Publications by authors named "Jurriën M Ten Berg"

267 Publications

Differential Impact of Cytochrome 2C19 Allelic Variants on Three Different Platelet Function Tests in Clopidogrel-Treated Patients.

J Clin Med 2021 Sep 3;10(17). Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Laboratory for Clinical Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

On-treatment platelet reactivity in clopidogrel-treated patients can be measured with several platelet function tests (PFTs). However, the agreement between different PFTs is only slight to moderate. Polymorphisms of the gene have an impact on the metabolization of clopidogrel and, thereby, have an impact on on-treatment platelet reactivity. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the differential effects of the genotype on three different PFTs.

Methods: From a prospective cohort study, we included patients treated with clopidogrel following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). One month after PCI, we simultaneously performed three different PFTs; light transmission aggregometry (LTA), VerifyNow P2Y12, and Multiplate. In whole EDTA blood, genotyping of the polymorphisms was performed.

Results: We included 308 patients treated with clopidogrel in combination with aspirin (69.5%) and/or anticoagulants (33.8%) and, based on genotyping, classified them as either extensive (36.4%), rapid (34.7%), intermediate (26.0%), or poor metabolizers (2.9%). On-treatment platelet reactivity as measured by LTA and VerifyNow is significantly affected by metabolizer status ( < 0.01); as metabolizer status changes from rapid, via extensive and intermediate, to poor, the mean platelet reactivity increases accordingly ( < 0.01). On the contrary, for Multiplate, no such ordering of metabolizer groups was found ( = 0.10).

Conclusions: For VerifyNow and LTA, the on-treatment platelet reactivity in clopidogrel-treated patients correlates well with the underlying polymorphism. For Multiplate, no major effect of genetic background could be shown, and effects of other (patient-related) variables prevail. Thus, besides differences in test principles and the influence of patient-related factors, the disagreement between PFTs is partly explained by differential effects of the genotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432532PMC
September 2021

Cost Effectiveness of a CYP2C19 Genotype-Guided Strategy in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: Results from the POPular Genetics Trial.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Unit of Global Health, Department of Health Sciences, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Introduction: The POPular Genetics trial demonstrated that a CYP2C19 genotype-guided P2Y inhibitor strategy reduced bleeding rates compared with standard treatment with ticagrelor or prasugrel without increasing thrombotic event rates after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Objective: In this analysis, we aimed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of a genotype-guided strategy compared with standard treatment with ticagrelor or prasugrel.

Methods: A 1-year decision tree based on the POPular Genetics trial in combination with a lifelong Markov model was developed to compare costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) between a genotype-guided and a standard P2Y inhibitor strategy in patients with myocardial infarction undergoing primary PCI. The cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from a Dutch healthcare system perspective. Within-trial survival and utility data were combined with lifetime projections to evaluate lifetime cost effectiveness for a cohort of 1000 patients. Costs and utilities were discounted at 4 and 1.5%, respectively, according to Dutch guidelines for health economic studies. Besides deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, several scenario analyses were also conducted (different time horizons, different discount rates, equal prices for P2Y inhibitors, and equal distribution of thrombotic events between the two strategies).

Results: Base-case analysis with a hypothetical cohort of 1000 subjects demonstrated 8.98 QALYs gained and €725,550.69 in cost savings for the genotype-guided strategy (dominant). The deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the model and the cost-effectiveness results. In scenario analyses, the genotype-guided strategy remained dominant.

Conclusion: In patients undergoing primary PCI, a CYP2C19 genotype-guided strategy compared with standard treatment with ticagrelor or prasugrel resulted in QALYs gained and cost savings.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT01761786, Netherlands trial register number: NL2872.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-021-00496-4DOI Listing
September 2021

Factor V Leiden and the Risk of Bleeding in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes Treated With Antiplatelet Therapy: Pooled Analysis of 3 Randomized Clinical Trials.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 09 28;10(17):e021115. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Cardiology St. Antonius Hospital Nieuwegein the Netherlands.

Background Whether factor V Leiden is associated with lower bleeding risk in patients with acute coronary syndromes using (dual) antiplatelet therapy has yet to be investigated. Methods and Results We pooled data from 3 randomized clinical trials, conducted in patients with acute coronary syndromes, with adjudicated bleeding outcomes. Cox regression models were used to obtain overall and cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) to account for competing risk of atherothrombotic outcomes (ie, composite of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death) in each study. Estimates from the individual studies were pooled using fixed effect meta-analysis. The 3 studies combined included 17 623 patients of whom 969 (5.5%) were either heterozygous or homozygous (n=23) carriers of factor V Leiden. During 1 year of follow-up, a total of 1289 (7.3%) patients developed major (n=559) or minor bleeding. Factor V Leiden was associated with a lower risk of combined major and minor bleeding (adjusted cause-specific HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.56-1.00; =0.046; I=0%) but a comparable risk of major bleeding (adjusted cause-specific HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.62-1.39; =0.73; I=0%). Adjusted pooled cause-specific HRs for the association of factor V Leiden with atherothrombotic events alone and in combination with bleeding events were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.55-1.02; =0.06; I=0%) and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.61-0.92; =0.007; I=0%), respectively. Conclusions Given that the lower risk of bleeding conferred by factor V Leiden was not counterbalanced by a higher risk of atherothrombotic events, these findings warrant future assessment for personalized medicine such as selecting patients for extended or intensive antiplatelet therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.021115DOI Listing
September 2021

Antithrombotic Therapy After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 08;14(15):1688-1703

Division of Cardiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida, USA. Electronic address:

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a treatment option for symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis who are candidates for a bioprosthesis across the entire spectrum of risk. However, TAVR carries a risk for thrombotic and bleeding events, underscoring the importance of defining the optimal adjuvant antithrombotic regimen. Antithrombotic considerations are convoluted by the fact that many patients undergoing TAVR are generally elderly and present with multiple comorbidities, including conditions that may require long-term oral anticoagulation (OAC) (eg, atrial fibrillation) and antiplatelet therapy (eg, coronary artery disease). After TAVR among patients without baseline indications for OAC, recent data suggest dual-antiplatelet therapy to be associated with an increased risk for bleeding events, particularly early postprocedure, compared with single-antiplatelet therapy with aspirin. Concerns surrounding the potential for thrombotic complications have raised the hypothesis of adjunctive use of OAC for patients with no baseline indications for anticoagulation. Although effective in modulating thrombus formation at the valve level, the bleeding hazard has shown to be unacceptably high, and the net benefit of combining antiplatelet and OAC therapy is unproven. For patients with indications for the use of long-term OAC, such as those with atrial fibrillation, the adjunctive use of antiplatelet therapy increases bleeding. Whether direct oral anticoagulant agents achieve better outcomes than vitamin K antagonists remains under investigation. Overall, single-antiplatelet therapy and OAC appear to be reasonable strategies in patients without and with indications for concurrent anticoagulation. The aim of the present review is to appraise the current published research and recommendations surrounding the management of antithrombotic therapy after TAVR, with perspectives on evolving paradigms and ongoing trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.06.020DOI Listing
August 2021

Prosthesis-patient mismatch affects late survival after valve surgery for severe aortic stenosis.

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The effect of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) on late survival after aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patient with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) remains unclear. Also, late follow-up in previous studies is confined to only one decade. We aimed to determine the effect of PPM on late survival after isolated AVR for symptomatic severe AS during 25 years of follow-up.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to determine late survival in 404 consecutive patients with moderate PPM (N.=86), severe (N.=11), or no/mild PPM (N.=307) after isolated AVR for symptomatic severe AS during a mean follow-up of 25.0±2.9 years. Moderate, severe, and no/mild PPM were defined as indexed effective orifice area of >0.65≤0.85, ≤0.65, and >0.85 cm2/m2, respectively. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify possible independent predictors of decreased late survival, including moderate or severe PPM.

Results: Late survival of patients with severe PPM was worse in comparison with those with no/mild PPM: 7.4±2.6 (95% confidence interval 2.2-12.5) vs. 13.6±0.5 (95% confidence interval 12.6-14.6) years, respectively; P=0.020. Late survival of patients with moderate PPM was similar to those with no/mild PPM. Severe PPM was an independent predictor of decreased late survival: hazards ratio 4.002 (95% confidence interval 1.869-8.569); P<0.001. Moderate PPM was not an independent predictor of decreased late survival.

Conclusions: Severe PPM was independently associated with decreased late survival after isolated AVR for symptomatic severe AS during a mean follow-up of 25.0±2.9 years. Therefore, severe PPM should be prevented as much as possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0021-9509.21.11786-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Is there a benefit for genotype-guided antiplatelet treatment in elderly acute coronary syndrome patients?

Pharmacogenomics 2021 08 12;22(12):727-730. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Cardiology, St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/pgs-2021-0078DOI Listing
August 2021

Efficacy and safety of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in addition to P2Y inhibitors in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: A subanalysis of the POPular Genetics trial.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

Background: Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) are still used in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), although discussion about its clinical benefit is ongoing.

Methods: GPI use was analyzed in this subanalysis of the POPular Genetics trial, which randomized STEMI patients to CYP2C19 genotype-guided treatment (clopidogrel or ticagrelor) or standard treatment with ticagrelor/prasugrel. The composite thrombotic endpoint consisted of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), definite stent thrombosis, and stroke at 30 days. The combined bleeding endpoint consisted of Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) major and minor bleeding at 30 days. Univariable and multivariable analyses in addition to a propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis were conducted.

Results: In total, 2378 patients, of whom 1033 received GPI and 1345 did not, were included. In multivariable analysis, GPI administration was associated with fewer thrombotic events (hazard ratio [HR] 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09-0.55) and MIs (HR 0.24, 95% CI 0.08-0.73). Furthermore, GPI administration was associated with an increase in bleedings (HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.27-3.19), driven by minor bleedings (HR 2.32, 95% CI 1.43-3.76), without a significant difference in major bleedings (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.19-2.57). In the PSM analysis, no significant association was found.

Conclusion: In STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI, GPI administration was associated with a reduction in thrombotic events at a cost of an increase in (mostly minor) bleedings in multivariable analysis, while propensity score analysis did not show significant associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29861DOI Listing
July 2021

Periprocedural Course of Proteinuria After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: Substudy From the POPular TAVI Trial.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2021 07 10;14(7):e010404. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cardiology (J.B., V.J.N., D.J.v.G., M.J.S., B.J.W.M.R., L.T., J.M.t.B.), St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.120.010404DOI Listing
July 2021

Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of subcutaneous administration of a novel glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, RUC-4, in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

EuroIntervention 2021 Aug 6;17(5):e401-e410. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands.

Background: Pre-hospital platelet inhibition in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) may improve outcomes. RUC-4 is a novel, second-generation glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor designed for first-point-of-medical-contact treatment for STEMI by subcutaneous injection.

Aims: The open-label, phase 2A, CEL-02 trial aimed to assess the pharmacodynamics (PD), pharmacokinetics (PK), and tolerability of RUC-4 in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI (pPCI).

Methods: A total of 27 STEMI patients received a weight-adjusted subcutaneous injection of RUC-4 before pPCI in escalating doses (0.075 mg/kg [n=8], 0.090 mg/kg [n=9], or 0.110 mg/kg [n=10]).

Results: The primary PD endpoint of high-grade (≥77%) inhibition of the VerifyNow iso-TRAP assay at 15 minutes was met in 3/8, 7/8, and 7/8 patients in the three cohorts with a dose-response relationship (mean inhibition [min - max] of 77.5% [65.7%-90.6%], 87.5% [73.8%-93.1%], and 91.7% [76.4%-99.3%], respectively; ptrend=0.002). Fifty percent (50%) inhibition remained after 89.1 (38.0-129.7), 104.2 (17.6-190.8), and 112.4 (19.7-205.0) minutes. Injection site reactions or bruising were observed in 1 (4%) and 11 (41%) patients, respectively. Mild access-site haematomas occurred in 6 (22%), and severe access-site haematomas occurred in 2 patients (7%). No thrombocytopaenia was observed within 72 hours post dose.

Conclusions: In patients with STEMI, a single subcutaneous dose of RUC-4 at 0.075, 0.090, and 0.110 mg/kg showed dose-response high-grade inhibition of platelet function within 15 minutes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-21-00287DOI Listing
August 2021

Factor V Leiden Does Not Modify the Phenotype of Acute Coronary Syndrome or the Extent of Myocardial Necrosis.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 06 17;10(11):e020025. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Cardiology St. Antonius Hospital Nieuwegein the Netherlands.

Background The prothrombotic defect factor V Leiden (FVL) may confer higher risk of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), compared with non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome, and may be associated with more myocardial necrosis caused by higher thrombotic burden. Methods and Results Patients without history of cardiovascular disease were selected from 2 clinical trials conducted in patients with acute coronary syndrome. FVL was defined as G-to-A substitution at nucleotide 1691 in the factor V (factor V R506Q) gene. Odds ratios were calculated for the association of FVL with STEMI adjusted for age and sex in the overall population and in the subgroups including sex, age (≥70 versus <70 years), and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The peak biomarker levels (ie, creatine kinase-myocardial band and high-sensitivity troponin I or T) after STEMI were contrasted between FVL carriers and noncarriers. Because of differences in troponin assays, peak high-sensitivity troponin levels were converted to a ratio scale. The prevalence of FVL mutation was comparable in patients with STEMI (6.0%) and non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome (5.8%). The corresponding sex- and age-adjusted odds ratio was 1.06 (95% CI, 0.86-1.30; =0.59) for the association of FVL with STEMI. Subgroup analysis did not show any differences. In patients with STEMI, neither the median peak creatine kinase-myocardial band nor the peak high-sensitivity troponin ratio showed any differences between wild-type and FVL carriers ( for difference: creatine kinase-myocardial band=0.33; high sensitivity troponin ratio=0.54). Conclusions In a general population with acute coronary syndrome, FVL did not discriminate between a STEMI or non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome presentation and was unrelated to peak cardiac necrosis markers in patients with STEMI. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifiers: NCT00391872 and NCT01761786.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.020025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8483522PMC
June 2021

VA-ECMO With IABP is Associated With Better Outcome Than VA-ECMO Alone in the Treatment of Cardiogenic Shock in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

J Invasive Cardiol 2021 05 20;33(5):E387-E392. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Koopvaardersplantsoen 83, 1034KE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: To assess whether combining venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) with intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) improves outcomes in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) over VA-ECMO alone.

Background: VA-ECMO is an upcoming technique in the treatment of cardiogenic shock (CS); however, it increases afterload. IABP + VA-ECMO has been suggested to reduce afterload and increase survival.

Methods: A multicenter in-hospital registry was maintained on all patients undergoing VA-ECMO or VA-ECMO + IABP treatment for CS in STEMI.

Results: Between 2015 and 2018, a total of 18 patients with STEMI underwent VA-ECMO ± IABP treatment for CS. The majority (n = 14; 78%) were male and median age was 59 years (interquartile range, 47-75 years). VA-ECMO + IABP was performed in 7 patients (39%) and VA-ECMO alone was performed in 11 patients (61%). The VA-ECMO + IABP group had more complex coronary anatomy and a higher number of patients with left main (LM) disease, LM + 3-vessel disease, or 3-vessel disease (VA-ECMO + IABP 86% vs VA-ECMO alone 18%; P=.03). The Survival After Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (SAVE) score did not differ between the groups (VA-ECMO alone -5.9 ± 2.4 vs VA-ECMO + IABP -6.1 ± 2.6; P=.88). The SYNTAX score was higher in the VA-ECMO + IABP group (32 ± 13 vs 22 ± 14 in the VA-ECMO alone group). In the total group, a SAVE score of -6 had a predicted survival of 25%-35%. Survival in the VA-ECMO + IABP group was 100% (7/7) and survival in the VA-ECMO group was 55% (6/11); P=.04. Good neurological outcome was achieved in more patients in the VA-ECMO + IABP group (VA-ECMO alone 45% vs VA-ECMO + IABP 100%; P=.04).

Conclusion: In STEMI complicated by CS, VA-ECMO + IABP leads to a lower observed mortality and higher observed good neurological outcome.
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May 2021

Clopidogrel in noncarriers of CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles versus ticagrelor in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome: A pre-specified sub analysis from the POPular Genetics and POPular Age trials CYP2C19 alleles in elderly patients.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Jul 20;334:10-17. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands; Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who are carrying CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles derive less benefit from clopidogrel treatment. Despite this, in elderly patients, clopidogrel might be preferred over more potent P2Y inhibitors due to a lower bleeding risk. Whether CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet treatment in the elderly could be of benefit has not been studied specifically.

Methods: Patients aged 70 years and older with known CYP2C19*2 and *3 genotype were identified from the POPular Genetics and POPular Age trials. Noncarriers of loss-of-function alleles treated with clopidogrel were compared to patients, irrespective of CYP2C19 genotype, treated with ticagrelor and to clopidogrel treated carriers of loss-of-function alleles. We assessed net clinical benefit (all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke and Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) major bleeding), atherothrombotic outcomes (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke) and bleeding outcomes (PLATO major and minor bleeding).

Results: A total of 991 patients were assessed. There was no significant difference in net clinical benefit (17.2% vs. 15.1%, adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-1.44), atherothrombotic outcomes (9.7% vs. 9.2%, adjHR 1.00, 95%CI 0.66-1.50), and bleeding outcomes (17.7% vs. 19.8%, adjHR 0.80, 95%CI 0.62-1.12) between clopidogrel in noncarriers of loss-of-function alleles and ticagrelor respectively.

Conclusion: In ACS patients aged 70 years and older, there was no significant difference in net clinical benefit and atherothrombotic outcomes between noncarriers of a loss-of-function allele treated with clopidogrel and patients treated with ticagrelor. The bleeding rate was numerically; though not statistically significant, lower in patients using clopidogrel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.04.029DOI Listing
July 2021

Aspirin Alone Versus Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: A Systematic Review and Patient-Level Meta-Analysis.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 04 16;10(8):e019604. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Cardiology St. Antonius Hospital Nieuwegein The Netherlands.

Background In patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation without an indication for oral anticoagulation, it is unclear whether single or dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is necessary to minimize both the bleeding and thromboembolic risk. In this patient-level meta-analysis, we further investigate the effect of aspirin alone compared with DAPT for preventing both thromboembolic and bleeding events after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Methods and Results We conducted a systematic review of all available randomized controlled trials comparing aspirin with DAPT. In total, 1086 patients were included across 4 eligible trials. The primary outcomes were the composite of all-cause mortality, major or life-threatening bleeding, stroke or myocardial infarction (first composite outcome), and the same composite excluding bleeding (second composite outcome), both tested at 30 days and 3 months. The first composite outcome occurred significantly less in the aspirin-alone group at 30 days (10.3% versus 14.7%, odds ratio [OR], 0.67; 95% CI, 0.46-0.97, =0.034) and 3 months (11.0% versus 16.5%, hazard ratio [HR], 0.66; 95% CI, 0.47-0.94, =0.02), compared with the DAPT group. The second composite outcome occurred in 5.5% and 6.6% at 30 days (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.50-1.38, =0.47) and in 6.9% and 8.5% at 3 months in the aspirin-alone group compared with the DAPT group (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.52-1.29, =0.39), respectively. Conclusions In patients without an indication for oral anticoagulation undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation, aspirin alone significantly reduced the composite of thromboembolic and bleeding events, and does not increase the composite of thromboembolic events after transcatheter aortic valve implantation, compared with DAPT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174170PMC
April 2021

Incidence, predictors, and outcomes associated with acute kidney injury in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement: from the BRAVO-3 randomized trial.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 May 11;110(5):649-657. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

The Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is not uncommon in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

Objective: We examined the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of AKI from the BRAVO 3 randomized trial.

Methods: The BRAVO-3 trial included 802 patients undergoing transfemoral TAVR randomized to bivalirudin vs. unfractionated heparin (UFH). The primary endpoint of the trial was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type ≥ 3b bleeding at 48 h. Total follow-up was to 30 days. AKI was adjudicated using the modified RIFLE (Valve Academic Research Consortium, VARC 1) criteria through 30-day follow-up, and in a sensitivity analysis AKI was assessed at 7 days (modified VARC-2 criteria). We examined the incidence, predictors, and 30-day outcomes associated with diagnosis of AKI. We also examined the effect of procedural anticoagulant (bivalirudin or unfractionated heparin, UFH) on AKI within 48 h after TAVR.

Results: The trial population had a mean age of 82.3 ± 6.5 years including 48.8% women with mean EuroScore I 17.05 ± 10.3%. AKI occurred in 17.0% during 30-day follow-up and was associated with greater adjusted risk of 30-day death (13.0% vs. 3.5%, OR 5.84, 95% CI 2.62-12.99) and a trend for more BARC ≥ 3b bleeding (15.1% vs. 8.6%, OR 1.80, 95% CI 0.99-3.25). Predictors of 30-day AKI were baseline hemoglobin, body weight, and pre-existing coronary disease. AKI occurred in 10.7% at 7 days and was associated with significantly greater risk of 30-day death (OR 6.99, 95% CI 2.85-17.15). Independent predictors of AKI within 7 days included pre-existing coronary or cerebrovascular disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and transfusion which increased risk, whereas post-dilation was protective. The incidence of 48-h AKI was higher with bivalirudin compared to UFH in the intention to treat cohort (10.9% vs. 6.5%, p = 0.03), but not in the per-protocol assessment (10.7% vs. 7.1%, p = 0.08).

Conclusion: In the BRAVO 3 trial, AKI occurred in 17% at 30 days and in 10.7% at 7 days. AKI was associated with a significantly greater adjusted risk for 30-day death. Multivariate predictors of AKI at 30 days included baseline hemoglobin, body weight, and prior coronary artery disease, and predictors at 7 days included pre-existing vascular disease, CKD, transfusion, and valve post-dilation. Bivalirudin was associated with greater AKI within 48 h in the intention to treat but not in the per-protocol analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-020-01787-7DOI Listing
May 2021

Evaluation of Dual Versus Triple Therapy by Landmark Analysis in the RE-DUAL PCI Trial.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 04;14(7):768-780

Brigham and Women's Hospital Heart and Vascular Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the early versus late benefits and risks of dabigatran dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy in the RE-DUAL PCI (Randomized Evaluation of Dual Antithrombotic Therapy With Dabigatran Versus Triple Therapy With Warfarin in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) trial.

Background: Patients with atrial fibrillation who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention are at increased risk for both bleeding and thrombotic events.

Methods: A total of 2,725 patients with atrial fibrillation underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and were randomized to receive dabigatran 110 mg, or dabigatran 150 mg plus a P2Y inhibitor (and no aspirin), or warfarin plus a P2Y inhibitor plus aspirin. Landmark analysis was performed at 30 and 90 days.

Results: There was a consistent and large reduction in major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding in patients randomized to dual therapy during the first 30 days (110 mg: hazard ratio [HR]: 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31 to 0.66; p < 0.0001; 150 mg: HR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.72; p = 0.0006) compared with warfarin triple therapy. There was early net clinical benefit in both dabigatran groups versus warfarin (110 mg: HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.88; p = 0.0062; 150 mg: HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.79; p = 0.0015), due to larger reductions in bleeding than increased thrombotic events for dabigatran 110 mg and bleeding reduction without increased thrombotic risk for dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy. After the removal of aspirin in the warfarin group, bleeding remained lower with dabigatran 110 mg and was similar with dabigatran 150 mg versus warfarin.

Conclusions: In RE-DUAL PCI, in which patients in the dual-therapy arms were treated with aspirin for an average of only 1.6 days, there was early net clinical benefit with both doses of dabigatran dual therapy, without an increase in thrombotic events with dabigatran 150 mg. This could be helpful in the subset of patients with elevated risk for both bleeding and thrombotic events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.02.022DOI Listing
April 2021

Diagnostic performance and clinical implications for enhancing a hybrid quantitative flow ratio-FFR revascularization decision-making strategy.

Sci Rep 2021 03 19;11(1):6425. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Koekoekslaan 1, 3435 CM, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

Invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) adoption remains low mainly due to procedural and operator related factors as well as costs. Alternatively, quantitative flow ratio (QFR) achieves a high accuracy mainly outside the intermediate zone without the need for hyperaemia and wire-use. We aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of QFR and to evaluate a QFR-FFR hybrid strategy in which FFR is measured only in the intermediate zone. This retrospective study included 289 consecutive patients who underwent invasive coronary angiography and FFR. QFR was calculated for all vessels in which FFR was measured. The QFR-FFR hybrid approach was modelled using the intermediate zone of 0.77-0.87 in which FFR-measurements are recommended. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy on a per vessel-based analysis were 84.6%, 86.3% and 85.6% for QFR and 88.0%, 92.9% and 90.3% for the QFR-FFR hybrid approach. The diagnostic accuracy of QFR-FFR hybrid strategy with invasive FFR measurement was 93.4% and resulted in a 56.7% reduction in the need for FFR. QFR has a good correlation and agreement with invasive FFR. A hybrid QFR-FFR approach could extend the use of QFR and reduces the proportion of invasive FFR-measurements needed while improving accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85933-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7979768PMC
March 2021

Pre-Hospital Antiplatelet Therapy for STEMI Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: What We Know and What Lies Ahead.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Mar 7. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Department of Cardiology, Zuyderland Medical Centre, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

Early recanalization of the infarct-related artery to achieve myocardial reperfusion is the primary therapeutic goal in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). To decrease the duration of ischaemia, continuous efforts have been made to improve pre-hospital treatment and to target the early period after symptom onset. In this period the platelet content of the fresh coronary thrombus is maximal and the thrombi are dynamic, and thus more susceptible to powerful antiplatelet agents. There have been substantial advances in antiplatelet therapy in the last three decades with several classes of oral and intravenous antiplatelet agents with different therapeutic targets, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic properties. New parenteral drugs achieve immediate inhibition of platelet aggregation, and fast and easy methods of administration may create the opportunity to bridge the initial gap in platelet inhibition observed with oral P2Y inhibitors. Moreover, potential future management of STEMI could directly involve patients in the process of care with self-administered antiplatelet agents designed to achieve rapid reperfusion. However, the potential anti-ischaemic benefits of potent antiplatelet agents will need to be balanced against their risk of increased bleeding. This study presents a comprehensive and updated review of pre-hospital antiplatelet therapy among STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous intervention and explores new therapies under development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1414-5009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8604087PMC
March 2021

Patient-tailored antithrombotic therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention.

Eur Heart J 2021 03;42(10):1038-1046

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Dual antiplatelet therapy has long been the standard of care in preventing coronary and cerebrovascular thrombotic events in patients with chronic coronary syndrome and acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, but choosing the optimal treatment duration and composition has become a major challenge. Numerous studies have shown that certain patients benefit from either shortened or extended treatment duration. Furthermore, trials evaluating novel antithrombotic strategies, such as P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy, low-dose factor Xa inhibitors on top of antiplatelet therapy, and platelet function- or genotype-guided (de-)escalation of treatment, have shown promising results. Current guidelines recommend risk stratification for tailoring treatment duration and composition. Although several risk stratification methods evaluating ischaemic and bleeding risk are available to clinicians, such as the use of risk scores, platelet function testing , and genotyping, risk stratification has not been broadly adopted in clinical practice. Multiple risk scores have been developed to determine the optimal treatment duration, but external validation studies have yielded conflicting results in terms of calibration and discrimination and there is limited evidence that their adoption improves clinical outcomes. Likewise, platelet function testing and genotyping can provide useful prognostic insights, but trials evaluating treatment strategies guided by these stratification methods have produced mixed results. This review critically appraises the currently available antithrombotic strategies and provides a viewpoint on the use of different risk stratification methods alongside clinical judgement in current clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa1097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8244639PMC
March 2021

Effect of aortic cross-clamp time on late survival after isolated aortic valve replacement.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 01;32(2):222-228

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Location Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Objectives: Longer aortic cross-clamp (ACC) time is associated with decreased early survival after cardiac surgery. Because maximum follow-up in previous studies on this subject is confined to 28 months, it is unknown whether this adverse effect is sustained far beyond this term. We aimed to determine whether longer ACC time was independently associated with decreased late survival after isolated aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis during 25 years of follow-up.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, multivariable analysis was performed to identify possible independent predictors of decreased late survival, including ACC and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time, in a cohort of 456 consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis, who had undergone isolated aortic valve replacement between 1990 and 1993.

Results: Mean follow-up was 25.3 ± 2.7 years. Median (interquartile range) and mean ACC times were normal: 63.0 (20.0) and 64.2 ± 16.1 min, respectively. Age, operative risk scores and New York Heart Association class were similar in patients with ACC time above, versus those with ACC time below the median. Longer ACC time was independently associated with decreased late survival: hazards ratio (HR) 1.01 per minute increase of ACC time (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.02; P = 0.012). Longer CPB time was not associated with decreased late survival (HR 1.00 per minute increase of CPB time [95% CI 1.00-1.00; P = 0.30]).

Conclusions: Longer ACC time, although still within normal limits, was independently associated with decreased late survival after isolated aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icvts/ivaa244DOI Listing
January 2021

The effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation approaches on mortality.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 06 14;97(7):1462-1469. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) approaches on mortality and identify effect modifiers and predictors for mortality.

Background: Alternative access routes to transfemoral (TF) TAVI include the surgical intra-thoracic direct-aortic (DA) and transapical (TA) approach. TA TAVI has been associated with a higher mortality rate. We hypothesized that this is related to effect modifiers, in particular the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF).

Methods: This multicentre study derived its data from prospective registries. To adjust for confounders, we used propensity-score based, stabilized inverse probability weighted Cox regression models.

Results: In total, 5,910 patients underwent TAVI via TF (N = 4,072), DA (N = 524), and TA (N = 1,314) access. Compared to TF, 30-day mortality was increased among DA (HR 1.87, 95%CI 1.26-2.78, p = .002) and TA (HR 3.34, 95%CI 2.28-4.89, p < .001) cases. Compared to TF, 5-year mortality was increased among TA cases (HR 1.50, 95%CI 1.24-1.83, p < .001). None of the variables showed a significant interaction between the approaches and mortality. An impaired LVEF (≤35%) increased mortality in all approaches.

Conclusions: The surgical intra-thoracic TA and DA TAVI are both associated with a higher 30-day mortality than TF TAVI. TA TAVI is associated with a higher 5-year mortality than TF TAVI. The DA approach may therefore have some advantages over the TA approach when TF access is not feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29456DOI Listing
June 2021

Single or Dual Antiplatelet Treatment after TAVI. Reply.

N Engl J Med 2021 01;384(1):90-91

St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2032808DOI Listing
January 2021

NT-proBNP level before primary PCI and risk of poor myocardial reperfusion: Insight from the On-TIME II trial.

Am Heart J 2021 03 31;233:78-85. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Cardiology, Isala Heart Center, Zwolle, The Netherlands; Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Zuyderland Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Heerlen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: N-terminal fragment of the brain natriuretic peptide prohormone (NT-proBNP), a marker for neurohumoral activation, has been associated with adverse outcome in patients with myocardial infarction. NT-proBNP levels may reflect extensive ischemia and microvascular damage, therefore we investigated the potential association between baseline NT-proBNP level and ST-resolution (STR), a marker of myocardial reperfusion, after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI).

Methods: we performed a post-hoc analysis of the On-TIME II trial (which randomized ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients to pre-hospital tirofiban administration vs placebo). Patients with measured NT-proBNP before angiography were included. Multivariate logistic-regression analyses was performed to investigate the association between baseline NTproBNP level and STR one hour after pPCI.

Results: Out of 984 STEMI patients, 918 (93.3%) had NT-proBNP values at baseline. Patients with STR <70% had higher NT-proBNP values compared to patients with complete STR (>70%) [Mean ±SD 375.2 ±1021.7 vs 1007.4 ±2842.3, Median (IQR) 111.7 (58.4-280.0) vs 168.0 (62.3-601.3), P <.001]. At multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors associated with higher risk of poor myocardial reperfusion (STR <70%) were: NT-proBNP (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.04-1.31, P = .009), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.87, 95%CI 1.14-3.07, P = .013), anterior infarct location (OR 2.74, 95% CI 2.00-3.77, P <.001), time to intervention (OR 1.06, 95%CI 1.01-1.11, P = .021), randomisation to placebo (OR 1.45, 95%CI 1.05-1.99, P = .022).

Conclusions: In STEMI patients, higher baseline NT-proBNP level was independently associate with higher risk of poor myocardial reperfusion, supporting the potential use of NT-proBNP as an early marker for risk stratification of myocardial reperfusion after pPCI in STEMI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.12.017DOI Listing
March 2021

Antithrombotic therapy according to baseline bleeding risk in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: applying the PRECISE-DAPT score in RE-DUAL PCI.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother 2020 Dec 1. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Brigham and Women's Hospital Heart and Vascular Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Aims: Patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing coronary intervention are at higher bleeding risk due to the concomitant need for oral anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy. The RE-DUAL PCI trial demonstrated better safety with dual antithrombotic therapy (DAT: dabigatran 110 or 150 mg bid, clopidogrel or ticagrelor) compared to triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT: warfarin, clopidogrel or ticagrelor, and aspirin). We explored the impact of baseline bleeding risk based on the PRECISE-DAPT score for decision-making regarding DAT vs. TAT.

Methods And Results: A score ≥25 points qualified high bleeding-risk (HBR). Comparisons were made for the primary safety endpoint ISTH major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding, and the composite efficacy endpoint of death, thromboembolic events, or unplanned revascularization, analyzed by time-to-event analysis. PRECISE-DAPT was available in 2,336/2,725 patients, and 37.9% were HBR. Compared to TAT, DAT with dabigatran 110 mg reduced bleeding risk both in non-HBR (HR 0.42, 95%CI, 0.31-0.57) and HBR (HR 0.70, 95%CI, 0.52-0.94), with a greater magnitude of benefit among non-HBR (Pint=0.02). DAT with dabigatran 150 mg vs. TAT reduced bleeding in non-HBR (HR 0.60, 95%CI, 0.45-0.80), with a trend toward less benefit in HBR patients (HR 0.92, 95%CI, 0.63-1.34, Pint=0.08). Risk of ischaemic events was similar on DAT with dabigatran (both 110 and 150 mg) vs. TAT in non-HBR and HBR patients (Pint=0.45 and Pint=0.56, respectively).

Conclusions: PRECISE-DAPT score appeared useful to identify AF patients undergoing PCI at further increased risk of bleeding complications, and may help clinicians identifying the antithrombotic regimen intensity with the best benefit-risk ratio in an individual patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcvp/pvaa135DOI Listing
December 2020

Oral Anticoagulants After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Another Home Run for Direct Oral Anticoagulants?

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 11;13(22):2598-2600

Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.10.009DOI Listing
November 2020

Dual antithrombotic therapy with dabigatran in patients with atrial fibrillation after percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a post hoc analysis of the randomised RE-DUAL PCI trial.

EuroIntervention 2021 Aug;17(6):474-480

Klinikum Ludwigshafen and Institut für Herzinfarktforschung, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Background: Little is known about the optimal antithrombotic therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing PCI for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of dabigatran dual therapy (110 or 150 mg twice daily, plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor) versus warfarin triple therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation and STEMI.

Methods: In the RE-DUAL PCI trial, 305 patients with STEMI were randomised to dabigatran 110 mg (n=113 versus 106 warfarin) or 150 mg (n=86 versus 84 warfarin). The primary endpoint was the time to first major/clinically relevant non-major bleeding event (MBE/CRNMBE). The thrombotic endpoint was a composite of death, thromboembolic events, or unplanned revascularisation.

Results: In STEMI patients, dabigatran 110 mg (HR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.20-0.74) and 150 mg (0.43, 0.21-0.89) dual therapy reduced the risk of MBE/CRNMBE versus warfarin triple therapy (p for interaction vs all other patients=0.31 and 0.16). The risk of thrombotic events for dabigatran 110 mg (HR 1.61, 95% CI: 0.85-3.08) and 150 mg (0.56, 0.20-1.51) had p interactions of 0.20 and 0.33, respectively. For net clinical benefit, the HRs were 0.74 (95% CI: 0.46-1.17) and 0.49 (0.27-0.91) for dabigatran 110 and 150 mg (p for interaction=0.80 and 0.12), respectively.

Conclusions: After PCI for STEMI, patients on dabigatran dual therapy had lower risks of bleeding events versus warfarin triple therapy with similar risks of thromboembolic events, supporting dabigatran dual therapy even in patients with high thrombotic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-20-00799DOI Listing
August 2021

Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel in Older Patients with NSTE-ACS Using Oral Anticoagulation: A Sub-Analysis of the POPular Age Trial.

J Clin Med 2020 Oct 12;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, 3435CM Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

There are no randomised data on which antiplatelet agent to use in elderly patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) and an indication for oral anticoagulation (OAC). The randomised POPular Age trial, in patients of 70 years or older with NSTE-ACS, showed a reduction in bleeding without increasing thrombotic events in patients using clopidogrel as compared to ticagrelor. In this sub-analysis of the POPular AGE trial, we compare clopidogrel with ticagrelor in patients with a need for oral anticoagulation. The follow-up duration was one year. The primary bleeding outcome was Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) major and minor bleeding. The primary thrombotic outcome consisted of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. The primary net clinical benefit outcome was a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and PLATO major and minor bleeding. A total of 184/1011 (18.2%) patients on OAC were included in this subanalysis; 83 were randomized to clopidogrel and 101 to ticagrelor. The primary bleeding outcome was lower in the clopidogrel group (17/83, 20.9%) compared to the ticagrelor group (33/101, 33.5%; = 0.051), as was the thrombotic outcome (7/83, 8.4% vs. 19/101, 19.2%; = 0.035) and the primary net clinical benefit outcome (23/83, 27.7% vs. 49/101, 48.5%; = 0.003). In this subgroup of patients using OAC, clopidogrel reduced PLATO major and minor bleeding compared to ticagrelor without increasing thrombotic risk. This analysis therefore suggests that, in line with the POPular Age trial, clopidogrel is a better option than ticagrelor in NSTE-ACS patients ≥70 years using OAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601891PMC
October 2020

Impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak on Acute Admissions at the Emergency and Cardiology Departments Across Europe.

Am J Med 2021 04 30;134(4):482-489. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.

Purpose: We evaluated whether the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) pandemic was associated with changes in the pattern of acute cardiovascular admissions across European centers.

Methods: We set-up a multicenter, multinational, pan-European observational registry in 15 centers from 12 countries. All consecutive acute admissions to emergency departments and cardiology departments throughout a 1-month period during the COVID-19 outbreak were compared with an equivalent 1-month period in 2019. The acute admissions to cardiology departments were classified into 5 major categories: acute coronary syndrome, acute heart failure, arrhythmia, pulmonary embolism, and other.

Results: Data from 54,331 patients were collected and analyzed. Nine centers provided data on acute admissions to emergency departments comprising 50,384 patients: 20,226 in 2020 compared with 30,158 in 2019 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] with 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.66 [0.58-0.76]). The risk of death at the emergency departments was higher in 2020 compared to 2019 (odds ratio [OR] with 95% CI: 4.1 [3.0-5.8], P < 0.0001). All 15 centers provided data on acute cardiology departments admissions: 3007 patients in 2020 and 4452 in 2019; IRR (95% CI): 0.68 (0.64-0.71). In 2020, there were fewer admissions with IRR (95% CI): acute coronary syndrome: 0.68 (0.63-0.73); acute heart failure: 0.65 (0.58-0.74); arrhythmia: 0.66 (0.60-0.72); and other: 0.68(0.62-0.76). We found a relatively higher percentage of pulmonary embolism admissions in 2020: odds ratio (95% CI): 1.5 (1.1-2.1), P = 0.02. Among patients with acute coronary syndrome, there were fewer admissions with unstable angina: 0.79 (0.66-0.94); non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction: 0.56 (0.50-0.64); and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: 0.78 (0.68-0.89).

Conclusion: In the European centers during the COVID-19 outbreak, there were fewer acute cardiovascular admissions. Also, fewer patients were admitted to the emergency departments with 4 times higher death risk at the emergency departments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.08.043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7526639PMC
April 2021

Rationale and Design of the Future Optimal Research and Care Evaluation in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (FORCE-ACS) Registry: Towards "Personalized Medicine" in Daily Clinical Practice.

J Clin Med 2020 Sep 30;9(10). Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, 3435 CM Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

Diagnostic and treatment strategies for acute coronary syndrome have improved dramatically over the past few decades, but mortality and recurrent myocardial infarction rates remain high. An aging population with increasing co-morbidities heralds new clinical challenges. Therefore, in order to evaluate and improve current treatment strategies, detailed information on clinical presentation, treatment and follow-up in real-world patients is needed. The Future Optimal Research and Care Evaluation in patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (FORCE-ACS) registry (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03823547) is a multi-center, prospective real-world registry of patients admitted with (suspected) acute coronary syndrome. Both non-interventional and interventional cardiac centers in different regions of the Netherlands are currently participating. Patients are treated according to local protocols, enabling the evaluation of different diagnostic and treatment strategies used in daily practice. Data collection is performed using electronic medical records and quality-of-life questionnaires, which are sent 1, 12, 24 and 36 months after initial admission. Major end points are all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, stroke, revascularization and all bleeding requiring medical attention. Invasive therapy, antithrombotic therapy including patient-tailored strategies, such as the use of risk scores, pharmacogenetic guided antiplatelet therapy and patient reported outcome measures are monitored. The FORCE-ACS registry provides insight into numerous aspects of the (quality of) care for acute coronary syndrome patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601438PMC
September 2020

Microtransesophageal Echocardiographic Guidance during Percutaneous Interatrial Septal Closure without General Anaesthesia.

J Interv Cardiol 2020 7;2020:1462140. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, Netherlands.

Objective: To study the safety and efficacy of microtransesophageal echocardiography (micro-TEE) and TEE during percutaneous atrial septal defect (ASD) and patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure.

Background: TEE has proven to be safe during ASD and PFO closure under general anaesthesia. Micro-TEE makes it possible to perform these procedures under local anaesthesia. We are the first to describe the safety and efficacy of micro-TEE for percutaneous closure.

Methods: All consecutive patients who underwent ASD and PFO closure between 2013 and 2018 were included. The periprocedural complications were registered. Residual shunts were diagnosed using transthoracic contrast echocardiography (TTCE). All data were compared between the use of TEE or micro-TEE within the ASD and PFO groups separately.

Results: In total, 82 patients underwent ASD closure, 46 patients (49.1 ± 15.0 years) with TEE and 36 patients (47.8 ± 12.1 years) using micro-TEE guidance. Median device diameter was, respectively, 26 mm (range 10-40 mm) and 27 mm (range 10-35 mm). PFO closure was performed in 120 patients, 55 patients (48.6 ± 9.2 years, median device diameter 25 mm, range 23-35 mm) with TEE and 65 patients (mean age 51.0 ± 11.8 years, median device diameter 27 mm, range 23-35 mm) using micro-TEE. There were no major periprocedural complications, especially no device embolizations within all groups. Six months after closure, there was no significant difference in left-to-right shunt after ASD closure and no significant difference in right-to-left shunt after PFO closure using TEE or micro-TEE.

Conclusion: Micro-TEE guidance without general anaesthesia during percutaneous ASD and PFO closure is as safe as TEE, without a significant difference in the residual shunt rate after closure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/1462140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7492935PMC
March 2021
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