20 studies with a total of 253 patients. There were 2 prospective randomized controlled trials, but most of the included studies were retrospective. On comparison of acute surgery (≤6 weeks) and chronic surgery (>6 weeks), individual studies reported a range of Constant scores of 84.4 to 98.2 and 80.8 to 94.1, respectively. The ranges of radiographic coracoclavicular distances reported at final follow-up also favored acute reconstructions, which showed improved reduction (9.2-15.7 mm and 11.7-18.6 mm, respectively). The reported complication rates ranged from 7% to 67% for acute reconstructions and from 0% to 30% for chronic reconstructions.

Conclusions: The ranges in the Constant score may favor acute reconstructions, but because of the heterogeneity in the surgical techniques in the literature, no definitive recommendations can be made regarding optimal timing.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, systematic review of Level I through IV studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asmr.2021.04.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8527265PMC
October 2021

Shoulder Latarjet Surgery Shows Wide Variation in Reported Indications, Techniques, Perioperative Treatment, and Definition of Outcomes, Complications, and Failure: A Systematic Review.

Arthroscopy 2022 02 28;38(2):522-538. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Steadman Clinic and Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purpose: To systematically review and compare the surgical indications, technique, perioperative treatment, outcomes measures, and how recurrence of instability was reported and defined after coracoid transfer procedures.

Methods: A systematic review of the literature examining open coracoid transfer outcomes was conducted according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines using the Cochrane registry, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases from 2010 to 2020. Inclusion criteria included open coracoid transfer techniques, including the Bristow or Latarjet technique, full text availability, human studies, and English language.

Results: A screen of 1,096 coracoid transfer studies yielded 72 studies, which met inclusion criteria with a total of 4,312 shoulders. One study was a randomized controlled trial, but the majority of them were retrospective. Of those, 65 studies reported on postoperative outcome scores, complication rates, revision rate, and recurrence rates. Forty-three reported on range of motion results. Thirty studies reported on primary coracoid transfer only, 7 on revision only, and 30 on both primary and revision, with 5 not reporting. Average follow-up was 26.9 months (range: 1-316.8 months). Indications for coracoid transfer, technique, perioperative care, complications, and how failure was reported varied greatly among studies.

Conclusions: Latarjet and coracoid transfer surgery varies greatly in its indications, technique, and postoperative care. Further, there is great variation in reporting of complications, as well as recurrence and failure and how it is defined. Although coracoid transfer is a successful treatment with a long history, greater consistency regarding these factors is essential for appropriate patient education and surgeon knowledge.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, systematic review of Level I-IV studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.09.020DOI Listing
February 2022

Biomechanical Analysis of Segmental Medial Meniscal Transplantation in a Human Cadaveric Model.

Am J Sports Med 2021 10 8;49(12):3279-3286. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

The Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: Meniscal deficiency has been reported to increase contact pressures in the affected tibiofemoral joint, possibly leading to degenerative changes. Current surgical options include meniscal allograft transplantation and insertion of segmental meniscal scaffolds. Little is known about segmental meniscal allograft transplantation.

Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of segmental medial meniscal allograft transplantation in the setting of partial medial meniscectomy in restoring native knee loading characteristics.

Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.

Methods: Ten fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees underwent central midbody medial meniscectomy and subsequent segmental medial meniscal allograft transplantation. Knees were loaded in a dynamic tensile testing machine to 1000 N for 20 seconds at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion. Four conditions were tested: (1) intact medial meniscus, (2) deficient medial meniscus, (3) segmental medial meniscal transplant fixed with 7 meniscocapsular sutures, and (4) segmental medial meniscal transplant fixed with 7 meniscocapsular sutures and 1 suture fixed through 2 bone tunnels. Submeniscal medial and lateral pressure-mapping sensors assessed mean contact pressure, peak contact pressure, mean contact area, and pressure mapping. Two-factor random-intercepts linear mixed effects models compared pressure and contact area measurements among experimental conditions.

Results: The meniscal-deficient state demonstrated a significantly higher mean contact pressure than all other testing conditions (mean difference, ≥0.35 MPa; < .001 for all comparisons) and a significantly smaller total contact area as compared with all other testing conditions (mean difference, ≤140 mm; < .001 for all comparisons). There were no significant differences in mean contact pressure or total contact area among the intact, transplant, or transplant-with-tunnel groups or in any outcome measure across all comparisons in the lateral compartment. No significant differences existed in center of pressure and relative pressure distribution across testing conditions.

Conclusion: Segmental medial meniscal allograft transplantation restored the medial compartment mean contact pressure and mean contact area to values measured in the intact medial compartment.

Clinical Relevance: Segmental medial meniscal transplantation may provide an alternative to full meniscal transplantation by addressing only the deficient portion of the meniscus with transplanted tissue. Additional work is required to validate long-term fixation strength and biologic integration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211036441DOI Listing
October 2021

The Beneficial Effect of an Intra-articular Injection of Losartan on Microfracture-Mediated Cartilage Repair Is Dose Dependent.

Am J Sports Med 2021 07;49(9):2509-2521

Center for Regenerative Sports Medicine, Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: A previous publication demonstrated that the oral intake of losartan promoted microfracture-mediated hyaline-like cartilage repair in osteochondral defects of a rabbit knee model. However, an intra-articular (IA) injection of losartan may have direct beneficial effects on cartilage repair and has not been studied.

Purpose: To determine the dosage and beneficial effects of an IA injection of losartan on microfracture-mediated cartilage repair and normal cartilage homeostasis.

Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.

Methods: Rabbits were divided into 5 groups (n = 6 each): a microfracture group (MFX group) and 4 different losartan treatment groups that received varying doses of IA losartan (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg per knee). An osteochondral defect (5 mm) was created in the trochlear groove cartilage of 1 limb in each rabbit, and 5 microfracture perforations were made in the osteochondral defect. Both the injured and the contralateral knee joints were injected with IA losartan immediately after microfracture and at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. Rabbits were sacrificed at 6 weeks after surgery for analysis including gross observation, micro-computed tomography, histology, and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Micro-computed tomography and gross observation demonstrated comparable subchondral bone healing and hyaline-like cartilage morphology in the 0.1-, 1-, and 10-mg losartan groups relative to the MFX group. Conversely, the 100-mg losartan group showed neither bony defect healing nor cartilage repair. Histology revealed higher O'Driscoll scores and hyaline-like cartilage regeneration in the 1-mg losartan group compared with the MFX group. In contrast, the 100-mg losartan group showed the lowest histology score and no cartilage repair. An IA injection of losartan at the doses of 0.1, 1, and 10 mg did not cause adverse effects on uninjured cartilage, while the 100-mg dose induced cartilage damage. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed downregulation of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling pathway after IA losartan injection.

Conclusion: An IA injection of losartan at the dose of 1 mg was most effective for the enhancement of microfracture-mediated cartilage repair without adversely affecting uninjured cartilage. Conversely, a high dose (100 mg) IA injection of losartan inhibited cartilage repair in the osteochondral defect and was chondrotoxic to normal articular cartilage.

Clinical Relevance: An IA injection of losartan at an optimal dosage represents a novel microfracture enhancement therapy and warrants a clinical trial for future clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211008655DOI Listing
July 2021

Rehabilitation Following Posterior Shoulder Stabilization.

Int J Sports Phys Ther 2021 Jun 1;16(3):930-940. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

The Steadman Clinic; Steadman Philippon Research Institute.

Posterior shoulder instability has been noted in recent reports to occur at a higher prevalence than originally believed, with many cases occurring in active populations. In most cases, primary surgical treatment for posterior shoulder instability-a posterior labral repair-is indicated for those patients who have failed conservative management and demonstrate persistent functional limitations. In order to optimize surgical success and return to a prior level of function, a comprehensive and focused rehabilitation program is crucial. Currently, there is a limited amount of literature focusing on rehabilitation after surgery for posterior instability. Therefore, the purpose of this clinical commentary is to present a post-surgical rehabilitation program for patients following posterior shoulder labral repair, with recommendations based upon best medical evidence.

Level Of Evidence: 5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26603/001c.22501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168996PMC
June 2021

Minimum 10-Year Outcomes of Primary Arthroscopic Transosseous-Equivalent Double-Row Rotator Cuff Repair.

Am J Sports Med 2021 07 8;49(8):2035-2041. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

The Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: Modern rotator cuff repair techniques demonstrate favorable early and midterm outcomes, but long-term results have yet to be reported.

Purpose: To determine 10-year outcomes and survivorship after arthroscopic double-row transosseous-equivalent (TOE) rotator cuff repair.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence 4.

Methods: The primary TOE rotator cuff repair procedure was performed using either a knotted suture bridge or knotless tape bridge technique on a series of patients with 1 to 3 tendon full-thickness rotator cuff tears involving the supraspinatus. Only patients who were 10 years postsurgery were included. Patient-reported outcomes were collected pre- and postoperatively, including American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), shortened version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH), and satisfaction. Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis was performed. Failure was defined as progression to revision surgery.

Results: A total of 91 shoulders (56 men, 31 women) were included between October 2005 and December 2009. Mean follow-up was 11.5 years (range, 10.0-14.1 years). Of 91 shoulders, 5 (5.5%) failed and required revision surgery. Patient-reported outcomes for patients who survived were known for 80% (69/86). Outcomes scores at final follow-up were as follows: ASES, 93.1 ± 10.8; SANE, 87.5 ± 14.2; QuickDASH, 11.1 ± 13.5; and SF-12 physical component summary (PCS), 49.2 ± 10.1. There were statistically significant declines in ASES, SANE, and SF-12 PCS from the 5-year to 10-year follow-up, but none of these changes met the minimally clinically important difference threshold. Median satisfaction at final follow-up was 10 (range, 3-10). From this cohort, Kaplan-Meier survivorship demonstrated a 94.4% survival rate at a minimum of 10 years.

Conclusion: Arthroscopic TOE rotator cuff repair demonstrates high patient satisfaction and low revision rates at a mean follow-up of 11.5 years. This information may be directly utilized in surgical decision making and preoperative patient counseling regarding the longevity of modern double-row rotator cuff repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211015419DOI Listing
July 2021

Defining Critical Glenoid Bone Loss in Posterior Shoulder Capsulolabral Repair.

Am J Sports Med 2021 07 3;49(8):2013-2019. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

The Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: Although critical bone loss for anterior instability is well defined, a clinically significant threshold of posterior bone loss has not been elucidated.

Hypothesis: Patients with failed arthroscopic posterior shoulder capsulolabral repair will have increased posterior glenoid bone loss with a defined critical threshold.

Study Design: Case control study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Athletes older than 18 years with unidirectional posterior instability treated with arthroscopic repair were evaluated at 2-year minimum follow-up. Failure was defined as revision surgery, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score of <60, or subjective stability score of >5. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements from 19 patients with failed arthroscopic posterior shoulder capsulolabral repair were compared with 56 patients whose surgery was successful. MRI measures included glenoid version, labral version, glenoid width, labral width, percentage bone loss using the circle technique, labral height, percent subluxation, and recently described measures of defect slope, bone loss angle, and defect length. The value threshold was set at .05, and a multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed for evaluation of risk of surgical failure.

Results: Smaller glenoid width and greater percentage glenoid bone loss (25.5 ± 0.68 mm vs 28.8 ± 0.47 mm; < .001; 6.8% ± 0.64% vs 4.6% ± 0.43%; = .008) were seen in those patients with failed surgery. There was no difference in glenoid version or other measurements between the failures and nonfailures. A cutoff of 11% glenoid bone loss resulted in a 10.4 times statistically higher surgical failure rate, while a 15% bone loss resulted in a 24.4 times statistically higher failure rate. Six patients had >11% bone loss (range, 11.1 to 19.3) and 1 patient had >15% bone loss.

Conclusion: Risk factors for failure of arthroscopic posterior shoulder capsulolabral repair include smaller glenoid bone width and greater percentage of glenoid bone loss. A threshold of 11% posterior glenoid bone loss implicated a 10 times higher surgical failure rate, while a threshold of 15% led to a 25 times higher surgical failure rate. Surgical failure of posterior capsulolabral repair, however, is relatively rare as it is an overall successful intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211016804DOI Listing
July 2021

Anchor Arthropathy of the Shoulder Joint After Instability Repair: Outcomes Improve With Revision Surgery.

Arthroscopy 2021 12 27;37(12):3414-3420. Epub 2021 May 27.

Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A.; Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purpose: To report clinical and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in patients undergoing revision surgery after diagnosis of anchor-induced arthropathy.

Methods: Patients who underwent revision arthroscopic shoulder surgery and were diagnosed with post-instability glenohumeral arthropathy performed from January 2006 to May 2018 were included in the current study. Patients were excluded if they underwent prior open shoulder procedures, if glenoid bone loss was present, or if prerevision imaging and records were incomplete or not available. Data included initial diagnosis and index procedure performed, presenting arthropathy symptoms including duration, exam findings before revision surgery, and surgical intervention. PROMs were prospectively collected before surgery and at minimum 2-year follow-up.

Results: Fourteen patients were included with a mean (± standard deviation) age at presentation of 35.2 ± 12.1 years (range 16 to 59). The follow-up rate was 86%, with a mean follow-up of 3.8 years (range 1.1 to 10.6). Mean time to development of arthropathy symptoms was 48.2 months (range <1 month to 13.8 years), all presenting with pain and decreased range of motion on exam. At time of revision surgery, all patients underwent either open or arthroscopic removal of previous implants, including anchors and suture material. Six patients underwent additional revision stabilization procedures, 1 underwent total shoulder arthroplasty, and 7 underwent arthroscopic intraarticular debridement, capsular release, and chondroplasty with or without microfracture. Pain significantly improved in 79% of patients (P = .05). Significant improvements in all PROMs were observed, including 12-item Short Form (43.8 to 54.8, P < .01); Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand, shortened version (31.8 to 8.4, P < .01); Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (47.0 to 84.5, P < .05); and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (61.6 to 92.1, P < .01). Average external rotation significantly improved, from 31° ± 22° to 52° ± 24° (P = .02).

Conclusion: Rapid intervention after diagnosis, through either revision arthroscopic or open debridement and stabilization, can lead to significant improvement in range of motion, pain, and overall patient function and satisfaction.

Level Of Evidence: IV, retrospective case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.05.024DOI Listing
December 2021

Advanced 3-Dimensional Characterization of Hill-Sachs Lesions in 100 Anterior Shoulder Instability Patients.

Arthroscopy 2021 11 27;37(11):3255-3261. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of The Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A.; The Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purpose: We sought to qualitatively and quantitatively describe characteristics of Hill-Sachs lesions (HSL) in a cohort of anterior shoulder instability patients using advanced 3-dimensional (3-D) modeling software and assess the impact of various HSL parameters on the HSL volume, location, and orientation in patients with anterior shoulder instability.

Methods: A total of 100 recurrent anterior instability patients with evidence of HSL with a mean age of 27.2 years (range = 18 to 43 years) were evaluated. Three-dimensional models of unilateral proximal humeri were reconstructed from CT scans, and the volume, surface area (SA), width, and depth of identified HSLs were quantified along with their location (medial, superior, and inferior extent). Multiple angular orientation measures of HSLs were recorded, including Hill-Sachs rim (HSLr) angle in order to classify the level and location of potential humeral head engagement. Mann-Whitney U test assessed the relationship between measured parameters.

Results: By volume, larger HSL had greater humeral head surface area (HH SA) loss (P = .001), HSL width (P = .001), were more medial (P = .015), and more inferior (P = .001). Additionally, more medial lesions had greater HSLr angles (P = 0.001). The mean depth, width, and volume of HSLs were 3.3 mm (range = 1.2-7.1 mm), 16.0 mm (range = 6.2-30.4 mm) and 449.2 mm (range = 62.0-1365.6 mm), respectively. The medial border of the HSL extended to 17.2 ± 4.4 (range = 9.3-28.3 mm) off the most medial edge of the HH cartilage margin (medialization). The mean HSLr was 29.3 ± 10.5°.

Conclusion: There was a statistically significant association between HSL medialization and HSL volume, position, and orientation. More medialized HSL have larger volume, greater width, more SA loss and higher lesion angles and are more inferior in the humeral head. As it has been established that more medialized lesions have poorer clinical outcomes, this study highlights that HS lesions have varying angles and medialization, which may portend eventual treatment and outcomes.

Level Of Evidence: IV, case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.05.015DOI Listing
November 2021

Postoperative Stiffness and Pain After Arthroscopic Labral Stabilization: Consider Anchor Arthropathy.

Arthroscopy 2021 11 27;37(11):3266-3274. Epub 2021 May 27.

Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A.; Steadman Philippon Research Institute, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purpose: To describe the key clinical, imaging, and arthroscopic characteristics of anchor arthropathy after arthroscopic shoulder stabilization procedures and, secondarily, to define risk factors for the development of anchor-induced arthropathy.

Methods: A total of 23 patients who underwent revision arthroscopic shoulder surgery and were diagnosed with glenohumeral arthropathy were retrospectively identified from prospectively collected data registries between January 2000 and May 2018. Data included initial diagnosis and index procedure performed, presenting arthropathy symptoms including duration, and examination findings before revision surgery. Pre-revision imaging was used to assess presence of glenohumeral osteoarthritis and chondromalacia, anchors/sutures, loose bodies, and labral pathology. The same parameters were recorded intraoperatively during revision surgery. Descriptive statistics were performed for demographic data and means with standard deviations were calculated for continuous data. A McNemar-Bowker test was used to analyze marginal homogeneity between preoperative imaging and intraoperative findings.

Results: Mean age at presentation was 33.4 ± 11.7 years (range 16-59, 17 male patients; 6 female patients). More than one half (13/23) developed symptoms within 10 months after index arthroscopic procedure (mean 32.2 ± 59.9 months, range <1 to 165.2 months) with 87% presenting with pain and 100% presenting with loss of motion on examination. Plain radiographs demonstrated humeral osteoarthritis in 57% (13/23) of patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed recurrent labral pathology in 19 of 23 (83%) patients, potential proud implants in 12 of 23 (52%), and loose bodies in 12 of 23 (52%). Intraoperatively, all had evidence of osteoarthritis; 22 of 23 (96%) had prominent implants. Humeral head chondromalacia was present in 21 of 23 patients (91%), the majority of which was linear stripe wear, and 6 of 23 (26%) had severe global glenohumeral osteoarthritis. Statistical analysis revealed a 54.5% (95% confidence interval 0.327-0.749) sensitivity of MRI identification of proud implants with a specificity of 100% (95% confidence interval 0.055-1). The ability of MRI to accurately assess chondromalacia of the humeral head (P = .342) or glenoid (P = .685) was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: Anchor arthropathy is characterized by symptoms of pain and stiffness on examination and in many cases develops early after stabilization surgery (<10 months). Implants were implicated in the majority of cases of humeral head chondromalacia. MRI scans may produce false-negative identification of proud implants and can be a poor predictor of the severity of chondromalacia and intra-articular pathology; thus, a high index of clinical suspicion is necessary in patients with motion loss and pain postoperatively.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.05.016DOI Listing
November 2021

Intra-articular Injection of Bevacizumab Enhances Bone Marrow Stimulation-Mediated Cartilage Repair in a Rabbit Osteochondral Defect Model.

Am J Sports Med 2021 06 12;49(7):1871-1882. Epub 2021 May 12.

Center for Regenerative Sports Medicine at the Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: Bone marrow stimulation (BMS) via microfracture historically has been a first-line treatment for articular cartilage lesions. However, BMS has become less favorable because of resulting fibrocartilage formation. Previous studies have shown that angiogenesis blockade promotes cartilage repair. Bevacizumab is a Food and Drug Administration-approved medication used clinically to prevent angiogenesis.

Hypothesis: The intra-articular injection of bevacizumab would prevent angiogenesis after BMS and lead to improved cartilage repair with more hyaline-like cartilage.

Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.

Methods: The dose of bevacizumab was first optimized in a rabbit osteochondral defect model with BMS. Then, 48 rabbits (n = 8/group/time point) were divided into 3 groups: osteochondral defect (defect), osteochondral defect + BMS (BMS group), and osteochondral defect + BMS + bevacizumab intra-articular injection (bevacizumab group). Rabbits were sacrificed at either 6 or 12 weeks after surgery. Three-dimensional (3D) micro-computed tomography (microCT), macroscope score, modified O'Driscoll histology scores, collagen type 2, Herovici staining, and hematoxylin and eosin staining were performed. Angiogenesis markers were also evaluated.

Results: The intra-articular dose of 12.5 mg/0.5 mL bevacizumab was found to be effective without deleteriously affecting the subchondral bone. Intra-articular injection of bevacizumab resulted in significantly improved cartilage repair for the bevacizumab group compared with the BMS or the defect group based on 3D microCT, the macroscope score (both < .05), the modified O'Driscoll histology score ( = .0034 and .019 vs defect and BMS groups, respectively), collagen type 2, Herovici staining, and hematoxylin and eosin staining at 6 weeks. Cartilage in the bevacizumab group had significantly more hyaline cartilage than did that in other groups. At 12 weeks, the cartilage layer regenerated in all groups; however, the bevacizumab group showed more hyaline-like morphology, as demonstrated by microCT, histology scores ( < .001 and .0225 vs defect and BMS groups, respectively), histology, and immunohistochemistry. The bevacizumab injection did not significantly change mRNA expressions of smooth muscle actin, vascular endothelial growth factor, or hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha.

Conclusion: Intra-articular injection of bevacizumab significantly enhanced the quality and quantity of hyaline-like cartilage after BMS in a rabbit model. Future large-animal and human studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical effect of this therapy, which may lead to improved BMS outcomes and thus the durability of the regenerated cartilage.

Clinical Relevance: The use of bevacizumab may be an important clinical adjunct to improve BMS-mediated cartilage repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211005102DOI Listing
June 2021

Total Shoulder Arthroplasty After Previous Arthroscopic Surgery for Glenohumeral Osteoarthritis: A Case-Control Matched Cohort Study.

Am J Sports Med 2021 06 29;49(7):1839-1846. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: When comprehensive arthroscopic management (CAM) for glenohumeral osteoarthritis fails, total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) may be needed, and it remains unknown whether previous CAM adversely affects outcomes after subsequent TSA.

Purpose: To compare the outcomes of patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis who underwent TSA as a primary procedure with those who underwent TSA after CAM (CAM-TSA).

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Patients younger than 70 years who underwent primary TSA or CAM-TSA and were at least 2 years postoperative were included. A total of 21 patients who underwent CAM-TSA were matched to 42 patients who underwent primary TSA by age, sex, and grade of osteoarthritis. Intraoperative blood loss and surgical time were assessed. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores were collected preoperatively and at final follow-up including the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), shortened version of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH), 12-Item Short Form Health Survey Physical Component Summary (SF-12 PCS), visual analog scale, and patient satisfaction. Revision arthroplasty was defined as failure.

Results: Of 63 patients, 56 of them (19 CAM-TSA and 37 primary TSA; 88.9%) were available for follow-up. There were 16 female (28.6%) and 40 male (71.4%) patients with a mean age of 57.8 years (range, 38.8-66.7 years). There were no significant differences in intraoperative blood loss ( > .999) or surgical time ( = .127) between the groups. There were 4 patients (7.1%) who had failure, and failure rates did not differ significantly between the CAM-TSA (5.3%; n = 1) and primary TSA (8.1%; n = 3) groups ( > .999). Additionally, 2 patients underwent revision arthroplasty because of trauma. A total of 50 patients who did not experience failure (17 CAM-TSA and 33 primary TSA) completed PRO measures at a mean follow-up of 4.8 years (range, 2.0-11.5 years), with no significant difference between the CAM-TSA (4.4 years [range, 2.1-10.5 years]) and primary TSA (5.0 years [range, 2.0-11.5 years]) groups ( = .164). Both groups improved significantly from preoperatively to postoperatively in all PRO scores ( < .05). No significant differences in any median PRO scores between the CAM-TSA and primary TSA groups, respectively, were seen at final follow-up: ASES: 89.9 (interquartile range [IQR], 74.9-96.6) versus 94.1 (IQR, 74.9-98.3) ( = .545); SANE: 84.0 (IQR, 74.0-94.0) versus 91.5 (IQR, 75.3-99.0) ( = .246); QuickDASH: 9.0 (IQR, 3.4-27.3) versus 9.0 (IQR, 5.1-18.1) ( = .921); SF-12 PCS: 53.8 (IQR, 50.1-57.1) versus 49.3 (IQR, 41.2-56.5) ( = .065); and patient satisfaction: 9.5 (IQR, 7.3-10.0) versus 9.0 (IQR, 5.3-10.0) ( = .308).

Conclusion: Patients with severe glenohumeral osteoarthritis who failed previous CAM benefited similarly from TSA compared with patients who opted directly for TSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211006479DOI Listing
June 2021

Salvage Revision Hip Arthroscopy Including Remplissage Improves Patient-Reported Outcomes After Cam Over-Resection.

Arthroscopy 2021 09 19;37(9):2809-2816. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate outcomes of arthroscopic hip remplissage with folded iliotibial band allograft to treat cam over-resection.

Methods: Patients who underwent arthroscopic iliotibial band hip remplissage from May 2013 to April 2018 were prospectively evaluated. Pre- and postoperative patient-reported outcome scores were compared and included the 12-Item Short Form Survey (SF12) Physical Health Composite Score (PCS), SF12 Mental Health Composite Score (MCS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), and Hip Outcome Score (HOS) (Activities of Daily Living [ADL] and Sport). Postoperative Tegner Activity Scale and patient satisfaction (1-10) were also evaluated.

Results: Thirteen patients (2 men, 11 women) with an average age of 39.8 ± 9 years underwent arthroscopic hip remplissage with minimum 2-year and mean 3.1-year follow-up (range, 2.1-4.1 years). One hundred percent follow-up was achieved. The average number of previous surgeries was 1.38 (range, 1-3). One patient underwent total hip arthroplasty 2 years after remplissage. All 12 patients who did not undergo total hip arthroplasty had improved patient-reported outcomes after remplissage (mean scores: SF12 PCS 36 vs 42, P = .02; SF12 MCS 45 vs 51, P = .14; mHHS 45 vs 66, P < .001; minimal clinically important difference [MCID] 83%; WOMAC 42 vs 28, P < .001; HOS ADL 52 vs 69, P = .003; MCID, 67%; HOS Sport 27 vs 46, P = .015; MCID, 67%). All improvements met statistical significance, besides the SF12 MCS. Median postoperative Tegner score was 2.9. Median postoperative patient satisfaction was 7 out of 10 (range, 5-10).

Conclusions: Arthroscopic hip remplissage is a successful salvage treatment option for hip instability caused by previous cam over-resection. Care must be taken during primary surgery not to over-resect the cam as patient-reported outcomes after remplissage are inferior to those undergoing primary hip arthroscopy.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2021.03.061DOI Listing
September 2021

Full-Thickness Radial Medial Meniscal Tear: Fixation With Inside-Out Technique With Tibial Knotless Suture Anchors.

Arthrosc Tech 2021 Mar 15;10(3):e841-e845. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A.

Complete radial tears of the meniscus render the entirety of the meniscus functionally incompetent (known as an ameniscal state); therefore, attempts at repair are essential. Although various techniques have been described, repair failures continue to frequently occur, especially with the medial meniscus. Inside-out repair and anchoring of the preserved meniscus to both the capsule and tibia may offer the advantage of a more robust repair. The objective of this Technical Note is to describe a method of repair for complete radial tears of the medial meniscus using a combination of inside-out sutures and secondary reinforcement to the tibia using all-suture knotless anchors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eats.2020.10.075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7953262PMC
March 2021

Segmental Meniscus Allograft Transplantation.

Arthrosc Tech 2021 Mar 8;10(3):e697-e703. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

The Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A.

Meniscal tears treated with partial meniscectomies have been shown to significantly increase contract pressures within the tibiofemoral joint, and a complete focal meniscal deficiency may render the entirety of the meniscus functionally incompetent. Although various techniques of meniscal transplantation have been described, these techniques may require the excision of a considerable amount of healthy meniscal tissue. Furthermore, failures continue to frequently occur. Therefore, attempts to restoring normal knee kinematics and biomechanical forces are essential. Segmental meniscus allograft transplantations may offer the advantage of a robust repair by both maintaining knee biomechanics and biology while maximizing preservation of native meniscal tissue. Also, most meniscal deficiency involves only a portion of the meniscus, and thus we developed this technique to segmentally transplant only the deficient portion. The purpose of this Technical Note is to describe a technique of segmental medial meniscus allograft transplantation in a patient with focal medial meniscus deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eats.2020.10.059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7953169PMC
March 2021

Surgical Treatment of Medial Gastrocnemius Tear.

Arthrosc Tech 2021 Feb 16;10(2):e519-e523. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A.

Medial gastrocnemius tears typically occur with forced dorsiflexion while the knee is extended. Myotendinous injuries occur most commonly, which are almost always treated without surgery. If a tendinous injury or avulsion occurs, nonoperative treatment should first be attempted. However, in patients where forceful plantar flexion is required for their desired activities or occupation, surgical fixation is an important treatment option. Postoperative bracing should be used to protect the repair with a graduated therapy progression, including range of motion followed by strengthening and return to activities. This technical note describes the technique for a safe and reliable medial gastrocnemius tendinous repair using two suture anchors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eats.2020.10.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917226PMC
February 2021
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