Publications by authors named "Jussi Lampi"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The impact of postpartum depressive symptoms on self-reported infant health and analgesic consumption at the age of 12 months: A prospective cohort study.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Apr 16;136:388-397. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Institute of Clinical Medicine / Psychiatry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI, 70211, Kuopio, Finland; Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, P.O. Box 22, FI, 00014, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 21, FI, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.

The infants of mothers with elevated depressive symptoms (EDS) postpartum appear to be at increased risk of somatic health problems during their first 12 months of life in low- and lower-middle-income countries. However, in higher-income countries, knowledge of this association is scarce. We sought to examine whether maternal reports of infant health problems, adherence to vaccination schedules and analgesic supply to the infant during the first 12 months of life differ between mothers with and without postpartum EDS. Altogether, 969 women who were enrolled in the Kuopio Birth Cohort study (www.kubico.fi) during 2012-2017 were included in this investigation. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale during pregnancy (1st and/or 3rd trimester) and at eight weeks postpartum. Infant health data were collected as a part of a 12-month online follow-up questionnaire for mothers and were based on self-reports of either maternal observations or physician-determined diagnoses. Postpartum EDS were associated with a 2- to 5-fold increased likelihood of abnormal crying and paroxysmal wheezing (based on parental observations), as well as gastroesophageal reflux and food allergy (based on physician-determined diagnoses). Mothers with postpartum EDS also supplied their infants with analgesic medication for longer periods. Adherence to vaccination schedules was similar between the examined groups. In conclusion, infants of mothers with postpartum EDS may be more likely to experience health problems or to be perceived by their mother as having health problems, and thus receive more medications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.02.036DOI Listing
April 2021

Incidence and remission of aeroallergen sensitization in adults in Northern Finland: 15 years longitudinal study.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 19;11(1):4249. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

PEDEGO Research Unit, PEDEGO Research Group, Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Oulu and Medical Research Center, University of Oulu, Aapistie 5A, 90029, Oulu, Finland.

Studies on the longitudinal changes in sensitization to aeroallergens in adult populations are sparse. The aim was to evaluate changes in sensitization to aeroallergens [birch, timothy, cat and house dust mite (HDM)] in an unselected adult population aged from 31 to 46 years. Data were gathered from a cohort of adults (Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966) who had been skin prick tested (SPT) with birch, timothy, cat and HDM allergens at the age of 31 years and at age 46 (n = 5484 and 5373 respectively). Data from both time points were available for 3409 participants, who made up the cohort of the longitudinal study. The overall prevalence of sensitization to any of the selected allergens was 30.3% (n = 1661) in 31-year-olds and 30.7% (n = 1649) in 46-year-olds. In general, men were more sensitized (P < 0.001) and also had more polysensitization (P < 0.001) compared to women. In longitudinal sub-population incidence of sensitization was 7.1%. Birch was the most prevalent new sensitizer, however, the difference was not statistically significant when compared to cat. We conclude that new sensitization, demonstrated by positive findings in SPT, can still occur in middle age and this should be taken into account when managing allergic manifestations in adults as sensitization can be considered the first step in developing clinical allergy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83326-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7895822PMC
February 2021

Psychosocial factors and indoor environmental quality in respiratory symptom reports of pupils: a cross-sectional study in Finnish schools.

BMJ Open 2020 09 21;10(9):e036873. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Objectives: Poor indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in schools is related to higher respiratory symptoms of pupils, but little is known about the importance of other factors. This study examined the associations between different psychosocial factors and other pupils' individual and allergic characteristics, beyond school IEQ, and reporting of respiratory symptoms in pupil-administered and parent-administered questionnaires.

Setting: All primary and secondary schools in two areas of Helsinki, Finland.

Participants: Primary school pupils (grade 3-6, n=8775, 99 school buildings) and secondary school pupils (grade 7-9, n=3410, 30 school buildings) reported their respiratory symptoms, as well as psychosocial factors and individual characteristics. Parents of primary school pupils (grade 1-6, n=3540, 88 school buildings) also filled in questionnaires, but the response rate was low (20% in 2017 and 13% in 2018).

Main Outcome Measure: Respiratory symptoms were reported in relation to the school environment and in general (without such relation) by pupils or parents.

Results: Worry about IEQ and low school satisfaction, and asthma and hay fever were related to higher reporting of respiratory symptoms in three samples. The variance between schools in respiratory symptoms was low (intraclass correlation=0.6%-2.4%). Psychosocial factors, especially worry about school's IEQ, explained more of the variance between schools in symptoms than IEQ among secondary school pupils and parents, but not among primary school pupils for symptoms in general. Worry about IEQ also modified the associations between IEQ and respiratory symptoms, but only in parental reports.

Conclusion: In addition to IEQ, psychosocial factors and pupils' individual and allergic characteristics were related to higher reporting of respiratory symptoms in all three samples. Psychosocial factors explained more variance between schools than IEQ, although it was 2.4% at most. Other factors beyond IEQ should be considered when interpreting symptom reporting in indoor air questionnaires.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-036873DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7507850PMC
September 2020

Maternal smoking during pregnancy affects adult onset of asthma in offspring: a follow up from birth to age 46 years.

Eur Respir J 2020 06 11;55(6). Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Environment Health Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland.

Rationale: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure increases asthma risk in children. There is limited knowledge of prenatal ETS for adult-onset asthma.

Objectives: To determine the association between prenatal ETS and adult onset asthma.

Measurements And Main Results: The questionnaire and clinical data of 5200 people, free of physician-diagnosed asthma by 31 years of age, who were included in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study was used. The association of maternal smoking during the last 3 months of pregnancy with onset of physician-diagnosed asthma and with lung function in adult offspring was studied using adjusted multivariate regression analyses. The cumulative incidence of physician-diagnosed asthma between the ages of 31 and 46 years was 5.1% among men and 8.8% among women. Gestational smoke exposure was associated with adult-onset asthma among offspring (adjusted OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.04-2.29), namely among offspring who reported either past non-diagnosed asthma (OR 9.63, 95% CI 2.28-40.67) or past cough with wheeze (3.21, 95% CI 1.71-6.05). A significant association was detected between gestational smoke exposure and the offspring's forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio at 31 years of age. In offspring with the haplotype rs11702779-AA of , gestational smoke exposure was associated with adult-onset asthma (5.53, 95% CI 2.11-14.52, adjusted p-value for interaction 0.10).

Conclusion: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with the cumulative incidence of asthma in offspring between the ages of 31 and 46 years. The association was accentuated in offspring who at age 31, reported having past respiratory problems and/or who had haplotype rs11702779-AA. A reduction in FEV/FVC ratio was also observed at age 31 years in offspring with gestational smoke exposure. These results could reflect the early vulnerability of offspring's airways to ETS and its putative long-term effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.01857-2019DOI Listing
June 2020

Healthy people in healthy premises: the Finnish Indoor Air and Health Programme 2018-2028.

Clin Transl Allergy 2020 17;10. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki and Kuopio, Finland.

Clean and fresh indoor air supports health and well-being. However, indoor air can contain pollutants that can cause a variety of symptoms and reduce well-being. Individual exposure agents can also increase the risk of certain diseases. Finns have taken major steps to improve the quality of indoor air for several decades. The primary focus of these activities has been the prevention and reduction of exposure to poor indoor air quality through guidance and regulation directing remediation of damaged buildings. Nevertheless, reported symptoms related to poor indoor air quality are common in Finland. In addition to exposure to indoor air pollutants, this may be partly due to the lively public discussion on the health risks caused by poor indoor air quality, conflicting views between experts, and mistrust towards public authorities, building owners and builders. Because of the scale of the indoor air problems in Finland, people's needs for reliable information and support, and the major costs involved, there is a call for new evidence-based methods, perspectives and solutions. Therefore, the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare initiated the Finnish Indoor Air and Health Programme 2018-2028 together with a number of collaborators and stakeholders. The primary, long-term objective of the programme is to reduce hazards to health and well-being linked to indoor environments in Finland. To fulfill this objective, the programme will focus on the promotion of human health and well-being, the prevention of hazards, improved communication and engage the whole health-care sector to manage better patients´ symptoms and complaints. The 10-year Finnish Indoor Air and Health Programme consists of four areas that aim (1) to increase understanding of the effects of indoor environments on health and well-being; (2) to develop the management of problems linked to indoor environments; (3) to improve the treatment and working and functional capacity of people with symptoms and illnesses; and (4) to strengthen the competence in matters related to indoor environments. The progress of the programme and reaching the predefined, quantitative goals will be monitored throughout the programme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13601-020-0308-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6966831PMC
January 2020

Associations between indoor environmental quality in schools and symptom reporting in pupil-administered questionnaires.

Environ Health 2019 12 27;18(1):115. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: The associations between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in homes and symptom reporting of children have been extensively studied, but only few large-scale studies have been done in schools. We examined associations between expert-assessed IEQ in schools and pupils' reporting of different symptoms, and whether associations were stronger if participants relate symptoms to the school environment.

Methods: The questionnaire survey was done in all primary and secondary schools in two areas of Helsinki, Finland. Primary school pupils (grade 3-6, n = 8775, 99 school-buildings) and secondary school pupils (grade 7-9, n = 3410, 30 school-buildings) reported their symptoms. Symptoms were combined into respiratory, lower respiratory, eye, skin, and general symptom groups. Surveys were also done among the parents of the primary school pupils (grade 1-6, n = 3540, 88 school buildings), but results are reported only in the supplement due to the low response rate (20% in 2017 and 13% in 2018). The associations between IEQ and symptoms were analyzed using multilevel logistic regression analysis.

Results: Several of the IEQ indicators were highly correlated and indicators were therefore mainly analyzed by combining them into a summary score and into latent classes. Dose-response associations were found between IEQ problems and higher reporting of respiratory and general symptoms among both primary and secondary school pupils. Some associations were also observed with lower respiratory and skin symptoms, but not with eye symptoms. The associations were somewhat stronger with symptoms related to the school environment compared to symptoms reported without such relation: for a unit change in IEQ summary score and respiratory symptoms in primary schools, odds ratios were 1.07 (95% CI 1.02-1.06) and 1.04 (95% CI 1.04-1.10), and in secondary schools 1.09 (95% CI 1.01-1.09) and 1.05 (95% CI 1.02-1.17), respectively.

Conclusions: Expert-assessed IEQ problems in schools were associated with increased reporting of especially respiratory and general symptoms. The associations were only somewhat stronger in magnitude for symptoms reported in relation to the school environment compared to symptoms reported without such relation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-019-0555-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6935098PMC
December 2019

Parental worry about indoor air quality and student symptom reporting in primary schools with or without indoor air quality problems.

Indoor Air 2019 09 23;29(5):865-873. Epub 2019 Jun 23.

Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is related to increased symptom reporting in students. We investigated whether parental worry about school IAQ influences this association. Data came from survey collected from five Finnish primary schools with observed IAQ problems and five control schools. Parents (n = 1868) of primary school students reported worry about IAQ in schools and symptoms of their children. Associations between observed IAQ problems, worry, and five symptom scores (ie, respiratory, lower respiratory, eye, skin, and general symptoms) were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and mediation analysis. Parents were on average more worried in schools with observed IAQ problems. Observed IAQ problems were strongly associated with increased worry and all symptoms under study (unadjusted ORs ranged between 1.48 [95% CI 1.48-2.16] and 2.70 [95% CI 1.52-5.17]). Parental worry was associated with all symptoms (unadjusted ORs ranged between 2.49 [95% CI 1.75-3.60] and 4.92 [95% CI 2.77-9.40]). Mediation analyses suggested that parental worry might partially explain the association between observed IAQ problems and symptom reporting (proportion mediated ranged between 67% and 84% for the different symptoms). However, prospective studies are needed to assess causal relationships between observed IAQ problems, worry, and symptom reporting in schools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ina.12574DOI Listing
September 2019

The dynamic course of peripartum depression across pregnancy and childbirth.

J Psychiatr Res 2019 06 15;113:72-78. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, Psychiatry, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.

Objective: Peripartum depression (PPD) pertaining to depression in pregnancy and postpartum is one of the most common complications around childbirth with enduring adverse effects on mother and child health. Although psychiatric symptoms may improve or worsen over time, relatively little is known about the course of PPD symptoms and possible fluctuations.

Methods: We applied a person-centered approach to examine PPD symptom patterns across pregnancy and childbirth. 824 women were assessed at three time points: first trimester (T1), third trimester (T2), and again at eight weeks (T3) postpartum. We assessed PPD symptoms, maternal mental health history, and childbirth variables.

Results: Growth mixture modeling (GMM) analysis revealed four discrete PPD symptom trajectory classes including chronic PPD (1.1%), delayed (10.2%), recovered (7.2%), and resilient (81.5%). Delivery complications were associated with chronic PPD but also with the recovered PPD trajectory class. History of mental health disorders was associated with chronic PPD and the delayed PPD class.

Conclusion: The findings underscore that significant changes in a woman's depression level can occur across pregnancy and childbirth. While a minority of women experience chronic PDD, for others depression symptoms appear to significantly alleviate over time, suggesting a form of recovery. Our findings support a personalized medicine approach based on the woman's symptom trajectory. Future research is warranted to identify the mechanisms underlying modifications in PPD symptoms severity and those implicated in recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2019.03.016DOI Listing
June 2019

Kuopio birth cohort - design of a Finnish joint research effort for identification of environmental and lifestyle risk factors for the wellbeing of the mother and the newborn child.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2018 Sep 21;18(1):381. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland.

Background: A Finnish joint research effort Kuopio Birth Cohort (KuBiCo) seeks to evaluate the effects of genetics, epigenetics and different risk factors (medication, nutrition, lifestyle factors and environmental aspects) during pregnancy on the somatic and psychological health status of the mother and the child.

Methods: KuBiCo will ultimately include information on 10,000 mother-child pairs who have given their informed consent to participate in this cohort. Identification of foetal health risk factors that can potentially later manifest as disease requires a repository of relevant biological samples and a flexible open up-to-date data handling system to register, store and analyse biological, clinical and questionnaire-based data. KuBiCo includes coded questionnaire-based maternal background data gathered before, during and after the pregnancy and bio-banking of maternal and foetal samples that will be stored in deep freezers. Data from the questionnaires and biological samples will be collected into one electronic database. KuBiCo consists of several work packages which are complementary to each other: Maternal, foetal and placental metabolism and omics; Paediatrics; Mental wellbeing; Prenatal period and delivery; Analgesics and anaesthetics during peripartum period; Environmental effects; Nutrition; and Research ethics.

Discussion: This report describes the set-up of the KuBiCo and descriptive analysis from 3532 parturients on response frequencies and feedback to KuBiCo questionnaires gathered from June 2012 to April 2016. Additionally, we describe basic demographic data of the participants (n = 1172). Based on the comparison of demographic data between official national statistics and our descriptive analysis, KuBiCo represents a cross-section of Finnish pregnant women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-018-2013-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6150990PMC
September 2018

The association between gestational diabetes mellitus and postpartum depressive symptomatology: A prospective cohort study.

J Affect Disord 2018 12 15;241:263-268. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Institute of Clinical Medicine / Psychiatry, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.

Background: The literature suggests an association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression, but data on the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and postpartum depressive symptomatology (PPDS) are scarce.

Methods: Altogether, 1066 women with no previous mental health issues enrolled in the Kuopio Birth Cohort (KuBiCo, www.kubico.fi) were selected for this study. GDM was diagnosed according to the Finnish Current Care Guidelines. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) during the third trimester of pregnancy and eight weeks after delivery. Additionally, a subgroup of women (n = 505) also completed the EPDS during the first trimester of pregnancy.

Results: The prevalence rates of GDM and PPDS in the whole study population were 14.1% and 10.3%, respectively. GDM was associated with an increased likelihood of belonging to the PPDS group (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.23-4.05; adjusted for maternal age at delivery, BMI in the first trimester, smoking before pregnancy, relationship status, nulliparity, delivery by caesarean section, gestational age at delivery, neonatal intensive care unit admission and third-trimester EPDS scores). A significant association between GDM and PPDS was found in the subgroup of women with available data on first-trimester depression (n = 505).

Limitations: The participation rate of the KuBiCo study was relatively low (37%).

Conclusions: Women with GDM may be at increased risk of PPDS. Future studies should investigate whether these women would benefit from a closer follow-up and possible supportive interventions during pregnancy and the postpartum period to avoid PPDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.08.070DOI Listing
December 2018

Test-retest repeatability of child's respiratory symptoms and perceived indoor air quality - comparing self- and parent-administered questionnaires.

BMC Pulm Med 2018 Feb 9;18(1):32. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

Department of Health Security, Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701, Kuopio, Finland.

Background: Questionnaires can be used to assess perceived indoor air quality and symptoms in schools. Questionnaires for primary school aged children have traditionally been parent-administered, but self-administered questionnaires would be easier to administer and may yield as good, if not better, information. Our aim was to compare the repeatability of self- and parent-administered indoor air questionnaires designed for primary school aged pupils.

Methods: Indoor air questionnaire with questions on child's symptoms and perceived indoor air quality in schools was sent to parents of pupils aged 7-12 years in two schools and again after two weeks. Slightly modified version of the questionnaire was administered to pupils aged 9-12 years in another two schools and repeated after a week. 351 (52%) parents and 319 pupils (86%) answered both the first and the second questionnaire. Test-retest repeatability was assessed with intra-class correlation (ICC) and Cohen's kappa coefficients (k).

Results: Test-retest repeatability was generally between 0.4-0.7 (ICC; k) in both self- and parent-administered questionnaire. In majority of the questions on symptoms and perceived indoor air quality test-retest repeatability was at the same level or slightly better in self-administered compared to parent-administered questionnaire. Agreement of self- and parent administered questionnaires was generally < 0.4 (ICC; k) in reported symptoms and 0.4-0.6 (ICC; k) in perceived indoor air quality.

Conclusions: Children aged 9-12 years can give as, or even more, repeatable information about their respiratory symptoms and perceived indoor air quality than their parents. Therefore, it may be possible to use self-administered questionnaires in future studies also with children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-018-0584-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5807794PMC
February 2018

Environmental Intolerance, Symptoms and Disability Among Fertile-Aged Women.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 02 8;15(2). Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, P.O. Box 40, 00032 Helsinki, Finland.

The purpose was to study the prevalence of environmental intolerance (EI) and its different manifestations, including behavioral changes and disability. Fertile-aged women ( = 680) of the Kuopio Birth Cohort Study were asked about annoyance to 12 environmental factors, symptoms and behavioral changes. We asked how much the intolerance had disrupted their work, household responsibilities or social life. We chose intolerance attributed to chemicals, indoor molds, and electromagnetic fields to represent typical intolerance entities. Of the respondents, 46% reported annoyance to chemicals, molds, or electromagnetic fields. Thirty-three percent reported symptoms relating to at least one of these three EIs, 18% reported symptoms that included central nervous system symptoms, and 15% reported behavioral changes. Indicating disability, 8.4% reported their experience relating to any of the three EIs as at least "somewhat difficult", 2.2% "very difficult" or "extremely difficult", and 0.9% "extremely difficult". Of the latter 2.2%, all attributed their intolerance to indoor molds, and two thirds also to chemicals. As the number of difficulties increased, the number of organ systems, behavioral changes and overlaps of the three EIs also grew. EI is a heterogeneous phenomenon and its prevalence depends on its definition. The manifestations of EI form a continuum, ranging from annoyance to severe disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5858362PMC
February 2018

[Moisture and mold damages of buildings in relation to health].

Duodecim 2015 ;131(19):1749-55

Moisture damages of buildings increase respiratory symptoms and the risk of development of new cases of asthma. Scientific evidence of possible other health effects of moisture damages is scanty but they cause plenty of concern. The management of indoor air problems is further hampered by the lack of health-based limit values. Patients having symptoms from indoor air present a challenge to the doctor, because our ability to apply scientific data to an individual building or patient is very limited Although the factors increasing asthma and respiratory symptoms in buildings with moisture damage are not known in detail, every attempt should be made to prevent and correct the moisture damages.
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January 2016

Farm environment during infancy and lung function at the age of 31: a prospective birth cohort study in Finland.

BMJ Open 2015 Jul 22;5(7):e007350. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Department of Health Protection, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Objectives: Farming as an occupation is considered a risk factor for asthma and reduced lung function. By contrast, living on a farm during infancy has been reported to be associated with lower risk of asthma in adulthood. However, little is known about the association between farming environment during infancy and lung function in adulthood. We aimed to study the prospective longitudinal association between farming environment during infancy and lung function in adulthood.

Design: A prospective birth cohort study.

Setting: Northern Finland.

Participants: 5666 participants born in 1966 were followed up at the age of 31 years.

Primary Outcome Measures: Spirometry at the age of 31 years.

Results: To be born into a farmer's family was associated with higher forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (36 mL; 95% CI 6 to 67 mL) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (40 mL; 95% CI 5 to 75 mL) at the age of 31 years. Contact with farm animals during infancy was associated with higher FEV1. No associations were seen with FEV1/FVC (FEV1/FVC ratio). Having dogs in childhood revealed similar associations. There was a suggestive dose-dependent association with the number of animal species during childhood and higher FEV1 and FVC at adulthood, especially among women.

Conclusions: Farming environment in early life may have a positive impact on lung function in adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4513452PMC
July 2015

Analyzing atopic and non-atopic asthma.

Eur J Epidemiol 2012 Apr;27(4):281-6

Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 95, 70701 Kuopio, Finland.

There is a need to better define phenotypes of asthma. However, many studies have data available only on asthma and atopy, so they are often used to define ‘atopic’ and ‘non-atopic’ asthma. We discuss and illustrate the problems of analyzing such outcomes. We used the 31 year follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n=5,429). ‘Atopic asthma’ and ‘non-atopic asthma’ were defined based on presence or absence of atopy (any skin prick test ≥3 mm) at age 31. Gender and ownership of cat in childhood were used as risk factors. Simple calculations on hypothetical datasets were used to support the conclusions. ‘Atopic asthma’ and ‘non-atopic asthma’, are not well separated disease entities. The association of a risk factor with ‘atopic asthma’ and ‘non-atopic asthma’ is determined both by its association with asthma and with atopy. E.g. if a risk factor is not associated with asthma, but is protective for atopy, this will produce a protective association with ‘atopic asthma’, but an opposite association with ‘non-atopic asthma’. This is the result from the typical analysis, which uses all non-asthmatics as the comparison group. Valid results, unconfounded by atopy, can be gained by comparing asthmatics to nonasthmatics separately among atopics and non-atopics, i.e. by doing the analysis stratified by atopy. If data only on asthma and atopy are available, asthma and atopy should be analyzed at first as separate outcomes. If atopic and nonatopic asthma are used as additional outcomes, valid results can be gained by stratifying the analysis by atopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-012-9649-yDOI Listing
April 2012

Determinants of stimulated peripheral blood cytokine production among farming women.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2011 Jun 2;214(3):205-9. Epub 2011 Mar 2.

Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland.

Farming environment and environmental exposure to microbial agents have been suggested to promote favorable development of immune system in children and protect against allergic diseases. However, effects of farm exposure on adult immune responses are less clear. Aim of the present study was to examine associations of farm related factors and measured microbial exposure with stimulated production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in peripheral blood samples among farming women. Whole peripheral blood samples were obtained from 112 women living on farms and stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin, lipopolysaccharide and staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Following 24h stimulation, protein levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 in the supernatants were measured by ELISA. From house dust, concentrations of 3-hydroxy fatty acids (C10:0-C14:0, marker for Gram-negative bacteria), muramic acid (Gram-positive bacteria) and ergosterol (fungal biomass) were analyzed with GC-MS/MS and viable microbes by culturing. Information on farm related factors and allergic diseases were collected from self-administered questionnaires. We found that household pets or other current or childhood farm-related factors had only few associations with stimulated cytokine production among studied farming women. Similarly, no strong associations were observed between markers of microbial exposure measured in house dust and cytokine levels. Atopic sensitization, allergic rhinitis and recent respiratory infections were, however, associated with reduced IFN-γ production. Our results suggest that the capacity of the studied environmental factors to modulate immune system is relatively weak in adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2011.01.007DOI Listing
June 2011